Chapter i

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Chapter i

  1. 1. PAPER “ CANCER SERVIKS ” Compiled by : GROUB IV INANG YULIA PUTRI SRI RAHAYU POU SITTI AISYAH WENODYA AULIA FEBRIANTI DEWI SINTA PRIATI ODE SAFELTI ZAMSARI AKADEMI KEBIDANAN YAYASAN KESEHATAN NASIONAL BAU-BAU KELAS KERJASAMA KABUPATEN MUNA 2012
  2. 2. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. background These days we often hear about the "cervical cancer". Cancer is indeed a scourge for women. According to the data, in Indonesia it is estimated that every hour there is one person who died from cancer serviks.Cancer a murderess who scary.Cancer cerviks or cervical cancer also called cervix cancer. Given the fact the Terrible, the various measures of prevention and treatment have been made to address cervical cancer or cervical cancer. Where the cancer is caused by HPV virus (human papilloma virus). Cervical cancer or better known as the cervical cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, to change into cancer cells take a long time, about 10 to 15 years.Cancer This usually occurs at the age of 30 to 50 years, the peak women of reproductive age so that it will lead to impaired quality of life physical, mental and sexual health. B. problem formulation 1. Understanding Cervical Cancer 2. Cancer Causes Seviks 3. Symptoms - Cancer symptoms Serviks 4. Stage Cervical Cancer 5. Prevention of Cervical Cancer 6. Treatment of Cervical Cancer C. destination We make this paper in order that we are able to avoid or at least to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer and Knowing the symptoms - symptoms of Cervical Cancer and Cervical Capable of Treating cancer. 1
  3. 3. CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 1. Understanding Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the term health is cervical cancer is a cancer that occurs in the uterine cervix, an area in which the female reproductive organs door hole intercourse (vaginal). Cervical cancer is a malignancy that starts in the cells of the cervix (neck of the womb). Cervical cancer begins in the lining of the cervix. The occurrence of cancer is very slow. First, some normal cells turn into precancerous cells, and then turn into cancer cells.These changes are called dispalasia and is usually detected with a pap smear test. 2. Cause of Cervical Cancer HPV virus is strongly suspected as the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV virus will attack the membranes in the mouth and throat. Cervix, and rectum. If it is not immediately detected, HPV infection causes the formation cervical precancerous cells in the long term. Here are some risk factors for cervical cancer: a. Smoke Women who smoke have double the chance of developing cervical cancer than those who never smoked. b. HIV Infection A woman living with HIV have the immune system are less able to fight HPV infection and cancer in the stadium early. c. Bacterial infections chlamydia Several studies have found that women who had a history of or chlamydial infection at this time, have a higher risk of cervical cancer. d. Pill The use of long-term birth control pills can increase the risk of cervical cancer. e. Pregnant more than three times Women who had three or more of the pregnancy have an increased risk of cervical cancer is higher. f. First pregnancy at a young age Women whose first pregnancy at the age of 17 years under almost two times more likely to develop cervical cancer in old age compared to women who delay gestation until the age of 25 years or more. g. Family History your mother or sister had cervical cancer, your risk of cancer account for two or three times more than people who do not have a history of cervical cancer in the family. 2
  4. 4. 3. Symptoms - symptoms of Cervical Cancer In the early stages are often no signs - signs are typical but, sometimes found symptoms gestation as follows; a. White or watery discharge from the vagina. b. Bleeding after intercourse and then progress to abnormal bleeding. c. Incidence of bleeding after monopause. d. In phase Inpansif can discharge yellow - yellow, odorless and can be mixed with blood. e. Symptoms - symptoms of chronic anemia if bleeding occurs. f. Pelvic or abdominal pain arising at the bottom when there is inflammation of the pelvis. g. At the Advanced stage, the body becomes emaciated due to malnutrition, edema of the legs, bladder irritation and lower shaft colon (rectum).Like a cancer, type of cancer also had spread (metastasis). The spread of cervical cancer, there are three kinds, namely: a) Through the Lymph Vessels (limfogen) towards other nodes. b) Through the blood vessels (hematogenous). c) The spread directly to the parametrium, corpus uterus, vagina, bladder. 4. Stage Cervical Cancer Staging in patients with cervical cancer is very important. This is related to the type of treatment and prospects for recovery to be performed. Stage cervical cancer as follows: Stadium Information 0 : 0 can stage cervical cancer called carcinoma in situ.Abnormal cells are found only in the lining of the cervix. I : Cancer is found only in the cervix. II : Cancer that has spread beyond the cervix, but does not spread to the pelvic wall or lower third of the vagina. III : Cancer that has spread to the lower third of the vagina. May have spread in IV : Cancer has spread to bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body such as the lungs, bones and liver. 5. Prevention of Cervical Cancer pelvic and or has caused kidney malfunction. Cervical cancer can be prevented by "screening" is called a Pap smear and screening is very effective because the probe is easily done, quick and ill.Skrining aims to determine the presence of malignancy (cancer) with a microscope. Now has also been found to prevent cervical cancer vaccine, this vaccine can be given even to girls from the age of 10 years. By doing preventive vaccination can be done, and for women who sexually active or have routine Pap smears or Visual Inspection.Have a healthy diet, rich in vegetables, fruit cereal to stimulate the immune system. 3
  5. 5. Avoid smoking. Avoid sex before marriage or at a very young age. Avoid sex with multiple partners. Perform cleaning sex organs or vagina known as a toilet. 6. Treatment of Cervical Cancer a. Operation There are several types of surgery for the treatment of cervical cancer. Some treatment involves removal of the uterus (hysterectomy). This list covers some of the most common types of operation done on the treatment of cervical cancer. 1. Cryosurgery A metal probe cooled with liquid nitrogen is introduced into the vagina and cervix. This method can kill the abnormal cells membekukanya way. Cryosurgery is used to treat cervical cancer that is only in the cervix (stage 0), not an invasive cancer that has spread beyond the cervix. 2. Laser Surgery This method uses a laser beam to burn the cells or remove a small uterine tissue to be studied. Laser surgery is only used as a treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer (stage 0). 3. Konisasi Cone-shaped piece of tissue will be adopted from the cervix. Cutting is done using a scalpel, laser or thin wire be heated by electricity. This approach can be used to find or treat early stage cervical cancer (stage 0 or 1). 4. Hysterectomy • Simple Hysterectomy The workings of this method is a hysterectomy, but do not covers the nearby tissue. Vagina and pelvic lymph nodes are not removed. The uterus can be surgically removed at the front of the abdomen or through the vagina. After this operation, a woman can not get pregnant. Hysterectomy is used to treat some stage cervical cancer early (stage 1) and treating precancerous stage cancer (stage 0) if the cancer cells are found at the border konisasi. • Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection In this surgery, the surgeon will remove the entire uterus, tissue, upper vagina adjacent to the cervix, and some lymph nodes in the pelvic area. This surgery is most often done by cutting the front of the abdomen, is not done through the vagina. 4
  6. 6. 5. Trachlektomi A procedure called radical trachlektomi allows young women with early-stage cancers can be treated and still be able to have children. This method involves removing the cervix and upper vagina, then put shaped pockets on seams which act as the opening of the cervix inside the uterus. Lymph nodes were also taken near him. This operation can be done through the vagina or abdomen. After surgery, some women may experience long-term pregnancy and a healthy baby through surgery caecar. The risk of cancer recurrence after treatment is quite low. 6. Pelvic Ekstenterasi Besides taking all the organs and tissues of the vagina and abdomen, the operation of this type of removal of the bladder, vagina, rectum, and part of the colon. This operation is performed when cervical cancer recurred after previous treatment. It took six gibberish or more to recover from this radical surgery. However, women who have had this surgery undergo can still live a happy and productive b. Radiotherapy In the treatment of cervical cancer, radiotherapy is determined by external radiation is given in conjunction with low-dose chemotherapy. For this type of internal radiation treatment, a radioactive substance is inserted into the cylinder inside the vagina. Sometimes, the radioactive material is placed into a thin needle is inserted directly in tumor. c. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Usually the drugs are given through a drip into a vein or in through the mouth. Once the drugs enter the blood , it will to flow pread throughout the body. Sometimes, there are some drugs that are given at a time. Cervical cancer treatment by stage a. Precancerous stage (stage 1) Precancerous stage to early stage 1 is Usually treated by hysterectomy.If Patients want to have children still Usually performed LEEP or cone biopsy method. b. Early stage (stage 1 and II) - If the tumor size less than 4 cm are Usually performed radical hysterectomy or radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. - If the tumor size is more than 4 cm Usually done radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, hysterectomy,or chemotherapy Followed by cisplatin-based hysterectomy. c. Advanced stage (late stage II-IV Final Earlier) Cervical cancer at this stage can be treated with radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.In very advanced stage (stage IV final), the doctor may consider chemotherapy with a combination of drugs, such as hycamtin and cisplatin.cure is not possible, the goal of treatment is to raise the next or advocate as many cancer cells. Usually done-palliative treatment aimed at reducing 5
  7. 7. CHAPTER III CLOSING A. conclusion Cervical cancer is a cancer that affects women in the genital area.Caused by the Human Papillomavirus which are Oncogenic virus (causes cancer). HPV is transmitted through sexual contact and can also be personalized through use of the same goods, such as clothing together. B. suggestion Prevention is better than cure C. criticism We are aware in making paper is still less well which is why we desperately need a Building criticism from Readers 6
  8. 8. Bibliography Google.Com Capita selekta, UI faculty, third edition. 2001, Media Aesculapius Stop Cancer, "Cancer is not a death sentence anymore," agroMedia Library, 2010 www.agromedia.net http://puskesmaspetanahan.blogspot.com/2009/11/deteksi early-neck-cervical-cancer-dengan.httml html # pap-smear 7
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD.......................................................................................................................... i TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................ ii CHAPTER 1 ……………………………………………………………………………. 1 a.INTRODUCTION.................................................................. ………………………... 1 b.PROBLEME FORMULATION......................................................................................... 1 c.DESTINATION............................................................................................................ 1 CHAPTER II …………………………………………………………………………... 2 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................. 2 CHAPTER III …………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 CLOSING……………………………….......................................................................... 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 II
  10. 10. FOREWORD Praise God we prayed the presence of almighty God as the One God grace, we can complete the paper " CANCER SERVIKS" for students of Midwifery Studies D-III. This paper is intended as a guide for students studying in institutions of health education particularly in the field of obstetrics. Hopefully with this paper can provide a lot of knowledge to readers especially to the author himself. We realize limitations in preparing this paper. To that end, we expect criticism and suggestions from various parties, especially from the entire academic obstetrics everywhere for improving subsequent editions. Finally, we would like to thank all the parties to this paper can be completed. Raha,9 Oktober 2012 Group IV I

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