HUMAN RIGHTSPERSPECTIVE AND PUBLICAWARENESS: - THE MEDIUMOF HINDI FILMSKaushik Mishra (Research Scholar)Centre for Electronic Media, School of Media andCommunicationPondicherry University, Puducherry- 605014
Introduction Making of rules is not the guaranty that people will get the benefit of it or people will follow it. It is necessary that people have information of that law and its benefit .So awareness among people is important thing for the implementation of any law or rules. There is no doubt on that the manifesto of human right issued in 10 December 1948 but it become famous from last twenty years because of communication mediums. Communication mediums are becoming so powerful in our society. We can’t deny the contribution of communication mediums for the awareness of human rights among the people. Films are also the powerful medium of communication .Hindi films are playing an important role for promoting awareness among people about human right.
Objective of the study- To study how effectively the medium of film is portraying the issue of human rights and how it is disseminating the information and also spreading awareness among public..
Research Questions- To find out how different genres of film deals with same content and how their awareness or effectiveness is different from one another. To find out which genre of film effectively disseminated information or awareness to the audience in human rights perspective. And how the film medium deals with every evil practices of society and portrays it
Methodology:- The content analysis in qualitative methodology has been used for this study. It deals with how film acts as an effective medium for providing useful information and education to its audience in the human rights perspective. This study was based on, Hindi films which were shown before 1990. Both primary and secondary data has been utilized for this study.
Why the medium of films:- Movies are considered to be one of the most popular medium of Mass Communication in India (Raina131- 141Gargan11-12) Indian motion picture industry is among the world’s largest, with a combined output of between seven hundred and eight hundred films a year. But movies are the medium of communication which is equally effective on every part of society. It is reachable to every part of our country. People from Village, Small town, Medium city, Metro Politian cities or any sector of country are touchable by movies. The language of movies are also very easy because it has visual with voice anybody literate or illiterate can understand equally. Movies have big number of audience so it can easily spread awareness among people about human right.
Historical Background ofFilms in India :- On July 7, 1896, India’s first cinematographic film was shown in Mumbai and first Indian-produced feature film, Rajah Harishchandra [King Harishchandra], was released in 1913. In the beginning mostly films were based on religious stories .Falke made more than hundred small and big films. In that time the only aim of making film was entertainment. So they were not rising the social issue in films. "Siraj-1926" and “Typist Girl" is famous silent movies in this era. "Alam Aara" is first commercial Hindi movie with dialogue in the history of Indian cinema it was released in 1931.This is the period when people of our country was fighting for freedom with British government .So it was also the popular subject for films in that time .
Before Independence Babyhood ofBollywood and Human right issues(1925to1946) 1925 -" Sahukari Pash" by-Babu Lal Penter on Farmers Exploitation by Money Lenders, Illiteracy . 1936 -" Achoot Kanya" by –Himansu Rai on Untouchability. 1937- " Duniya Na Mane" by –V. Shantaram on Incompatible Married . 1939- " Jai Bharat" by – J.P. Vadia on Communal peace. 1946- " Necha Nagar" by – Chetan Anand on Struggle bet ween exploited and exploiter .
Independent Country independentviews: New Era of Hindi films andHuman Right:- (1947 to1962) 1947 -" Do Bigha Jameen" by –Bimol Roy on the farmers who is forced to migrate from his village. 1946- " Saheb Biwi Aur Gulaam" by – Guru Dutta on bad condition of housewifes in our society. 1957- " Mother India" by – Mahboob Khan on Womens conditions . 1957- " Do Ankhen Barah Hath " by –V. Shantaram on rehabitation of prisoners . 1959 -" Sujata" by-Bimol Roy on untouchibility
Hindi "New Cinema" after seventyand Issues of Human Right:-(1963to1980) 1974 -" Ankur" by –Shyam Benegal on the cast system of our society. 1975 -" Nishant" by-Shyam Benegal on exploitation by landlord . 1976- " Manthan " by-Shyam Benegal on cooperative movement and curruption in our society. 1977- " Bhomika" by – by-Shyam Benegal on freedom of a women .
After Eighty Changes in Hindi filmsand Human Right Issues:-(1980-1990)1980 -" Aakrosh" by – Govind Nihalani on howpowerfull people are using comman people for full filltheir luxaries .1986-" Mirch Masala" by-Ketan Mehta on womenempowerment .1989- " Saleem Langade Par Mat Ro" by – SaiedMirza on Communal Thinking .1989- " Paar " by-Saied Mirja on CommunalThinking and the condition of minority people in oursociety .
Conclusion. The concept of human right is day by day becoming famous in the world and western film makers are adopting it in the subject of their films. Even Indian films are talking Untouchability , Exploitation, Womens condition , communal peace , right of minorities, right of prisoner these types of issues which is directly or indirectly related to human right but Indian film makers are very slow in the comparison of them. The people have information that they have right of living, freedom of selecting work, right of similarity, but they don’t know actually these are the part of human right so filmmakers should be more clear on these issues in their films. But we can not deny the role of films for the awareness about human right issue among people.