Automationframework 101229063140-phpapp02

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Automationframework 101229063140-phpapp02

  1. 1. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com QTP Frame Workwww.ramupalanki.com
  2. 2. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Table of Contents1. Automation Architecture.......................................................3 1.1 Design........................................................................................................................3 1.2 Approach for Test Automation..................................................................................42. Introduction to QTP........................................................12 2.1 QTP Environment Compatibility.............................................................................12 2.2 Versions of QTP......................................................................................................133. Add-Ins...............................................................................21 3.1 Types of Add-Ins.....................................................................................................21 3.2 Conditions for Add-ins............................................................................................224. Conventions.........................................................................23 4.1 Test Case Naming Conventions:..............................................................................23 4.2 Script and Action Naming Conventions:................................................................23 4.3 Variables and Constants:..........................................................................................25 4.4 DataSheet Naming and Parameter Naming Conventions:.......................................26 4.5 Function Naming Conventions................................................................................275. Settings...............................................................................28 5.1 QTP Test Settings....................................................................................................28 5.2 Record and Run Settings..........................................................................................29 5.3 Active Screen Capture Level...................................................................................30 5.4 Object Repository....................................................................................................31 5.5 Expert View.............................................................................................................33 5.6 Setting related to the Application Used:..................................................................366. Objects...............................................................................39 6.1 Objects....................................................................................................................397. Data Table..........................................................................41 7.1 Datatable Object and related Functions:.................................................................41 7.2 Organizing Data Sheets for Global & Local variables............................................42 7.3 Parameterizing using Data driven Wizard.............................................................43 7.4 Importing and Exporting Datasheets:...................................................................478. Actions................................................................................50 8.1 Actions Settings.......................................................................................................50 8.2 Iterations using rows................................................................................................51 8.3 Action Template.......................................................................................................52 8.4 Script Startup...........................................................................................................52 8.5 Splitting Actions, Re-usable Actions, Internal/External Actions............................539. Object Repository................................................................55 9.1 Per Action/Shared Object Repository:.....................................................................55 9.2 Merging of two object repositories:.........................................................................57 9.3 Limitations:..............................................................................................................5810. Variables...........................................................................60 10.1 Action Parameters................................................................................................60www.ramupalanki.com
  3. 3. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 10.2 Test Parameters......................................................................................................62 10.3 Environment Variables..........................................................................................64 10.4 Variable passing from one Action to another.......................................................65 10.5 Scope of Variables.................................................................................................6711. Check Points......................................................................69 11.1 Types of Checkpoints............................................................................................69 11.2 Output Values for Verification..............................................................................7112. Reusable Library................................................................73 12.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................74 12.2 How to establish a Reusable Library.....................................................................74 12.3 How to use this Reusable Library.........................................................................7613. Regular Expressions..........................................................76 13.1 Description.............................................................................................................7614. Recovery Scenario............................................................81 14.1 Exceptional Handling using Recovery Scenarios..................................................82 14.2 Sample for Recovery Scenario:...........................................................................8815. Optional Steps...................................................................94 15.1 Description:........................................................................................................9416. Reporting...........................................................................96 16.1 Different Options for Reporting.............................................................................97 16.2 Functions used for Reporting..............................................................................98 16.3 Reporting Formats...............................................................................................100 1. Automation Architecture1.1 Designwww.ramupalanki.com
  4. 4. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com1.2 Approach for Test AutomationDescriptionwww.ramupalanki.com
  5. 5. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comApproach for Test Automation is used for building a strategy for automation startingfrom the Requirement phase till the deployment phase. Approach for automation beginswith finding out the conditions and business rules given by the client and groupingsimilar conditions, business rules together as Test cases or Test Scenarios.Steps involved in Approach for Test Automation are as follows: • Requirement gathering from the client • Understanding and Analyzing the Requirement • Grouping the requirement into Test cases • Preparing the Design for Automation • Building Scripts depending on the Design • Review of Scripts at Offshore • Delivery to the ClientFor example in the Unilever project:Since it is Project for Automation of SAP, Team was divided into two,SAP Consultants.Testing Team.Requirement gathering from the client included knowledge transfer at onsite, where allthe transactions including the customized transactions where explained to the SAPConsultants of satyam, Under standing of requirements was done at the client side,Depending on the flow of transactions, all the transactions where grouped together asdifferent scenarios. While SAP Consultants where onsite for gathering Requirements,Work done at the offshore was to analyze on the appropriate version of the QTP Tool tobe used and to get licenses for QTP, user accounts for SAP access, Installation of QTPand SAP.All the Identified Scenarios which consists of different transactions where explained toTesting Team. Then common functionalities where identified, and grouped together asdifferent Test cases.After defining different Test cases, design for automation of scripts was done, whereReusability was one of the main aspects, where all the transactions, which are common inthe scenarios, are identified as Reusable transactions.Automation Framework:For Quality deliverables, important things that should be followed are:www.ramupalanki.com
  6. 6. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • Following common coding structure for all the scripts • Consistent coding conventions • Use of Reusability for making code efficient and minimal • Efficient use of Object Repository • Use of Error and Exception handling Functions • Use of Data table object, Environment variables for using dataFor example in the Unilever project:Coding Structure used is that there will a main Action for all the scripts which is namedas corresponding Test case name, This Action intern will call all the other actions (EachTransaction used in the script would be an action) in the script. Importing andExporting of sheets is also done in this main action. Importing of sheets is done at thebeginning before calling other actions and exporting of sheets is done at the last. Sheetscorresponding to all the actions in the scripts are imported, so that the data in the fields ofthe Imported sheets are used as input data to the script, output data from the script is alsocollected and exported to the corresponding sheet.There are many transactions which are reused in the scripts, similar transactions(Actions) are made as reusable so that its not required to record those transactions againand again, which ever transaction was common among scripts, were recorded in onescript and is reused in all the scripts where the transaction is required.Error handling in the unilever automation is done by using Recovery Scenario whereeach Recovery scenario calls a function which handles the recovery by exiting all theother transactions (actions) when recovery fires. Major types of Recovery used in thisproject where Popup Window, Object state and on Error Recoveries. In Errorhandling using Recovery, all the common types of exceptions or errors are givencommon Recovery scenarios using regular expressions, which minimized the number ofRecovery scenarios and Functions used.Design for Structure of Scripts used in Unilever Project:www.ramupalanki.com
  7. 7. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Main Action, which calls all the other Called Actions Actions (transactions) in the script <Action Name>Main Action Callsin the Script <Action Name> Ex: S014_001 (Action Name) Ex: ME21N (Action Name Which is same as the Transaction name in SAP) www.ramupalanki.com
  8. 8. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comDesign of the Approach for Test Automation is given below Identification of Test Cases for Automation Identification of Common Functionality Coding Standards, Naming Conventions & Templates Building the Re-Usable Library Application Login, Tool & Application General library Error handling, Log Logout, Common Settings, Restoring, containing String Reporting, Functionality Object Repository, handling, Date handling, messaging etc Related code etc Recovery, House File Handling, Data Keeping etc Table handling Script Development using Record & Play back Deliver the script after Verification & Validationwww.ramupalanki.com
  9. 9. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comDesign for Automation of Test cases for Unilever Foods:It’s a description of Automating a test case belongs to SAP by explaining a scenarioS014-081Scenario Objective: Moving a Material from Raw Material Storage Location to aProduction Storage Location, Creating a Transfer Requirement and a Transfer Order. Actions for the Transactions Login, LB01, MM03, LT04, LT012 and Logoff. Common Functions are LT12, MM03 Coding Standards & Naming Conventions like ‘The file name as per convention - Scenario name’, ‘The Action named as per transaction ID’ Building the Re-Usable Library like ‘The common functionality being reused’ Application Recoveries are Error handling like On Login, Logout gAlready_exist.qrs Error Resume Next, and common S014_164_Materia Reporting like functions like l_Not_Maintained. reporter.ReportEvent LT12, MM03 qrs etc Business Transactions Scripts are LB01 and LT04Note: The phase in blue color indicates where more efforts are required in analyzing andrecording to generate a script.QTP Framework in SAP Automationwww.ramupalanki.com
  10. 10. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Test Data SAP Script for Test Results Handling and Application Business Reporting Data Sheet Session Transaction/ and Importing Login Test Case Application Closing. Re-Usable Library: Generic Library calls for handling data, date, string etc Error handling Library Recovery Scenario ActionsGuidelines followed for identification of Test Cases for Automation • Tests that need to run once and those that need frequent human intervention are usually not worth the investment to automate and have not been considered for automation. • As Automated testing can be used to verify the performance of application paths that are used with a high degree of frequency when the software is running in full production e.g. creating customer records, Invoicing and other high volume activities where software failure would occur frequently have been considered. • Mission critical processes like core activities like sales order processing are prime candidates for automated testing and have been considered for automation. • Repetitive Testingwww.ramupalanki.com
  11. 11. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • Applications with Long Life span – Longer the application in production greater the benefits from automation. • Avoiding dynamic screens. Though possible to automate this increases the complexity of the script. • Avoiding screens where objects are created dynamically • Avoiding business scenarios where complex hardware is involved • Selecting a row in a table results in an additional challenge from. Some automation tools provide the facility to read each row in a table and for focusing on a specific row. If the numbers of rows were very high the execution time of the script would be high. This leads to performance issues of the recorded script. Hence, it is better to prove the business scenario wherein tables with row selections figure by identifying a fixed row number. This scenario is faced very frequently in enterprise applications as in pricing tables and leads to the complexity of the script and subsequently the effort. • Avoiding scenarios that require high degree of coding while automating so that script’s complexity is reduced and high maintainability of the script is ensured.www.ramupalanki.com
  12. 12. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 2. Introduction to QTP2.1 QTP Environment CompatibilityQTP (version) supports a wide range of working environments and thereby can be usedfor practically any application.Core Environments Supported by QTP:- Windows applications (MFC)- Visual Basic- Java- ActiveXEnterprise Applications:- SAP- Siebel- PeopleSoft- OracleWeb Technologies:- HTML- DHTML- JavaScriptBrowsers:- Internet Explorer- Netscape- AOLEmerging Technologies:- .NET winforms, webforms, web services- J2EE Web services- XML, WSDL, UDDITerminal Emulators:- 3270- 5250- VT100www.ramupalanki.com
  13. 13. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comServer Technologies:- Oracle- Microsoft- IBM- BEA- ODBC- COM / COM+Multimedia:- Flash- RealAudio / RealVideo- Windows Media PlayerOperating EnvironmentOperating Systems Windows XP/2000/NTSupported: Windows 95/98/MEDatabases Supported: (Not Applicable)Networks Supported: TCP/IPProgramming JavaScriptLanguages Supported: Java HTML Visual Basic (VB) XMLMiddleware Supported: Microsoft .NET2.2 Versions of QTP QTP 6.5: To successfully install and run QTP6.5, following minimum system requirements are required : IBM-PC or compatible with a Pentium® II 266 MHz Computer/Processor: microprocessor (366 MHz recommended). Operating System: Windows® 98 Second Edition, Windows® 2000— Service Pack 3,www.ramupalanki.com
  14. 14. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Windows NT® 4.0—Service Pack 6a, Windows® Me, or Windows® XP—Service Pack 1. Memory: 128 MB of RAM (256 MB recommended) Free Hard Disk 150 MB of free disk space for a compact installation or Space: 200 MB for a typical or complete installation Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0–6.0. Browser: Supported Environments QuickTest Professional supports creating, recording, and running tests in the environments described below.  Standard Windows Applications 1. Win32 API 2. MFC  Visual Basic Applications Visual Basic 6.0  Browsers • Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01–6.0 (required) • Netscape Navigator 4.06–4.7x (optional) • Netscape 6.1, Netscape 6.22, and Netscape 6.23 (optional) • AOL 5.0 and 6.0 (optional) ActiveX Grid Controls In addition to basic support of ActiveX properties and methods, QuickTest Professional supports context-sensitive recording and verification on the following ActiveX Grid controls:www.ramupalanki.com
  15. 15. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Name ProgId FarPoint Spreadsheet 2.5 FPSpread.Spread.1 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.0 FPSpread.Spread.2 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.5 FPSpread.Spread.3 FarPoint Spreadsheet 6.0 FPSpread.Spread.4 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.0 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.2 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.5 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.3 FarPoint Spreadsheet 6 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.4 Microsoft Grid 1.0 MSGrid.Grid Microsoft DataBound Grid 5.0 MSDBGrid.DBGrid Microsoft Flex Grid 6.0 MSFlexGridLib.MSFlexGrid.1 Sheridan Data Grid 2.0 SSDataWidgets.SSDBGridCtrlApt.1 Sheridan Data Grid 3.1 SSDataWidgets.SSDBGridCtrlApt.3 Apex True DataBound Grid 5.0 TrueDBGrid50.TDBGrid Apex True DataBound Grid 6.0 TrueDBGrid60.TDBGrid Apex True OLE DB Grid 6.0 TrueOleDBGrid60.TDBGrid ActiveX Calendar Controls In addition to basic support of ActiveX properties and methods, QuickTest Professional supports context-sensitive recording and verification on the following ActiveX Calendar controls: Name ProgId Microsoft Date and Time Picker Control 6.0 (SP4) MSComCtl2.DTPicker.2 Microsoft MonthView Control 6.0 (SP4) MSComCtl2.MonthView.2www.ramupalanki.com
  16. 16. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Multimedia Applications QTP6.5 supports testing on the following multimedia applications: • Microsoft Windows MediaPlayer controls, version 6.0 and higher • RealPlayer controls supported for Internet Explorer browsers (the controls within applications containing browser controls are not supported) • Macromedia Flash 4 or 5 objects that are ActiveX controls in Internet Explorer. You can also test Macromedia Flash 6 clips containing only Flash 4 or 5 commands. Additional Environments QuickTest Professional add-ins support other environments such as Java, .NET Windows and Web Forms, SAP solutions, Oracle, Siebel, PeopleSoft, Web Services, and terminal emulator applications. For more information about QuickTest Professional add-ins, contact your sales representative or Mercury Interactive Customer Support. Note for QuickTest Professional 6.0 and earlier: Java support and Oracle support are now available as separate add-ins to QuickTest Professional 6.5 and are no longer part of the core product.QTP 8.0:www.ramupalanki.com
  17. 17. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comSystem Requirements To successfully install and run QTP8.0, you need the following minimum system requirements: IBM-PC or compatible with a Pentium II 266 MHz Computer/Processor: microprocessor (366 MHz recommended). Windows 2000-Service Pack 3 or Service Pack 4, Operating System: Windows XP-Service Pack 1, or Windows 2003 Server. Memory: 128 MB of RAM (256 MB recommended). 250 MB of free disk space for application files and folders, and an additional 120 MB of free disk space on the system disk (the disk on which the operating Free Hard Disk system is installed). Space: After Quick Test Professional is installed, it is recommended to have at least 150 MB free disk space on the system disk for the operating system and Quick Test Professional to run correctly. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 Service Pack 2-6.0. Browser:Supported Add-ins The following external QuickTest 6.5.x add-ins are supported for use with QuickTest Professional 8.0: • Java Add-in 6.5 • Oracle Add-in 6.5 • PeopleSoft Add-in 6.5 • Terminal Emulator Add-in 6.5 • .NET Add-in 6.5.1 • SAP solutions Add-in 6.5.1www.ramupalanki.com
  18. 18. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Note: Siebel Add-in 6.5, the .NET Add-in 6.5, the Add-in for SAP solutions 6.5, or any 6.0 add-ins,cannot be used with QuickTest Professional 8.0.1Supported Environments and Programs QuickTest Professional 8.0 supports creating, recording, and running tests or components using the environments and programs described below.  Standard Windows Applications 1.Win32 API 2.MFC  Visual Basic Applications Visual Basic 6.0 Note: Visual Basic .NET applications are supported by the QuickTest Professional .NET Add-in.  Browsers • Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 Service Pack 2-6.0 (required) • Netscape 6.1, Netscape 6.22, Netscape 6.23, Netscape 7.02, and Netscape 7.1 (optional) • AOL 8.0 and 9.0 (optional) ActiveX Grid Controls In addition to basic support of ActiveX properties and methods, QuickTest Professional supports context-sensitive recording and verification on the following ActiveX Grid controls:www.ramupalanki.com
  19. 19. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Name ProgId FarPoint Spreadsheet 2.5 FPSpread.Spread.1 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.0 FPSpread.Spread.2 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.5 FPSpread.Spread.3 FarPoint Spreadsheet 6.0 FPSpread.Spread.4 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.0 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.2 FarPoint Spreadsheet 3.5 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.3 FarPoint Spreadsheet 6 (OLEDB) FPSpreadADO.fpSpread.4 Microsoft Grid 1.0 MSGrid.Grid Microsoft DataBound Grid 5.0 MSDBGrid.DBGrid Microsoft Flex Grid 6.0 MSFlexGridLib.MSFlexGrid.1 Sheridan Data Grid 2.0 SSDataWidgets.SSDBGridCtrlApt.1 Sheridan Data Grid 3.1 SSDataWidgets.SSDBGridCtrlApt.3 Apex True DataBound Grid 5.0 TrueDBGrid50.TDBGrid Apex True DataBound Grid 6.0 TrueDBGrid60.TDBGrid Apex True OLE DB Grid 6.0 TrueOleDBGrid60.TDBGridActiveX Calendar Controls In addition to built-in support for ActiveX properties and methods, QuickTest Professional supports context-sensitive recording and verification on the following ActiveX Calendar controls: Name ProgId Microsoft Date and Time Picker Control 6.0 (SP4) MSComCtl2.DTPicker.2 Microsoft MonthView Control 6.0 (SP4) MSComCtl2.MonthView.2www.ramupalanki.com
  20. 20. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comMicrosoft Excel When using Microsoft Excel files with QuickTest Professional 8.0(for example, to import or export data to or from the Data Table), you can work with Microsoft Excel 2000, 2002, 2003, and XP. Microsoft Query When using Microsoft Query with QuickTest Professional 8.0 (for example, for Database checkpoints), you can work with Microsoft Query 2000, 2002, 2003, and XP. Additional Environments QuickTest Professional add-ins support other environments such as Java, .NET Windows and Web Forms, SAP Solutions, Oracle, Siebel, PeopleSoft, Web Services, and terminal emulator applications. For more information on QuickTest Professional add-ins, contact your sales representative or Mercury Interactive Customer Support.www.ramupalanki.com
  21. 21. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 3. Add-Ins3.1 Types of Add-Ins QTP version Add-ins Java add-in 6.5 8.2 Oracle add-in 6.5 Siebel add-in 8.0 Terminal Emulator add-in 8.0 . Net add-in 8.2 Default Add-Ins: Active X Controls, Web &Visual Basic . Net add-in 6.5.1 8.0 Sap add-in 6.5.1 Java add-in 6.5 PeopleSoft add-in 6.5 Oracle add-in 6.5 Terminal Emulator add-in 6.5 Default Add-Ins: Active X Controls, Web &Visual Basic 6.5 . Net Web Java XML Default Add-Ins: Active X controls, Multimedia, Visual Basic, WebNote: Quick Test Professional Siebel add-in 6.5 and Web services add-in 6.0 cannot beused with Quick Test 8.0.www.ramupalanki.com
  22. 22. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • The add-ins for Quick Test Professional 6.0 cannot be used with Quick Test Professional 6.5. If you are using Quick Test Professional 6.5, you will need to get the 6.5 version of your add-in.3.2 Conditions for Add-ins3.2.1 Java Add-InWhen testing Java applets in a Web browser, you must load the Web add-in as well as theJava Add-in, and use the Web tab of the Record and Run SettingsDialog box to specify your record and run preferences. To test Java applets orapplications running on Netscape 4.x’s built-in JVM (not Java Plug-ins), confirm that theNetscape 4.x browser is already installed before installing the Quick Test ProfessionalJava Add-in. When testing Java applets in a Web browser web Add-in as well as javaadd-in must be loaded .To create a checkpoint, parameterize a step, or to add a methodfrom individual java applets, the Java Add-in must be loaded.3.2.2 .Net Add-InThe .Net add-in is required to support objects developed in .Net .In some cases, eventhough the application has been developed using .Net, when the page is sent to thebrowser, it is a plain HTML page. Quick Test Professional can recognize HTML controlslike edit fields, buttons etc. without the .Net add-in. However, if a Web applicationcontains complex controls like ActiveX or other controls developed in .Net like ASP.Netserver controls, it is required to use the .Net add-in to achieve object recognition.3.2.3 Sap Add-InThe Sap add-in is required for all SAP applications. In SAP application Grid Tables, Status Bar messages, Labels can be identified only if SAP Add-in is installed.www.ramupalanki.com
  23. 23. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 4. ConventionsThe Conventions for Naming for test cases, Scripts and Actions vary from Project toProject depending upon the Client.4.1 Test Case Naming Conventions:Test cases should be named in a manner that enables easy identification of thecorresponding Use case (or the Scenario) for which the Test Case is written. TheOnlooker should be able to trace the test case back to the use cane name or Scenarioname by the name of the Test Case. Consistency should be maintained in following thehierarchy of naming. Use Case Or Test Case ScenarioFor example:Example 1: Considering that Each Use case is associated with one Test case. If the nameof the Use Case were UC_001 then the Test case name would be TC_001.Example 2: In the Unilever Automation Project, SAP transactions are divided intodifferent modules, in those modules different transactions are grouped together as ascenario, so for writing the test case for a particular scenario naming convention used ismodule name followed by scenario name. For Module IMWM, if S014_01 is the scenario name, so name of the test casefor the S014_01 scenario was given as IMWM_S014_01.4.2 Script and Action Naming Conventions:www.ramupalanki.com
  24. 24. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comSimilar to the Test case naming, Script naming should be done consistently with clarityand traceability. Typically each Test Script is prepared corresponding to each Test Case.Every Test Case contains one or more Conditions. Each Condition can be represented byan action in the script. Use Case Test Case Condition1 Condition2 Condition3 ……… Test Case Test script Condition 1 Action1 Condition2 Action2Therefore for a Test Script corresponding to a Test Case named TC_001 would beQTS_001.The hierarchy should be maintained in case the use cases or test cases arenested.E.g.: TC_01_014 would have a QTP Test Script as QTS_01_014.Action Naming:Each Test Script can contain one or more Actions, with one or more actions representinga test Condition.Actions can be named in 2 ways: 1. Functionality of the Action 2. Hierarchy of the Action in the Test Script. 1. Functionality of the Action: Typically Actions are segregated by their functionality in the Test Script. Therefore it would be easier to understand the Action if the name of the action represents the Functionality. For E.g.: An Action written or recorded for logging the user should be named as Login or Authentication for easy understandability. An Action for booking tickets should be named as Book_Tickets An Action for exiting the application named as Exit.www.ramupalanki.com
  25. 25. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com This also adds a huge advantage when the Actions are made reusable. Reusable Actions can be used between various scripts. When an Action is to be made reusable the action should be named as REUSE_(Action name). Example: REUSE_Login. 2. Hierarchy of the Action in the Script: Since Actions are a part of the Test Script, for purpose of Clarity and tracking, Actions can be named as per Hierarchy. For e.g.: Test Case Name  TC_01 QTP Test Script Name  QTS_01 Name of 1st action in the Script  QTS_01_01 Similarly Name of 9th Action in the ScriptQTS_01_094.3 Variables and Constants:QTP Scripts are in VB Script. Therefore, the naming conventions for variables can befollowed alike VB Script Naming Conventions.General Conventions followed in VBScript are:Data Type Prefixes:By using data type prefixes, your variables always indicate what they are designed for.Im using just six prefixes:Prefix Data Types Exampleb Boolean (true or false) bChecked = Trued Date/time dStartTime = Now All numeric data typesi iTax = iPrice * 0.076 (Byte, Integer, Currency, Long, Single, Double)o Objects Set oFile = Nothings Strings sTitle = "Welcome!"u User interface elements uPara.style.display = "block"Constants Prefix:Usually there are only a handful of constants in any scripts. Indicating the data typetherefore is less important for constants. Prefix letter c for all constants can be used.www.ramupalanki.com
  26. 26. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.come.g. Const cTitle = "Welcome!"UDocument.title = cTitle4.4 DataSheet Naming and Parameter Naming Conventions: Every QTP Test Script contains 2 types of sheets. 1. Global data sheet 2. Local data sheetsThe Global data sheet, which is a common sheet for all the actions of the script, isnamed by default as dt_globalsheet. This can be renamed as Global for all the Scripts forconsistency.Typically, Each Action in the Script contains one data sheet, which is local to theAction. This is by default, named after the Action to which it belongs. Therefore thename of the datasheet follows directly the name of the Action, which when namedfollowing its naming conventions, can be used efficiently for the data sheet too.Parameter Naming:Various Types of Parameters used in QTP are:1) Test Parametersa) Test Input Parameters: These should be named as IN_(relevant variable name).‘In’ denoting that it’s an input parameter for the Test in whole. The name following INshould be a relevant name for the variable, denoting the purpose of its use. This shouldalso comply with the standard variable naming conventions.Example: IN_bFlag, IN_iIncrement etc.,b) Test Output Parameters: On the similar lines of Input Parameters, these should benamed as OUT_(relevant variable name). OUT representing that it’s an outputparameter.Example: OUT_sStatus.2) Action Parameterswww.ramupalanki.com
  27. 27. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.coma) Action Input Parameters: These are local to Action of a Test. These can be named asACTIN_(variable name). ACTIN denoting that it’s an Action Input Parameter.Example: ACTIN_iResultb) Action Output Parameters: These could be named as ACTOUT_(var name).Example: ACTOUT_bFlag3) Environment Variables:Environment variables are either built-in or User defined. Built-in variables cannot bedeclared named by the user, so their naming convention is not discussed.User Defined Environment Variables are either Internal or External.Internal Variables: ENV_INT_(variable name)External Variables: ENV_EXT_(Variable name)4.5 Function Naming ConventionsFunctions should be named as Func_(name). This can provide clarity and differencebetween a Reusable Action and a Function that can be used within Actions.Example: Func_Save , Func_Addwww.ramupalanki.com
  28. 28. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 5. Settings5.1 QTP Test SettingsBefore Running or Recording any test on QTP, the QTP Test settings need to be set asper the requirements of the Test. Setting these Test Settings before starting a Test plays acrucial part in the behavior of the test.These can be found at the path Test>Settings. A dialog box pops up, in which varioustabs are present which allow one to set • Properties of the test like Add-Ins used • Run time Preferences • Resources like files, data tables, and repository to be used. • Parameters required in the Test. • Environment variables used • Web navigation • Recovery Scenarioswww.ramupalanki.com
  29. 29. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comNote: For further details about the use of each tab, refer to QTP Test Settings5.2 Record and Run SettingsAfter Setting the Test Settings at Test>Settings, the next important settings for actuallyrecording the application and running it for Testing are to be set at the Test>Record andRun Settings. This dialog box opens automatically, when recording a test for the firsttime. The details of which application to record are set in this dialog box.www.ramupalanki.com
  30. 30. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comFor further details about these settings refer to Record and Run Settings.5.3 Active Screen Capture LevelOne of the most useful fetaures of QTP is the various views it provides, out of whichActive view is the most unique.The selection of the appropriate Active Screen Capturelevel influences the storage space, properties stored and the view of the Active screen.The selection can be made by going to Tools>Options>Active Screen.The Active screen settings can also set at the Test>Record and Run Settings.The active screen capture level can be set to any of the 4 levels i.e. Complete, Partial,Minimum and None.www.ramupalanki.com
  31. 31. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comFor details about each capture level, refer to ActiveScreen Capture Level.5.4 Object RepositoryWhen a test is recorded, QTP adds each object on which an operation is performed, tothe Tools>object repository. Objects can be added to the repository while editing thetests too.While recording, Objects are added to the repository in either of the two ways: a. Object Repository per Action b. Shared Object Repository.www.ramupalanki.com
  32. 32. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comThe settings can be changed by going to Test>Settings>Resources>Object Repository Type In the Per-Action mode, objects are identified and separated on the basis of each action and the corresponding object repository for the test is created in the test folder.In the Shared mode, the user may choose a location to save the shared object repository files for all the tests. All the Objects recorded during a test,and their properties can be seen and manipulated in the Tools>Object Repository.There are provisions in this Object Repository Dialog box to add new objects,spy objects, find and replace property values etc.www.ramupalanki.com
  33. 33. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com The First Section of Object Repository Dialog Box contains provisions to a. Add Objects : A Button to add new objects to the repository. b. Highlight: To highlight the object selected in the repository, when the application is open. c. Object Spy: To Spy any Object, to see its Properties. d. Export: To Export any objects to an outside location.The second section of the dialog box contains provision to Find, Replace, Add, andRemove the properties of an object in the Repository also set any default values for theproperties.5.5 Expert ViewWhile recording Tests in QTP, there are 3 important views that enable us to understandclearly, the various representations of the Script. They are a. Expert View b. Keyword View: Hierarchical Representation of Actions c. Active Screen View: Pictorial view of the currently active Screen.www.ramupalanki.com
  34. 34. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comIn the Expert View, QTP displays each operation performed on the application in theform of a script. The script is comprised of VBScript statements and the view is a scripteditor with many script editing capabilities. For each object and method in an ExpertView statement, a corresponding row exists in the Keyword View and a correspondingActive Screen in the Active Screen view, which enables easy traceability. Fig: Active Screen Component corresponding to Expert View Statementwww.ramupalanki.com
  35. 35. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Fig: Keyword view and Active Screen view corresponding to one expert view statement5.5.1 Step Generator:If the user is familiar with VBScript, the user can add and update statements and enhancethe tests and components with programming. After the test or an Action is recorded, itspower and flexibility can be increased by adding recordable and non-recordable VBScriptstatements as required for tasks like Check Points,Datatables etc.,.These additional stepscan be added either manually or using Insert>Step >Step Generator .whenever a step isadded to a script, then any Syntax errors of the step can be Identified in its Keywordview.www.ramupalanki.com
  36. 36. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comThe Step Generator enables you to add steps quickly and easily, by selecting from a rangeof context-sensitive options and entering the required values.The generated step getsadded at the position of cursor in the expert view.The Step Generator enables you to add steps quickly and easily, by selecting from a rangeof context-sensitive options and entering the required values. In the Step Generator dialogbox you can define steps that use: • test object methods and properties • utility object methods and properties • calls to library functions, VBScript functions, and internal script functions5.6 Setting related to the Application Used:The different kind of Applications that can be tested using QTP are windowsapplications,web based(java and .Net),SAP,Oracle etc.Apart from the windowsapplications using MFC and simple web applications(which can be run with default add-ins), rest all applications require a special Add-in to be purchased to do the testing.Eachwww.ramupalanki.com
  37. 37. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comAdd-in which is bought and installed, results in a new tab in all the setting dialog boxes ,using which various setting options can be chosen.It purely depends on the type ofapplication , how to choose a particular setting option. Example of a SAP Add-in : Fig: The Add-in manager dialog with SAP add-inwww.ramupalanki.com
  38. 38. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Fig: Record and Run Settings with a SAP Add-in.For detailed information of the settings of the tabs other than the special tabs refer Recordand run settings.www.ramupalanki.com
  39. 39. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 6. Objects6.1 Objects Objects are the things which contains different properties and methods. For Example: Window is said to be an object which consists of properties such as Exist, GetROProperty and methods such as ChildObjects, Activate, maximize, minimize etc. Property: Property describes about the object defined, each object has different properties, which is necessary to describe the object, which differentiates the given object with other objects. For example: If we take a window object, we first have to define to which class it belongs to which is one of the property, it belongs to a window class. Exist is a property which is common to many objects which returns true if that object exists. Methods: Methods are functions, which are used for changing the properties of the object that is in order to manipulate with the object properties we use. For example: If we take a window object, Activate is a method used to activate the window object, thus by using Activate method Activate property of the present window object is set to true, thus the window object will be activated if not in activated mode.www.ramupalanki.com
  40. 40. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Sample for Object hierarchy: Method for “WinEdit” Object “Dialog” ObjectChild Objectfor “Dialog”Object In the above sample of code, there are two main Objects, one is Dialog and the other is Window object. This objects contain child objects, For Dialog object which is named as “Login” has WinEdit object with name as “Agent Name:” as childobject, here Set is the method used to set a text into the WinEdit object. Dialog Parent Object named as “Login” Child Object WinEdit named as “Agent Name:” “Set” is the method associated with “WinEdit” object www.ramupalanki.com
  41. 41. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 7. Data Table In QTP scripting there are many objects that are used, One of the Objects used in QTP scripting is DataTable Object.7.1 Datatable Object and related Functions: Description Basic use of Datatable object is to create an object for adding, deleting, updating data of an excel sheet used. Main functions of the datatable object: • Importsheet : This function is used to Import sheet into the script, so that all the data in the imported sheet can be used in the script. Syntax: Datatable.Importsheet(“nameofExcelfilewithpath”, “nameofthesourcesheet”, “nameofthedestinationsheet”) • Exportsheet : This function is used to Export sheet from the script, all the data including output values are stored in the default sheet for the action, this sheet is exported and stored in a specified location using this function. Syntax: Datatable.Exportsheet(“nameofExcelfilewithpath”, “Nameofthesheet”) • Addsheet : Used for adding a sheet into the script file. • GetRowCount: This function is used to get the no of rows in a particular sheet. Syntax: Datatable.AddSheet(“Sheetname”).GetRowCountwww.ramupalanki.com
  42. 42. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • GetCurrentRow: This function is used to get the current row of a particular sheet. When an action is run by using run setting as “run on all rows”, that action will run as many times as the number of rows in the excel sheet of the action, in order to find the row for which action is running currently we use GetCurrentRow function. Syntax: Datatable.GetSheet(“Sheetname”).GetCurrentRow7.2 Organizing Data Sheets for Global & Local variablesDescriptionThere are two types of sheets in any QTP Script, they are Globalsheet LocalsheetGlobalsheet: Globalsheet in any script is unique, Globalsheet is used in order to storevalues in the sheet and the values stored in Globalsheet can be used in all the actions.For storing a value in the global sheet we use the following function: Datatable.Value(“Fieldname”,”Global”) = ValueFor using the values from the global sheet we use the following function: Value = Datatable.Value(“Fieldname”,”Global”)Localsheet: Each and every action in the script will have its own Localsheet, name of theLocalsheet of a particular action is same as the action name.For using the data from the Local sheet we use following function: Datatable.Value(“Fieldname”,dtlocalsheet) Or Datatable.Value(“Fieldname”,”Sheetname”)www.ramupalanki.com
  43. 43. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Organization of Global and Local sheets with the actions used in the script are shown below: Action name: “Login”Local Sheet for“Login”Action Global Sheet 7.3 Parameterizing using Data driven Wizard Description The Data Driver enables you to quickly parameterize several (or all) property values for test objects, checkpoints, and/or method arguments containing the same constant value within a given action. You can choose to replace all occurrences of a selected constant value with a parameter, in the same way that you can use a Find and Replace All operation instead of a step-by-step Find and Replace process. QuickTest can also show you each occurrence of the constant so that you can decide whether or not to parameterize the value. If any property of an object is taken, that property can be parameterized using Data driven Wizard, www.ramupalanki.com
  44. 44. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comDifferent steps for parameterization using Data driven Wizard is as follows: • Go to tool bar option Tools and select Data Driver option • We will get a list of all the properties of all the objects which can be parameterized (i.e. for all the objects where a value for a property is given in the script)For example consider script for entering Login name which is as follows Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set "name"The Set property of WinEdit Object appears in the list of Datadriver with “name” asValue representing the Set property of “Agent Name” Editbox, which is as given below: • Select a value which should be parameterized and click on “Parameterize” button. • There will be two options to be selected as given below:www.ramupalanki.com
  45. 45. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comStep-by-step Parameterization: Enables you to view the current values of each stepcontaining the selected value. For each step, you can choose whether or not toparameterize the value, and if so, which parameterization options you want to use, theNext button is enabled when you select this option, this will enable us to select an otherinstance of the constant selected and parameterize that instant, it will continue the sameprocess till all the instances of the given value are done.www.ramupalanki.com
  46. 46. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comParameterize all: Enables you to parameterize all occurrences of the selected valuethroughout the action.When you select this option the Parameter details area is enabled. The Finish button isenabled when you select this option.www.ramupalanki.com
  47. 47. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comHere Parameter tab can be selected using the button given at the “Parameter” radiobutton, and in the next screen select the datatable Field from where the property forwhich the value belongs is parametererized, click on “Finish” button thus all the instancesof the value selected for parameterization will be parameterized.7.4 Importing and Exporting Datasheets:DescriptionImporting and Exporting of Datasheets are used for reading, writing and manipulating thedata in an excel sheet.Importing Datasheet:DescriptionImports a sheet of a specified file to a specified sheet in the run-time Data Table. Thedata in the imported sheet replaces the data in the destination sheet (see SheetDestargument).www.ramupalanki.com
  48. 48. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comNote: All the fields in the imported sheets should match with the data used in the script.There are two functions for Importing, Importing the whole excel file and Importing thesheets in the file.Function for Importing the whole Excel file:Imports the file into the script with all the sheets which are there in the excel file.Note: Sheets in the excel file should match with the Actions in the script to use the dataefficiently, since action name and corresponding sheet name should be same.Syntax:Import “filenamewithpath”Function for Importing the sheets from the excel file:Imports the specified sheet into the script.Syntax:Importsheet “filenamewithpath”,”sourcesheetname”, ”destinationsheetname”Exporting Datasheet:DescriptionExports a specified sheet of the run-time Data Table to the specified file. • If the specified file does not exist, a new file is created and the specified sheet is saved. • If the current file exists, but the file does not contain a sheet with the specified sheet name, the sheet is inserted as the last sheet of the file. • If the current file exists and the file contains the specified sheet, the exported sheet overwrites the existing sheet.Same as Importing, There are two functions for Exporting, Exporting the whole excel fileand Exporting the sheets in the file.Function for Exporting the whole Excel file:Exports the file into the script with all the sheets which are there in the excel file.Syntax:www.ramupalanki.com
  49. 49. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comExport “filenamewithpath”Function for Exporting the sheets from the excel file:Exports the specified sheet into the script.Syntax:Exportsheet “filenamewithpath”,”sourcesheetname”, ”destinationsheetname”www.ramupalanki.com
  50. 50. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 8. Actions8.1 Actions SettingsYou can use the Run tab of the Action Call Properties dialog box to instruct QuickTest torun only one iteration on the called action, to run iterations on all rows in the Data Table,or to run iterations only for certain rows in the Data Table.www.ramupalanki.com
  51. 51. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com8.2 Iterations using rows The Run tab includes the following options: Option Description Runs the called action only once, using the row in the actions data sheet that corresponds to the current global iteration number. If the actions data sheet contains fewer rows than the global sheet, the last row of the actions data sheet is used for each subsequent test iteration. For example, suppose an actions data sheet has two rows and the global sheet has four rows. If you choose to run one iteration only for the action and you choose to run iterations on all rows of the Run one global data sheet, then during each iteration of the test, this action iteration will run only one iteration. The data that the action parameters use only during each repetition of the test are based on the iteration number for the test. During the first iteration of the test, Data Table parameters in the action take data from the first row of the actions data sheet. In the second iteration of the test, Data Table parameters in the action take data from the second row of the actions data sheet. In the third and subsequent iterations of the test, the Data Table parameters in the action continue to take data from the second i.e. the last row of the actions data sheet. Run on all Runs the called action with the number of iterations according to rows the number of rows in the actions Data Table. Run from Runs the called action with the number of iterations according to row __ to the specified row range. row __The Run tab of the Action Call Properties dialog box applies to individual action callsand refers to the rows in the actions data sheet.www.ramupalanki.com
  52. 52. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com8.3 Action TemplateCreating an Action TemplateIf you want to include one or more statements in every new action in your test, you cancreate an action template. For example, if you always enter your name as the author of anaction, you can add this comment line to your action template. An action template appliesonly to actions created on your computer.To create an action template:1. Create a text file containing the comments, function calls, and other statementsthat you want to include in your action template. The text file must be in thestructure and format used in the Expert View.2. Save the text file as ActionTemplate.mst in your <QuickTest InstallationFolder>dat folder. All new actions you create contain the script lines from theaction template.Only the file name ActionTemplate.mst is recognized as an action template.To view the Action template refer to ActionTemplate.mst8.4 Script Startup • Check for the required add-ins for an application. • Include action template for every test containing script id, Action name, Action Description, Recovery scenario used etc. • Every action, scenario must be specified with an appropriate name. • Check for mandatory input fields for all iterations in the datasheets that are being imported.Example:The Resources tab of the Test Settings dialog box can be used to associate specific fileswith the test, such as Data Table files.The option area Other location instructs Quick Test to use data stored in the specifiedData Table location. The Data Table can be any Microsoft Excel (.xls) file.www.ramupalanki.com
  53. 53. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com For a sample external file refer to Sample External File • Check for the “Data table iterations” under the test settings for which the test has to be run. For further details refer to QTP test settings doc.8.5 Splitting Actions, Re-usable Actions, Internal/External ActionsActions help divide your test into logical units, specific activities that you performin your application.www.ramupalanki.com
  54. 54. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comA test is made up of calls to actions. When you create a new test, it contains a call to asingle action or create tests that call multiple actions by inserting calls to them, to makethe design more modular and efficient tests.There are three kinds of actions: • reusable action—an action that can be called multiple times by the test with which is stored in the local test as well as by other tests. • external action—a reusable action stored with another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test. They can be modified only in the test with which they are stored. • Non-resuable-actions —an action that can be called only in the test with which it is stored, and can be called only once.For further details on creation & splitting of actions refer to Actions.www.ramupalanki.com
  55. 55. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 9. Object Repository9.1 Per Action/Shared Object Repository:Setting the Shared /per action Object Repository optionTo set only one test to use the Shared Object Repository option:1. Click the "New" button or go to File -> New to open a new test.2. Go to Test -> Settings.3. Select the Resources tab.4. In the Object repository type box, select one of the options:www.ramupalanki.com
  56. 56. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • Select "Per-action" to set the Object Repository mode for your test to the Object Repository per action mode. Below are some of the factors based on which Per Action option is selected • Whenever there are no common objects across transactions • Ease of building object repository. • Loading of per Action object repository takes less time as the size is less • Select "Shared" to set the Object Repository mode for your test to the Shared Object Repository mode. Below are some of the factors based on which Shared Action option is selected • Whenever there are common objects across transactions • Maintenance of object repository is very easy • Whenever size of object repository is 1MB5. If you selected Shared in step 4, specify the Shared Object Repository file you want touse as the tests Object Repository file. To specify a file, enter the Object Repository filename or click the "Browse" button and select a resource file (*.tsr) from the Open dialogbox. To create a new Shared Object Repository file, enter a new file name in the Sharedbox.Note: These steps need to be done in a new script. Once you have modified the script,you will not be able to change the option.To set all new scripts to use a Shared Object Repository:For Quick Test Professional 6.5 and above1. Click the New button or go to File -> New to open a new test.2. Go to Test -> Settings.3. Select the Resources tab.4. Select the Shared option for the "Object-repository type".5. Specify the Shared Object Repository file you want to use as the tests ObjectRepository file. To specify a file, enter the Object Repository file name or click theellipse button <...> and select a resource file (*.tsr) from the Open dialog box. To create anew Shared Object Repository file, enter a new file name and path in the Shared box.6. Click the "Set as Default" button.7. Click <Apply> and <OK>.www.ramupalanki.com
  57. 57. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com9.2 Merging of two object repositories:General:The Object Repository File Merge Utility allows users to merge object repository filesinto a single file. This utility is intended for an advanced user that builds powerful tests.The Merge Utility allows you to merge the content of one Object Repository to anotherone thus giving you the flexibility and the power in controlling the content of the ObjectRepository and the ability to dynamically change this content.Conflicts:The implementation of the merge algorithm is quite simple when the object repositoryfiles have different objects in them, or if all objects had only exact replicas in other files.Due to the nature of the operation it is often not the case. For example, if we try to mergetwo object repositories from tests that were recorded at different time points, betweenwhich some test objects properties have changed (e.g. whether a button is enabled) thenthe same object exists in the two repositories with different properties. We call this adescription conflict as the two objects have the same name, but different descriptiveproperties. It can also be that the user has decided to modify the automatically assignedlogical name of an object (for example, in order to create a shorter name) in onerepository but not in the other. In this case, two objects will exist with different logicalnames, but with the same descriptive properties. We call this a name conflict.Resolving Conflicts:It is not trivial to identify and handle conflicting objects. The user might want to mergetwo objects that were not initially the same, or decide to keep two objects that for theinexperienced eye would seem identical. For example, recording on web browsers wouldlikely generate identical logical names for browsers that have nothing in common. It isalso likely that if the text on a button has changed, new tests would record a new logicalname for it, even though the object behavior has not changed. It is therefore possible toeither keep the two objects (and their subtrees) separated, to assume that the two objectsare actually the same object, or to ignore one of the conflicting object. We will discussthese choices later in detail.Note: The Merge Utility works only on machines where QTP8.0 is installed.www.ramupalanki.com
  58. 58. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comMerge Object Repositories UtilityMain Window:This utility is designed to supply simple access to the functionality implemented by theObjectRepositoryMgr COM component. As the operation is not trivial, the UI has manyoptions to select, so we will discuss the different options in detail.For different options of Merging refer to Merging of Object Repositories.9.3 Limitations:1. Mercury Interactive recommends that you keep the Object Repository under 1 MB andperform regular backups. If the size crosses more than 1MB loading of object repositorytakes lot of time .2. The limitation on the number of Actions is 255. The reason is that each Action has adata table sheet. The Formula 1 control has a limitation of 255 sheets so the limitation iswww.ramupalanki.com
  59. 59. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com255 Actions per test. You may be able to add additional Actions after reaching the 255"limit", however those Actions will not be able to access a local data sheet.Note: If you are calling reusable Actions, you may be able to have more than 255Actions within the script. This can be accomplished if you are calling the same Actionmore than one time within the script. The data sheet for the Action will only be loadedonce. This applies to "call to" Actions only.Example:In a new script, insert a "call to" a reusable Action. When the Action is added to thescript, you will see the data sheet added to the data table. Insert another "call to" to thesame Action. The data sheet will not be added again.www.ramupalanki.com
  60. 60. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 10. VariablesIn QTP scripting there are mainly 3 types of variable that we use. They are: • Action Parameters. • Environment Variables. • VB Variables, which we declare in the script.10.1 Action ParametersAction parameters enable you to transfer values between actions and their nestedactions in your test, from your test to a top-level action, or from a step in a top-level action back to the script or action that ran (called) your test. For example,you can output a value from a step in a nested action and store it in an outputaction parameter, and then use that value as input in a later step in the callingparent action.You define the parameters that an action can receive and the output values that it canreturn in the Parameters tab of the Action Properties dialog box. You specify the actualvalues that are provided to these parameters and the locations in which the output valuesare stored in the Parameter Values tab in the Action Call Properties dialog box.You can specify input parameters for an action so it can receive input values fromelsewhere in the test. Input values for an action can be retrieved from the test (for a top-level action) or from the parameters of the action that calls it (for a nested action). Youcan also specify output parameters for an action, so that it can output values for use laterin the test, or pass values back to the application that ran (called) the test.Setting Action ParametersYou can specify input parameters for an action so that steps in the action can use valuessupplied from elsewhere in the test. Input values for an action parameter can be retrievedfrom the test (for a top-level action) or from the parameters of the action that calls it (fora nested action). You can specify output parameters for an action, so that it can returnvalues for use later in the test. For each input or output action parameter, you define aname and a type. You can also specify a default value for each action input parameter, oryou can use the default value that QuickTest provides for the parameter value type thatyou choose. The default value is saved with the action and is used by the action if a valueis not defined for a parameter in the action call. You can define, modify, and delete inputand output parameters in the Parameters tab of the Action Properties dialog box.www.ramupalanki.com
  61. 61. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comTo add a new input or output action parameter: 1. Click the Add button next to the Input parameters or Output parameters lists to add a new parameter to the appropriate list. A row for the new parameter is added to the relevant list. 2. Click in the Name box and enter a name for the parameter. 3. Select the value type for the parameter in the Type box. You can select one of the following types: o String—A character string enclosed within a pair of quotation marks, for example, "New York". If you enter a value and do not include the quotation marks, QuickTest adds them automatically when the value is inserted in the script during the test run. The default value is an empty string. o Boolean—A true or false value. If you select a Boolean value type, you can click in the Default Value column and click the arrow to select a True or False value. The default value is True. o Date—A date string, for example, 3/2/2005. If you select a Date value type, you can click in the Default Value column and click the arrow to open a calendar from which you can select a date. The default value is todays date.www.ramupalanki.com
  62. 62. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com o Number—Any positive or negative number. The default value is 0. o Password—An encrypted password value. If you select a Password value type, the password characters are masked when you enter the password in the Default Value field. The default value is an empty string. o Any—A variant value type, which accepts any of the above value types. Note that if you select the Any value type, you must specify the value in the format that is required in the location where you intend to use the value. For example, if you intend to use the value later as a string, you must enclose it in quotation marks. When you specify a value of Any type, QuickTest checks whether it is a number. If the value is not a number, QuickTest automatically encloses it in quotation marks. If you are editing an existing value, QuickTest automatically encloses it in quotation marks if the previous value had quotation marks. The default value is an empty string. 4. If you are defining an input action parameter, click in the Default Value box and enter a default value for the parameter or you can leave the default value provided by QuickTest for the parameter value type. The default value is required so that you can run the action without receiving parameter values from elsewhere in the test. 5. If you wish, click in the Description box, then enter a description of the parameter, for example, the purpose of the parameter in the action.To modify an existing action parameter: 1. Select the parameter you want to modify from the Input parameters or Output parameters list. 2. Modify the values as necessary in the edit boxes of the parameter row.To delete an existing action parameter: 1. Select the parameter you want to delete from the Input parameters or Output parameters list. 2. Click the Delete button . The parameter is removed from the list.10.2 Test ParametersIn the Parameters tab of Test Settings, you can define input parameters that pass valuesinto your test or component and output parameters that pass values from your test orwww.ramupalanki.com
  63. 63. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comcomponent to external sources. You can also use the Parameters tab to modify or deleteexisting test or component parametersThe Parameters tab contains two parameter lists: • Input parameters—Specifies the parameters that receive values from sources that are external to the test or component. • Output parameters—Specifies the parameters that pass values to sources that are external to the test or component.You can edit an existing parameter by selecting it in the appropriate list andmodifying its details.You can add and delete input and output parameters for your test or componentusing the parameter control buttons:www.ramupalanki.com
  64. 64. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Option Description Adds a parameter to the appropriate parameter list. Enter a name for the new parameter and select the parameter type. You can enter a description for the parameter, for example, the purpose of the parameter in the component. If you are defining an input parameter, enter a default value for the parameter in the Default Value column. You define test or component parameters in the same way you define action parameters. Removes the selected parameter from the test or component.Defining Values for Input ParametersWhen the test or component runs, QuickTest uses the default value for eachdefined input parameter if a specific value has not been defined for the parameterin either QuickTest or Quality Center.When you run a test or business component from QuickTest, input parametervalues for tests and components are taken from in the Input Parameters tab of theRun dialog box.Using Test or Component ParametersOnce you have defined test or component parameters, you insert them in your testor component by specifying the test or component parameter name with theParameter reserved object, in the format: Parameter("ParameterName").10.3 Environment VariablesQuickTest can insert a value from the Environment variable list, which is a list ofvariables and corresponding values that can be accessed from your test. Throughout thetest run, the value of an environment variable remains the same, regardless of the numberof iterations, unless you change the value of the variable programmatically in your script.There are three types of environment variables: • User-Defined Internal—variables that you define within the test. These variables are saved with the test and are accessible only within the test in which they were defined.www.ramupalanki.com
  65. 65. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com You can create or modify internal, user-defined environment variables for your test in the Environment tab of the Test Settings dialog box or in the Parameter Options dialog box. Tip: You can also create environment output values, which retrieve values during the test run and output them to internal environment variable parameters for use in your test. • User-Defined External—variables that you predefine in the active external environment variables file. You can create as many files as you want and select an appropriate file for each test, or change files for each test run. Note that external environment variable values are designated as read-only within the test. • Built-in—variables that represent information about the test and the computer on which the test is run, such as Test path and Operating system. These variables are accessible from all tests, and are designated as read- only. Note: QuickTest also has a set of predefined environment variables that you can use to set the values of the Record and Run Settings dialog options. You should not use the names of these variables for any other purpose.10.4 Variable passing from one Action to anotherQuickTest enables you to retrieve values in your test or component and to store them asoutput values. You can subsequently retrieve these values and use them as input at adifferent stage in the run session. You can pass variables from one action to another bysetting Action Call Parameter Values. You use the Parameter Values tab of the ActionCall Properties dialog box to specify the values of input action parameters used by thecalled action and to specify the locations in which you want to store output actionparameter values. You can also parameterize the value used for a particular input actionparameter using any available parameter type.The actual input and output action parameters that an action can receive or return, andtheir types, are defined in the Action Properties dialog box. If you do not set a value foran input action parameter in the Action Call Properties dialog box, the default value thatis specified in the Action Properties dialog box is used.www.ramupalanki.com
  66. 66. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comYou can specify a location in which to store the output action parameter values, whichcan be used in the called action.To specify a location in which to store an output action parameter value: 1. In the Output parameters area, click in the Store In box for the parameter and enter a variable name.www.ramupalanki.com
  67. 67. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com If we choose variable to store the value, then the value is stored in a run- time variable for the duration of the run session. You can accept the default name assigned to the variable or enter a different variable name. Alternatively, you can click the output storage button in the Store In box to open the Storage Location Options dialog box in which you can specify a location for storing the output value. You can select to store the value in a test or action parameter, a Data Table parameter, or an environment parameter. 2. Repeat this procedure for each output action parameter value in the list.10.5 Scope of VariablesMainly there are two types of variables: action parameters and environment variables.An actions parameters are stored with the action and are the same for all calls to thataction. If you change the action parameters defined for an action, and then view theaction properties for a call to that same action in a different part of the test, you can seethe action parameters have changed. However, the actual values specified for input actionparameters and the locations specified for action output parameters can be different foreach call to the action. When you insert a call to a copy of an action, the copy of theaction is inserted with the action parameters and action call parameter values that werewww.ramupalanki.com
  68. 68. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comdefined for the action you copied. When you split an action, the action parameters arecopied to both actions. The action call values for the second action are taken from thedefault values of that actions parameters.Environment variables can be accessed from your test. Throughout the test run,the value of an environment variable remains the same, regardless of the numberof iterations, unless you change the value of the variable programmatically inyour script.There are three types of environment variables:  User-Defined Internal—variables that you define within the test. These variables are saved with the test and are accessible only within the test in which they were defined. You can create or modify internal, user-defined environment variables for your test in the Environment tab of the Test Settings dialog box or in the Parameter Options dialog box.  User-Defined External—variables that you predefine in the active external environment variables file. You can create as many files as you want and select an appropriate file for each test, or change files for each test run. Note that external environment variable values are designated as read-only within the test.  Built-in—variables that represent information about the test and the computer on which the test is run, such as Test path and Operating system. These variables are accessible from all tests, and are designated as read- only.www.ramupalanki.com
  69. 69. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com 11. Check PointsA checkpoint is a verification point that compares a current value for a specified propertywith the expected value for that property.11.1 Types of CheckpointsIn QTP the following types of checkpoints can be inserted to check various objects in aWeb site or application. • Standard Checkpoint checks the property value of an object in your application or Web page. The standard checkpoint checks a variety of objects such as buttons, radio buttons, combo boxes, lists, etc. For example, you can check that a radio button is activated after it is selected or you can check the value of an edit field. Note: Standard checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments • Image Checkpoint checks the value of an image in the application or Web page. For example, we can check that a selected images source file is correct. Note: Image checkpoint can be created by inserting a standard checkpoint on an image object. Image checkpoints are supported only for the Web environment • Bitmap Checkpoint checks an area of a Web page or an application as a bitmap. For example, consider a Web site that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. We can record the new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, we can check that the map zooms in correctly. Note: Bitmap checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments • Table Checkpoint checks information within a table. For example, suppose an application or Web site contains a table listing all available flights from New York to San Francisco. You can add a table checkpoint to check that the time of the first flight in the table is correct.www.ramupalanki.com
  70. 70. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com Note: You create a table checkpoint by inserting a standard checkpoint on a table object. Table checkpoints are supported for Web and ActiveX environments & for many other external add-in environments. • Text Checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate place in the application or a Web page. For example, consider an application or Web page that displays the sentence Flight departing from New York to San Francisco. We can create a text checkpoint that checks that the words "New York" are displayed between "Flight departing from" and "to San Francisco". Text checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments • Text Area Checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed within a defined area in a Windows application, according to specified criteria. For example, suppose your Visual Basic application has a button that says View Doc <Num>, where <Num> is replaced by the four digit code entered in a form elsewhere in the application. You can create a text area checkpoint to confirm that the number displayed on the button is the same as the number entered in the form. Text area checkpoints are supported for Standard Windows, Visual Basic, and ActiveX add-in environments Text area checkpoints are also supported for some external add-in environments. • Accessibility Checkpoint identifies areas of your Web site that may not conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines. For example, guideline 1.1 of the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines requires you to provide a text equivalent for every non-text element. You can add an Alt property check to check whether objects that require the Alt property under this guideline, do in fact have this tag. Accessibility checkpoints are supported for the Web environment • Page Checkpoint checks the characteristics of a Web page. For example, you can check how long a Web page takes to load or whether a Web page contains broken links. Note: You create a page checkpoint by inserting a standard checkpoint on a page object. Page checkpoints are supported for the Web environmentwww.ramupalanki.com
  71. 71. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • Database Checkpoint checks the contents of a database accessed by your Web site. For example, you can use a database checkpoint to check the contents of a database containing flight information for your Web site. Database checkpoints are supported by all environments. • XML Checkpoint checks the data content of XML documents in XML files or XML documents in Web pages and frames. XML checkpoints (Web page/frame) are supported for the Web environment; XML checkpoints (file) are supported by all environments For more specific information refer to CheckpointsAdding checkpoints in a test in QTPThere are several ways to add checkpoints. • To add checkpoints while recording • To add a checkpoint while editing the testFor more information refer to Checkpoints11.2 Output Values for VerificationThe following are the categories of output values that can be created: • Standard Output Values • Text Output Values • Text Area Output Values • Database Output Values • XML Output ValuesFor more information refer to CheckpointsAdding output values in a test in QTPwww.ramupalanki.com
  72. 72. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • To add checkpoints while recording • To add a checkpoint while editing the testFor more information refer to CheckpointsOutput Values Properties Dialog BoxThe Output Value Properties dialog box enables you to choose which property values tooutput and to define the settings for each value that you select.Note: If you insert an output value on a Web page, the Page Output ValueProperties dialog box opens. This dialog except that it contains two additionaloption areas, HTML verification and All objects in page. These options arerelevant only for checkpoints and are disabled when defining output values. The output values can be output to either of these locations: • GlobalLocal Sheet • Environment variableswww.ramupalanki.com
  73. 73. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.com • ActionTest Parameter.This option is given in the output options dialog box 12. Reusable LibraryDescriptionwww.ramupalanki.com
  74. 74. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comWhen forming a new product the traditional engineer can take advantage of ready-madesubassemblies. To the test engineer, reusable software components offer the samepossibilities; the same components can be incorporated into many whole new systems,thus saving the considerable time and effort it can take to generate new software.Starting with an introduction to software reuse and a discussion of its feasibility, theauthors go on to consider how the components that may be found could be used. Thereusable library was designed with reuse very much in mind, making it essentially asmall, but invaluable, library.12.1 IntroductionIn QTP we can create VBScript library files containing VBScript functions, subroutines,classes, modules, etc., and then associate the files with our test. We can call any VBScriptfunction, subroutine, etc., contained within any library file that is associated with our test.Any text file written in standard VBScript syntax can act as a library file. a) Functions i. Built-In ii. User defined We can specify the default library files for all new tests in the Test Settings dialog box (Test > Settings > Resources tab). We can also edit the list of associated library files for an existing test in the Test Settings dialog box. Note that once a test is created, the list of files specified in the Test Settings dialog box is independent of the files set as default in the Test Settings dialog box. Changes to the default library files list in the Test.12.2 How to establish a Reusable Librarya. Defining Resource Settings for Your Testwww.ramupalanki.com
  75. 75. For more QTP scripts, Log onto www.ramupalanki.comWe can use the Resources tab of the Test Settings dialog box to associate specific fileswith your test, such as VBScript library files and Data Table files, and to specify theobject repository mode and file to use for our test. We can also set the currentlyassociated library files and object repository settings as the default settings for all newtests.b. Executing Externally-Defined Functions from Your TestWe can create a VBScript file and call its functions, subroutines, classes, etc., from anaction in your test or from an associated library file by inserting an ExecuteFilestatement in our action or library file.When we run our test, the ExecuteFile statement executes all global code in the specifiedfile in order to make all definitions in the file available from the global scope of theactions (or library files) script.To execute an externally-defined function:www.ramupalanki.com

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