Makalah bahasa  inggris pencemaran lingkungan
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Makalah bahasa inggris pencemaran lingkungan

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    Makalah bahasa  inggris pencemaran lingkungan Makalah bahasa inggris pencemaran lingkungan Document Transcript

    • ii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 . BACKGROUND Environmental pollution is our common problem , which is increasingly important to resolve , as it involves the safety , health , and our lives . Anyone can participate in solving the problem of environmental pollution , including us . Starting from the smallest environment , ourselves , to the wider environment . Environmental pollution problems which must be overcome with such ground water and river pollution , urban air pollution , soil contamination by litter , acid rain , global climate change , ozone layer depletion , radioactive contamination , and so on . To solve the problem of environmental pollution is , of course, we have to know the sources of pollution , how the contamination occurred , and how to measure environmental pollution settlement itself. In connection with this, then in this case we construct a paper that takes the theme of " Environmental Pollution " so that we can know where it comes to environmental pollution and how to overcome them . 1.2 . PROBLEM FORMULATION The formulation of the problem which we discuss in this paper are : 1.2.1 . What definition of the Environment ? 1.2.2 . Explain Definition and Types of Environmental Pollution ? 1.2.3 . What are the causes of environmental pollution ? 1.2.4 . Explain Impact Environmental pollution ? 1.2.5 . Mention the handling of Environmental Pollution ? 1.3 . PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is : 1.3.1 . To know the definition of the Environment ? 1.3.2 . Knowing Definition and Types of Environmental Pollution ? 1.3.3 . Knowing and understanding the causes of environmental pollution ? 1.3.4 . Environmental contamination can explain the impact ? 1.3.5 . Can describe how Environmental Pollution ?
    • ii CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2.1 . DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL Before we discuss about the pollution of the environment , it's good we have to know in advance the definition of the environment itself . In this paper will be presented some defisini about the environment . According to Law No. . 23 In 1997 , the environment is unity with all things space , power , state , and living creatures , including human beings and their behavior , which affect the lives and welfare of human continuity as well as other living creatures . While the scope of the Indonesian environment includes the space , where the Republic of Indonesia archipelago in implementing the vision of sovereignty , sovereign rights and jurisdiction . In the environment there are ecosystems , ie the order of elements of the environment which is a comprehensive and unified whole interplay in shaping the balance , stability , and productivity of the environment . Referring to the above definition , then the environment is no other Indonesian Archipelago , which occupies the position of a cross between two continents and two oceans with a tropical climate and weather and seasons that provide natural condition and position with a highly valuable strategic role , where bangsaIndonesia hold life state in all its aspects . By law the concept in carrying out enforcement hukumpengelolaan environment in Indonesia is Archipelago . Meanwhile, according to experts , among others : Munajat saputra : All items and conditions contained in the space where the human being and affect the survival and well-being . Otto Sumarwoto : Environment is an object and a number of conditions that are in the space that we occupy that affect human life . Emil Salim : All objects , conditions , circumstances and effects contained in the room that affects everything that was in the space that we occupy. 2.2 . DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 2.1.1 . Understanding Environmental Pollution Pollution , according to the Ministerial Decree No. 02/MENKLH/1988 Population Environment , is entered or the inclusion of living things , matter , energy , and / or other components into the water / air , and / or changes in the order of ( composition ) water / air by activity human and natural processes , so that the quality of the water / air becomes less or cease to function according to their distribution . To prevent pollution of the environment by various industrial activities and human activities ,
    • ii it is necessary to control the environmental pollution by setting environmental quality standards . Environmental quality standards are allowed to limit the levels of substances or pollutants found in the environment does not cause disruption to living beings , plants or other objects . At this time , the pollution of the environment takes place everywhere at a very fast pace . Now the burden of pollution in the environment has been exacerbated by the influx of industrial waste from a variety of chemicals including heavy metals . Environmental pollution can be categorized into : • Water Pollution . • Air Pollution . • Soil Pollution . 2.1.2 . Various Environmental Pollution As mentioned previously , the environmental pollution is divided into three , namely : 2.1.2.1 . Air pollution Water pollution is a change of state in a water reservoirs like lakes , rivers , oceans and groundwater due to human activities . Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes , hurricanes , earthquakes etc. also result in major changes to water quality , it is not regarded as pollution . Water pollution can be caused by many things and have different characteristics . Increased nutrient content can lead to eutrophication . Organic waste such as sewage ( sewage ) causes an increase in oxygen demand in water accept that leads to reduced oxygen that can have a serious impact on the entire ecosystem . Dispose of a wide range of industrial pollutants in the waste water such as heavy metals , toksinorganik , oil , nutrients and solids . The waste water has thermal effects , especially those issued by power plants , which can also reduce oxygen in the water . 2.1.2.2 . Air Pollution Air pollution is the presence of one or more substansifisik , chemical , or biological weapons in the atmosphere in an amount that can endanger human health , animals , and plants , interfere with the aesthetics and comfort , or property damage . Air pollution can be caused by natural sources and human activities . Some definitions of physical disturbances such as noise, heat , radiation or light pollution is considered as air pollution . The nature of air pollution impacts can be directly and locally , regionally , and globally . Air pollutants pollutants can be divided into primary and secondary pollutants . The primary pollutant is a pollutant substances arising directly from the source of air pollution . Carbon monoxide is an example of primary air pollutants because it is the result of combustion . Pollutants secondary pollutant is a substance that is formed from the reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere . The formation of ozone in photochemical smog is an example
    • ii of secondary pollution . The atmosphere is a complex system , dynamic , and fragile . The recent growth of emissions concerns about the effects of air pollution in a global context and its relationship denganpemanasan global climate change and ozone depletion in the stratosphere has increased . 2.1.2.3 . Soil pollution Contamination of land is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and modify the natural soil environment . Contamination usually occurs due to leakage of liquid waste or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities ; pesticide use ; influx of contaminated ground water into the sub - surface layer ; accident vehicle transporting oil , chemicals , or waste , water waste from landfill and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the land ineligible ( illegal dumping ) . When a substance is hazardous / toxic has polluted the soil surface , then it can evaporate , and the rain washed away or into the ground . Pollution that goes into the ground and then to accumulate as toxic chemicals in the soil . Toxic substances in the soil can have a direct impact kepadamanusia when touching or can contaminate ground water and the air above it . 2.3 . CAUSE OF SUCH ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION The causes of environmental pollution largely caused by human hands . Water and soil pollution is pollution that occurs in waters such as rivers , times , lakes , sea , ground water , and so on . While the soil pollution is pollution that occurs on land in both urban and rural . Nature has the ability to restore the condition of the water that has been contaminated by natural purification process of purification or purification by way of soil , sand , rocks and micro- organisms that exist in the natural world around us . The number of very massive pollution of the natural man is not able to make returns to its original condition . Nature becomes lost the ability to purify the pollution occurred . Trash and substances such as plastics , DDT , detergents and so on that are not environmentally friendly will further aggravate the condition of natural destruction that were increasingly worse. For Environmental Pollution in Water and Soil : • Erosion and high rainfall . • discharge of human waste from homes or residential areas . • chemicals from the home location of the population , agriculture , industry , and so on . One of the causes of water pollution in the most famous is the result of using DDT chemical pest eradication . DDT is used by farmers to repel and kill pests that attack agricultural land . DDT not only pests but also have an impact on other animals around him dah even in places very far though due to the process flow of the food chain from one animal to another animal
    • ii substances that accumulate DDT . Therefore, all the animals that exist in the food chain will be contaminated by DDT , including in humans . DDT that has entered the body will dissolve in fat , so your body will become increasingly the center of pollutants will accumulate to result in a more scary effect . Due to biological magnification / enlargement biological organisms caused by the use of DDT . a. Tissue damage living things . b . Give rise to muscle spasm , muscle paralysis lehah and can also Inhibit wall calcification process in animals laying eggs so that the eggs can not hatch . c . Could eventually lead to cancer in the body . 2.4 . ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IMPACT The impact of soil pollution on health depending on the type of pollutant , pathway into the body and the affected population's vulnerability . Chromium , a wide range of pesticides and herbicides are carcinogenic materials for all populasi.Timbal very dangerous in children , because it can cause brain damage , and kidney damage in the entire population . Chronic exposure ( continuous ) to benzene at a certain concentration can increase the chances of developing leukemia . Mercury ( mercury ) and siklodienadikenal can cause kidney damage , some can not even be treated . PCB and siklodiena related to liver toxicity . Organophosphates and can karmabat can cause disturbances in muscle nerves . Various solvents containing klorinmerangsang changes in the liver and kidneys as well as a decrease in the central nervous system . There are several kinds of health effects that looked like headache , dizziness , fatigue , eye irritation and skin rash on exposure to the chemicals mentioned above . What is clear , in large doses , soil contamination can cause death . Soil pollution also can have an impact on the ecosystem . Changes in soil chemical radicals can arise from the presence of toxic chemicals / hazardous even at low doses though . These changes can lead to changes in metabolism of endemic microorganisms and antropodayang live in the soil environment . As a result, it can even destroy some of the primary species of the food chain , which can give a great result against predators or other levels of the food chain . Even if the effect of the chemical on the bottom of the lower forms of life , the bottom of the food pyramid can ingest foreign chemicals that will eventually concentrated on creatures inhabitants over pyramids . Many of these effects are seen at this time , as the concentration of DDT in birds causes eggshell fragility , increased seedling mortality rate and the possible loss of these species . The impact on agriculture , especially plant metabolic changes that may ultimately lead to a decrease in agricultural output . This can cause further impact on the conservation of plants where the plants are not able to hold the layers of soil erosion . Some of these contaminants have long half-lives and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from the main land
    • ii pollutants . 2.5 . HANDLING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 2.5.1 . Remediation : Remediation is an activity to clean up contaminated soil surface . There are two types of soil remediation , namely in- situ ( or on-site ) and ex - situ ( or off-site ) . Cleaning is a cleaning on-site at the location . Cleaning is cheaper and easier , consists of cleaning , venting ( injection ) , and bioremediation . Cleaning off-site includes excavation of contaminated soil and then taken to a safe area . After that, in a safe area , the land is cleared of contaminants . The trick is , the land is kept in the tub / watertight tank , then pumped into a tub of cleaning agents / the tank . Furthermore pollutants pumped out of the basin which is then processed by the wastewater treatment plant . Off-site cleanup is much more expensive and complicated . 2.5.2 . bioremediation Bioremediation is the process of cleaning the soil contamination using microorganisms ( fungi , bacteria ) . Bioremediation aims to break down or degrade contaminants into less toxic materials or non-toxic ( carbon dioxide and water ) .
    • ii CHAPTER III CLOSING 3.1 . CONCLUSION Of various descriptions above we can draw the following conclusion : That environmental pollution due to human activities themselves are not able to process and utilize the environment well . Environmental pollution is divided into three parts, namely ; ( 1 ) Air Pollution , ( 2 ) Water Pollution , and ( 3 ) Land Penmcemaran . The impact of environmental pollution on human health , especially that will have an impact on the level of immunity. The more pollution that is done , then the human immune located around the area of pollution will be decreased so that it is not uncommon this time humans are often exposed to diseases such as skin diseases , cancer , etc. . Handling is done with the remediation of environmental pollution and bioremediation , which is cleaning up contaminated ground . To reduce air pollution that vehicles tend to use fuel that can cause air pollution . 3.2 . ADVICE Had this environmental pollution is our common problem , for it is as responsible human beings and uphold the concept of the balance of nature , then it is appropriate that we maintain and care for the environment , ranging from the environment in which we live so that will create a healthy environment .
    • ii PAPERS DEFILING ENVIRONMENT PREPARED BY : NAME : ERWI Class : XII IPA 3 SMA 1 NEGERI KONTUNAGA 2014
    • ii INTRODUCTION Praise and Gratitude I pray to God the Almighty , because of the blessings and abundance rahmatnyalah then I must finish an essay in a timely manner . Here the author presented a paper titled " ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION " Through this preface first writer apologized and pleaded proclamation which the contents of this paper when there is a shortage and there are posts that I make less precise or menyinggu reader feeling . I hereby dedicate this paper with gratitude and may God Almighty bless this paper so as to provide benefits . Raha , March 2014 " Author "
    • ii TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. i TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................ ii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background ........................................................................................................ 1 B. Tujuan................................................................................................................. 3 CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2.1 . definition of environmental............................................................................ 2 2.2 . understanding and all kinds of environmental pollution.................................. 2 2.3 . causes of environmental pollution.................................................................. 3 2.4 . the impact of environmental pollution.............................................................. 4 2.5 . handling environmental pollution..................................................................... 6 CHAPTER III CLOSING 3.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 7 3.2 Saran................................................................................................................ 7 SIGN UP PUSTAKA............................................................................................ ... 8