Indian financial system

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  • 1. Existence of a well organized financial system Promotes the well being and standard of living of the people of a country Money and monetary assets Mobilize the saving Promotes investment
  • 2. Financial System of any country consists of financial markets, financial intermediation and financial instruments or financial products Flow of funds (savings) Seekers of funds (Mainly business firms Flow of financial services and government) Incomes , and financial claims Suppliers of funds (Mainly households)
  • 3. Organized Regulators Financial Institutions Financial Markets Financial services Non- Organized Money lenders Local bankers Traders Landlords Pawn brokers Chit Funds
  • 4. Barter Money Lender Nidhi's/Chit Funds Indigenous Banking Cooperative Movement Societies Banks Joint-Stock Banks
  • 5. Consolidation Commercial Banks Nationalization Investment Banks Development Financial Institutions Investment/Insurance Companies Stock Exchanges Market Operations Specialized Financial Institutions Merchant Banking Universal Banking
  • 6. Interrelation--Financial system & Economy Financial System Households Foreign Sectors Savers Lenders Investors Borrowers Corporate Sector Govt.Sector Economy Un-organized Sector
  • 7. Organized Indian Financial System Regulators Financial Instruments Forex Market Financial Markets Capital Market Money Market Primary Market Secondary Market Money Market Instrument Capital Market Instrument Financial Intermediaries Credit Market
  • 8. Mechanism which allows people to trade Affected by forces of supply and demand Process used In Finance, Financial markets facilitates
  • 9. Capital markets facilitate the transfer of capital (i.e. financial) assets from one owner to another. They provide liquidity.  Liquidity refers to how easily an asset can be transferred without loss of value. A side benefit of capital markets is that the transaction price provides a measure of the value of the asset.
  • 10. Mobilization of Savings & acceleration of Capital Formation Promotion of Industrial Growth Raising of long term Capital Ready & Continuous Markets Proper Channelisation of Funds Provision of a variety of Services
  • 11. Stock Market was for a privileged few Archaic systems - Out cry method Lack of Transparency - High tones costs No use of Technology Outdated banking system Volumes - less than Rs. 300 cr per day No settlement guarantee mechanism - High risks
  • 12. 1994-Equity Trading commences on NSE 1995-All Trading goes Electronic 1996- Depository comes in to existence 1999- FIIs Participation- Globalisation 2000- over 80% trades in Demat form 2001- Major Stocks move to Rolling Sett 2003- T+2 settlements in all stocks 2003 - Demutualisation of Exchanges
  • 13. Each scam has brought in reforms - 1992 / 2001 Screen based Trading through NSE Capital adequacy norms stipulated Dematerialization of Shares - risks of fraudulent paper eliminated Entry of Foreign Investors Investor awareness programs Rolling settlements Inter-action between banking and exchanges
  • 14. Corporatisation of exchange memberships Banning of Badla / ALBM Introduction of Derivative products - Index / Stock Futures & Options Reforms/Changes in the margining system STP - electronic contracts Margin Lending Securities Lending
  • 15. • 22 Stock Exchanges, • Over 10000 Electronic Terminals at over 400 locations all over India. • 9108 Stock Brokers and 14582 Sub brokers • 9644 Listed Companies • 2 Depositories and 483 Depository Participants • 128 Merchant Bankers, 59 Underwriters • 34 Debenture Trustees, 96 Portfolio Managers • 83 Registrars & Transfer Agents, 59 Bankers to Issue • 4 Credit Rating Agencies
  • 16. Indian Capital Market Market Primary Instruments •Brokers •Investment Bankers •Stock Exchanges •Underwriters Secondary Equity CRA Intermediaries Regulator Hybrid Corporate Intermediaries Individual SEBI Debt Banks/FI Players FDI /FII
  • 17. Mangalore Stock Exchange Hyderabad Stock Exchange Uttar Pradesh Stock Exchange Coimbatore Stock Exchange Cochin Stock Exchange Bangalore Stock Exchange Saurashtra Kutch Stock Exchange Pune Stock Exchange National Stock Exchange OTC Exchange of India Calcutta Stock Exchange Inter-connected Stock Exchange (NEW) Madras Stock Exchange Bombay Stock Exchange Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange Vadodara Stock Exchange The Ahmedabad Stock Exchange Magadh Stock Exchange Gauhati Stock Exchange Bhubaneswar Stock Exchange Jaipur Stock Exchange Delhi Stock Exchange Assoc Ludhiana Stock Exchange
  • 18. Raising capital for businesses Mobilizing savings for investment Facilitate company growth Redistribution of wealth
  • 19. Corporate governance Creates investment opportunities for small investors Government raises capital for development projects Barometer of the economy
  • 20. Growth Pattern of the Indian Stock Market Sl.N o. As on 31st December 1 No. of Stock Exchanges 2 1946 1961 1971 1975 1980 1985 1991 1995 7 7 8 8 9 14 20 22 No. of Listed Cos. 1125 1203 1599 1552 2265 4344 6229 8593 3 No. of Stock Issues of Listed Cos. 1506 2111 2838 3230 3697 6174 8967 11784 4 Capital of Listed Cos. (Cr. Rs.) 270 753 1812 2614 3973 9723 32041 59583 5 Market value of Capital of Listed Cos. (Cr. Rs.) 971 1292 2675 3273 6750 25302 11027 9 47812 1 6 Capital per Listed Cos. (4/2) (Lakh Rs.) 24 63 113 168 175 224 514 693 86 107 167 211 298 582 1770 5564 7 Market Value of Capital per Listed Cos. (Lakh Rs.) (5/2) Appreciated value of Capital per 358 170 148 126 170 260 344 803 8
  • 21. Hybrid Equity Equity Shares Preference Shares ADR / GDR Debentures Zero coupon bonds Debt Deep Discount Bonds
  • 22. Establishment of Development banks & Industrial financial institution. Legislative measures Growing public confidence Increasing awareness of investment opportunities
  • 23. Growth of underwriting business Setting up of SEBI Mutual Funds Credit Rating Agencies
  • 24. Lack of transparency Physical settlement Variety of manipulative practices Institutional deficiencies Insider trading
  • 25. Market for short-term money and financial assets that are near substitutes for money. Short-Term means generally period upto one year and near substitutes to money is used to denote any financial asset which can be quickly converted into money with minimum transaction cost
  • 26. It is a place for Large Institutions and government to manage their short-term cash needs It is a subsection of the Fixed Income Market It specializes in very short-term debt securities They are also called as Cash Investments
  • 27. Lack of Integration Lack of Rational Interest Rates structure Absence of an organized bill market Shortage of funds in the Money Market Seasonal Stringency of funds and fluctuations in Interest rates Inadequate banking facilities
  • 28. Treasury Bills Commercial Paper Certificate of Deposit Money Market Mutual Funds Repo Market
  • 29. Segment Issuer Instruments Govern ment Central Government Zero Coupon Bonds, Coupon Bearing Bonds, Capital Index Bonds, Treasury Bills. Public Sector Government Agencies / Statutory Bodies Govt. Guaranteed Bonds, Debentures Public Sector Units PSU Bonds, Debenture, Commercial Paper Corporate Debentures, Bonds, Commercial Paper, Floating Rate Bonds, Zero Coupon Bonds, InterCorporate Deposits Banks Certificate of Deposits, Bonds Financial Institutions Certificate of Deposits, Bonds Private
  • 30. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Reserve Bank of India Ministry of Finance
  • 31. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was first established in the year 1988 Its a non-statutory body for regulating the securities market It became an autonomous body in 1992
  • 32. Regulates Capital Market. Checks Trading of securities. Checks the malpractices in securities market.
  • 33. It enhances investor's knowledge on market by providing education. It regulates the stockbrokers and sub-brokers. To promote Research and Investigation
  • 34. It tries to develop the securities market. Promotes Investors Interest. Makes rules and regulations for the securities market.
  • 35. Sole Control on Brokers For Underwriters For Share Prices For Mutual Funds
  • 36. Established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the RBI Act, 1934. The Central Office of the Reserve Bank has been in Mumbai. It acts as the apex monetary authority of the country.
  • 37. Monetary Authority: Formulation and Implementation of monetary policies. Maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to the Productive sectors. Issuer of currency: Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins. Provide the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins.
  • 38. Functions Of RBI Regulator and supervisor of the financial system: Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations Maintain public confidence, protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services. Authority On Foreign Exchange: Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999. Facilitate external trade, payment, promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market.
  • 39. Functions Of RBI Developmental role: Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives. Related Functions: Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments. Maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks.
  • 40. (a) Bank Rate: The Bank Rate was kept unchanged at 6.0 per cent. (b) Reverse Repo Rate: The Repo rate is around 7 per cent and Reverse repo rate is around 6.10 per cent. (c) Cash Reserve Ratio: The cash reserve ratio (CRR) of scheduled banks is currently at 5.0 per cent.
  • 41. Pre-reforms period Steps taken Objectives Conclusion
  • 42. The period from the mid 1960s to the early 1990s. Characterized by:      Administered interest rates Industrial licensing and controls Dominant public sector Limited competition High capital-output ratio
  • 43. Banks and financial institutions acted as a deposit agencies. Price discovery process was prevented. Government failed to generate resources for investment and public services. Till 90s it was closed, highly regulated, and segmented system.
  • 44. Economic reforms initiated in June 1991. The committee appointed under the chairmanship of M Narasimham. He submitted report with all the recommendations Government liberalized the various sectors in the economy. Reform of the public sector and tax system.
  • 45. Reorientation of the economy Macro economic stability To Increase competitive efficiency in the operations To remove structural rigidities and inefficiencies To attain a balance between the goals of financial stability & integrated & efficient markets
  • 46. Reduce the level of state ownership in banking Lift restrictions on foreign ownership of banks Spur the development of the corporate-bond market Strengthen legal protections
  • 47. Deregulate the insurance industry Drop proposed limits on pension reforms Increase consumer ownership of mutual-fund products Introduce a gold deposit scheme
  • 48. Speed up the development of electronic payments. Separate the RBI's regulatory and centralbank functions Lift the remaining capital account controls Phase out statutory priority lending and restrictions on asset allocation
  • 49. The financial system is fairly integrated, stable, efficient. Weaknesses need to be addressed. The reforms have been more capital centric in nature. Foreign capital flows and foreign exchange reserves have increased but absorption of foreign capital is low.
  • 50. Thank you