Hispanic In-store Mobile Experience


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Hispanic In-store Mobile Experience

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTIONSmartphone usage in the U.S. is rapidly approaching the 100-million-user milestone, and U.S.Hispanics are leading the charge. According to one estimate, Hispanics are almost 17% more likelyto access the mobile web than are general market mobile consumers (eMarketer November 16,2011), and have been significantly quicker to adopt smartphones (Nielsen February 1, 2011).Accordingly, the retailer response must evolve rapidly. On-the-fly comparison-shopping, scanning,and research are creating new ways for marketers to engage in-aisle customers. What are the bestways for retail marketers to engage Hispanics?The White Horse Digital Futures Group previously presented a strategic framework entitled, “TheFuture of In-Aisle Mobile.” For this subsequent report, White Horse teamed with Sensis, a leadingdigital-centric advertising agency with extensive experience in the U.S. Hispanic market, to studythe in-store mobile experiences of U.S. Hispanics.This report is the result of a program of intensive research undertaken by the White Horse/Sensisteam in late 2011. The research was both qualitative and quantitative. The first phase consistedof onsite observational fieldwork in Los Angeles, where we observed 15 Hispanic smartphoneowners using their mobile devices to help them shop in retail stores. In the second phase, weconducted a nationwide quantitative survey of 500 Hispanic smartphone owners who use theirmobile devices to help them shop in brick-and-mortar venues.The result is a new body of understanding that builds on our previous framework and extendsits implications for Hispanic in-store mobile shoppers. It reveals much about their motivations andexposes important new patterns that marketers should take into account if they are to developrelevant mobile tools and services for Hispanics.Note that we will use the phrase “Hispanic mobile shoppers” throughout this report for brevity.However, this phrase will always refer to a special subset of those shoppers who own smartphonesand use their smartphones to help them shop in brick-and-mortar retail stores.“Chapter 1: Social Shopping” is the first of three planned reports that present our findings andrecommendations. It addresses one of the more pronounced dimensions of Hispanic experiencerelative to the general market: the importance of social shopping, i.e. having shopping companions. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn-store mobile experiences tend to be designed for individuals; they are “single-centric.” Mobileretail experiences today tend to require customers to ignore others whom they purposefullybring along to share the experience. This poses a challenge for Hispanics who prefer to shopwith others rather than to shop by themselves — particularly when purchasing expensive items— but opportunities exist for retailers to better engage this growing segment.Hispanics place less importance on the use of mobile product reviews than general marketshoppers. Only half as many Hispanic smartphone shoppers say they have searched for productreviews or recommendations while in-store.Since much shopping is done in the company of others, especially among Hispanic in-storemobile shoppers, retailers should do a better job of including companions in their design of newmobile experiences.Retailers should consider building more “social” mobile experiences that can accommodatemore than one user at once. This may include multi-device, multi-user experiences with humanfactors improvements that allow rapid scanning and fluid physical interactions with companionsand products. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  3. 3. SOCIAL SHOPPING SOCIAL SHOPPINGFor Hispanic smartphone owners, a shopping trip often involves several people. This is also true forthe general market, but its importance for Hispanics is paramount.We first noticed the pattern of bringing shopping companions when Hispanic research participantskept arriving at our field research sessions with people they had brought along—the kids, a cousin,a spouse, a friend—without so much as a word of warning. They seemed to regard companionshipfor shopping as simple common sense. As Miguel, 20-something college student, put it: “It’s always more fun [shopping] with someone else. I hate doing it alone. I might shop with my girlfriend, brothers, cousins. I’d only be alone if it were very last minute or I was on my way from some place.”Miguel’s cousin Elsa, whom he’d brought with him to our session, added, laughing, “Even when heis alone he’ll take a picture of something and send it to me!” Miguel and Elsa’s opinions were hardlyunique and they provoke important questions for the design of mobile experiences. • To what extent are mobile apps and websites today designed for use by multiple people operating the same phone? • What about people operating their own phones, but using the same mobile apps or websites simultaneously? • How much do retailers’ mobile apps and sites leverage the in-store social dimension of shopping experience?The answer to each of these questions is “Not much.”Consider another example. While shopping with us at Macy’s, Adaa 26-year-old homemaker, hadjust scanned a QR code on an Andrew Charles poster, resulting in the download of a music videoof celebrities wearing the clothing she was perusing. “If I’m shopping alone, [getting a video] is great because I’m looking at the video, and I’m entertaining myself while I’m shopping, you know? But if I’m with someone, I don’t want to be looking at the video. I want to have a conversation with them.” © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  4. 4. Social ShoppingPreference for shopping with others (n=500)Why should Ada spend time in the aisle yes, and particularly when they are purchasingwatching promotional videos when she’s expensive items like electronics or homebrought along her fiancé specifically to help appliances. As the charts below indicate, 68%her find the right clothes? “If I was alone, maybe of Hispanic smartphone shoppers prefer toI’d watch them because I was bored,” she said. shop with at least one companion when buying“Maybe.” expensive items. About half also prefer to shop with others even when buying everyday itemsWhat Ada was looking for from the mobile such as groceries or soap.experience, she said, was information about theproducts, as well as access to deals in a way that Such patterns matter for mobile marketingcould make the experience, if not more fun and at retail. In the situations where Hispanicexciting for both Ada and her fiancé, sharable smartphone shoppers most utilized theirenough to enjoy together. smartphones at retail—scanning and comparing prices, checking items off shopping lists, trackingWe will be offering specific ideas on ways to items against a budget, using SMS discountsolve these kinds of challenges later in this codes—only a single user at a time was ablereport. For now, we will illustrate ways in which to interact with applications on their mobilethe social dimension of shopping is so critical device. Moreover, according to our observations,to Hispanic smartphone shoppers in retail the user did so at the expense of ignoring theenvironments. others whom she had brought along to share the experience.Hispanic mobile shoppers prefercompany Current mobile experiences are “single-centric”Do Hispanics prefer to shop with others overshopping alone? According to our survey results, We refer to the tendency to design mobile © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  5. 5. Social Shopping physical interactions with her daughters (like handholding and arm-guiding) and limited her interactions with physical products, too. Human factors problems were just the tip of the iceberg. The in-store experience as a whole was single-centric. One of Celia’s daughters might check something off the list for her, but there was no way for Celia to see who had checked off which item, to ensure accuracy. Celia and two daughters shopping at a Vallarta The other daughter might remind Celia of the grocery store. Head down, Celia narrows her gaze to focus on the details of her electronic shopping list. running total of products purchased, but the math was done in their collective mind, adding yet another layer of distraction to their socialexperiences for individuals as “single-centrism.” shopping experience.Many of the symptoms of single-centrism showup in the form of human factors problems. A more ideal mobile experience for CeliaFor instance, Celia, a mother of five, was and her daughters would be one that allowedshopping at a Vallarta supermarket (a Southern mom to keep her eyes on her daughters, thatCalifornia Hispanic-tailored retailer) with two afforded one-handed use, and that helped herof her daughters. The family worked with the to keep track of the total being spent withoutefficiency of a trained corporate task force, but having to think about it.the available mobile experience seemed only toslow them down. A better mobile app, for instance, would display just one or two items on screen, would quicklyCelia used her smartphone to check items off identify different users and track their inputa shopping list while directing her daughters to by passive data entry (e.g., the smartphone’shelp her find and load products into the cart. camera), and would keep a running total of theMeanwhile, she continually kept track of her items that end up in her shopping cart. Even iftotal to match a strict budget. The tasks required not combined into a single mobile experience,her to quickly shift her gaze from the screen to any one of these capabilities would keep thethe shelf, from the shelf to the cart, and from family more engaged with one another, andthe cart to her daughters without pausing. thus more able to enjoy their experience in the retailer’s aisles.Celia’s shopping list app (cleverly named“Shopping List”) contained too many line The retailer’s sponsorship of such anitems for her to scan quickly. Reviewing experience would position it to leverage allher list required her to continually refocus of the advantages that come from superiorand concentrate. Both the app and store customer engagement, and guide customerswebsites she consulted were impossible to to appropriate offers at the moment ofaccess with one hand. This constrained her consideration. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  6. 6. Social ShoppingHispanic mobile shoppers bring others for advice—and for companyAs suggested by the differences between Celia, utilized by different parties in the household.the busy grocery shopper, and Ada, the clothesshopper browsing with her fiancé, the reasons But when buying more every-day-use itemsfor shopping with others vary depending on such as groceries and healthcare goods, theirthe objective of the trip. Accordingly, the mobile motives are more diverse and involve sharedexperience that facilitates the experience should experiences. When taken together, “spendingbe different, too. time together” and “fun” were the primary reasons for social shopping among 40% ofAbove are survey data that reveal the Hispanic mobile shoppers when buying every-motivations for social shopping in two very day-use items.different general scenarios: shopping forexpensive items and shopping for every-day use To understand this pattern from the customer’sitems. perspective, consider the situation of Celia and her daughters at the grocery store. TheirWhen buying more expensive items, like reasons for shopping together at Vallartaelectronics and home appliances, advice is Supermarket were varied, but spending timecrucial. Hispanic mobile shoppers look for with each other was especially important. Asperspective from people they can trust, Celia put it, “We’re all so busy all week. At leastespecially spouses, friends, and siblings (see chart when we’re shopping I have some time to bondbelow, “With whom do you prefer to shop?”). with my daughters.” She described groceryThis is of particular importance when consensus shopping as a “learning opportunity” for theis necessary, for example, when the item to be girls, as well as a learning experience for herpurchased (i.e. a home theatre system) will be relative to mobile shopping tools. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  7. 7. Social ShoppingAt the same time, Celia’s bringing her daughters bantering, showing each other whateverfilled many functional needs, too: advising, attracted their attention. Neither of them foundapproving items for shared use, finding items, it natural to work their smartphones muchmatching to sales, loading groceries, and so while shopping. “That would really slow meforth. As shown in the table below, children are down,” Elsa said. Judging from their hands-on,more often brought along when purchasing interactive and store-as-playground shoppingeveryday-use items. Their advice is not critical, style, she was right. To accommodate them, Bigwhat’s sought is their companionship and 5’s in-store mobile experience would have to bephysical help. quick and minimal.Consider a second example, this time involving The mobile experience that worked best forHispanic mobile shoppers who place “fun” Elsa and Miguel was the flash SMS deal. Theabove other reasons for social shopping. week prior to our meeting, Elsa bought a dress at bebe after responding to a text messageThis was the case for Miguel and his cousin announcing a sale and awarding her a specialElsa, who took us shopping for recreational mobile discount.equipment at Big 5 Sporting Goods. Miguel andElsa had a very playful shopping style, and a By contrast, Ivan, a 28-year-old media producersense of shared experience was essential. They who took us shopping at Best Buy, exemplifiedplayed around in the aisles, hefting products, the social pattern for purchasing more © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  8. 8. Social Shopping Miguel and his cousin Elsa at Big 5 Sporting Goods. They like to “mess around” in the aisles, and they have a fast, playful style of browsing and decision-making.expensive items. His priorities were different low on power, he made phone calls directlyfrom both Celia’s, and Miguel and Elsa’s. As he from the aisle of Best Buy to check competitors’explained: stock and pricing. “I usually shop by myself. But In the end, Ivan decided that local competitors’ whenever I’m buying electronics, prices were comparable. And he was already in I do bring along one guy I know the aisle at Best Buy. So he purchased a Sony who’s an expert. He knows all the PlayStation® 3 console at Best Buy for $250. deals and makes sure I don’t get In the circumstances we observed, the mobile ripped off.” tools Ivan used worked reasonably well for him. “I didn’t get ripped off or anything,” he said,Advice is critical for Ivan when buying expensiveitems like electronics. So when his expert friendcould not accompany us on the day Ivan tookus to purchase a new media server at Best Buy,Ivan used his smartphone as a surrogate advisor.Ivan started researching products at a price ofaround $150 (looking at a Netgear NeoTV™,for example). He then downloaded the Best Buyapp and used it to study and compare productfeatures and note differing reviews.On that basis, he quickly migrated upward infeatures and price, largely relying on anonymousproduct reviews and feature information. Ivan “I got a text message like this from bebe, except italso used a Google mobile search app to search gave me actual points I could use for a discount,” Elsa said. “So I was like, oh cool, and I went in the next dayavailability at other retailers. Eventually, running and bought a dress using the points.” © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  9. 9. Social Shopping Ivan making phone calls to Fry’s from the aisle of Best Buy, where he eventually bought his Sony PS3.“because I searched pretty much everywhere which demanded an experience that couldaround here within 25 miles!” be shared, multi-user, visually accessible, and minimal.The Best Buy product reviews helped fill gaps inthe information shared by store staff and madea difference in pushing Ivan up to a more full- Hispanic mobile shoppers are lessfeatured product. The app also gave him a ready interested in product reviewsreference to the store’s sales, which kept BestBuy’s offers at top of mind. Hispanic mobile shoppers track relatively closely to the general market of mobile shoppers onIvan’s situation was unusual relative to most most criteria, but on one obvious and criticallyother Hispanic shoppers we observed. His important dimension of in-store mobile usageheavy use of customer reviews and product they do not – the use of customer-generatedinformation and his shopping alone for an product reviews through mobile devices.expensive item suggested a pattern that wasmore typical of general market consumers. Most As shown in the chart below, Hispanics’ useof our interviews did not involve a lone shopper of customer-generated product reviewsseeking advice on an expensive purchase. falls well below that of the general market.Instead, they involved social shopping, like we Only 38% of Hispanic mobile customers sayhave seen with Celia, Ada, and Miguel and Elsa, they have searched for product reviews or © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  10. 10. Social Shoppingrecommendations on their smartphones, as open skepticism. For instance, Jose, a 50-year-oldcompared to 68% of general market mobile real estate agent who emigrated from Mexicocustomers. in 1987, expressed the following opinion of the reviews available on the K-Mart app we hadThis data matched our observations in the field. shown him while shopping at the store in WestIn general, Hispanic mobile shoppers made less Hollywood (he was reluctant to download it):use of customer reviews and conducted lessmobile product research than we found among “It’s nice to have those. But it is notgeneral market consumers. This was partly a very important. I might rather readreflection of the strong emphasis Hispanics about the news in my neighborhoodplace on social shopping in that social shopping than about something that wouldmitigated the need for external advice, but it save me one dollar on a blender.”mostly derived from a difference in attitudesand values. Jose was “traditional,” both by his own reckoning and by ours. He often emphasized theThough based purely on anecdotal evidence, importance of the personal and the local. Hethere is some reason to believe that this made product choices by word of mouth andtendency was especially pronounced among by memory of brand names. Despite having theless acculturated Hispanics, some of whom latest HTC smartphone, Jose used few of itsregarded anonymous customer reviews with features and had downloaded only a handful of apps. The primary shopping-related use of his © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  11. 11. Social Shoppingsmartphone was to help him navigate to the Black Friday means business: “It’sstore. just about the deals.”By contrast, more acculturated participants, such Social shopping is something we heard muchas Ivan, who relied on customer reviews to help about from our research participants in relationhim purchase a new media server, tended to to Black Friday.value them more highly. Moises, another moreacculturated participant in the shop-alongs, said Some spoke with great energy and enthusiasmhe bought an Xbox 360 and all its accessories about Black Friday as if the event itself was aafter going online and comparing product family tradition they looked forward to. Theyreviews. And Gilda, a 44-year-old Ecuadorian had used specialized Black Friday apps in thead executive, also relatively acculturated, past, which told them about where the bestrevealed that her favorite mobile shopping tool deals were going on at any given time. Theirwas the app offered by Consumer Reports, mobile devices had an important role thatwhich famously consists of mainly impersonal, went beyond using these apps, supportingprofessional product reviews. real-time communication and collaboration among the extended group of friends and familyThe upshot for design is that new tools and coordinating their activities across the stores.services that meet discrete goals like comparingprices, identifying sales, and redeeming offers But hearing such talk about “family traditions”will have more value to “traditional” Hispanic made us wonder whether there was ashoppers than will customer reviews and significant component of Black Friday thatproduct information; however, the causes of this involved fellow feeling and family solidarity. If so,difference require further study. that could have a significant bearing on the kinds © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  12. 12. Social Shoppingof mobile experiences offered to users during Accordingly, mobile experiences that leveragethat event. social shopping during Black Friday should, if they do nothing else, support functional groupWhat we learned from the quantitative survey shopping goals such as:is that Black Friday really is all about the deals.Solidarity is secondary to the practical needs • Helping members in the tribe find oneof a successful hunt. The role of social shopping another in the retail space.in this context is simply to optimize a group’sresources in order to enable its members to • Helping them collaborate in completingacquire as much discounted merchandise as their checklists.possible. As shown in the chart below, about38% of all respondents said Black Friday was • Helping them track to a family budget.“about the deals and nothing else,” while an • Providing them instant news about anyadditional 27% felt it was “not worth the effort.” previously unreported deals in categoriesSo altogether, 2/3 of respondents had a starkly of interest to the group.utilitarian outlook on the events of Black Friday. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  13. 13. RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES RECOMMENDED GUIDELINESFace-to-face sociality is an aspect of in-store shopping that mobile experiences have largely ignored.But since much shopping is done in the company of others, especially among Hispanic in-storemobile shoppers, it is a facet that retailers should design for as early as possible in their mobiledevelopment roadmap. It will greatly benefit Hispanic shoppers whom they wish to engage, and willalso benefit the general market of social shoppers.Following is a set of guidelines for developing experiences on mobile devices that can be moresubstantially social. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but it is, we hope, a helpful place to begin.INTERPERSONALMulti-userThe experience should enable handoffs as in multi-participant games, and should applyadministrative controls as in operating systems and financial software.Examples: • A scanned QR code shoots a pre-loaded product image immediately to a companion at another section of a department store. The co-shopper selects thumbs-up or thumbs-down to indicate interest and a wish to come see the item. • Co-shoppers have the ability to “favorite” specific items on their collective shopping list. This can be used for repeat-purchase items like milk, butter, or soap, but is also handy as a reminder to purchase a tasty frozen pizza the group may have tried before. If the group decides to swap the grocery shopping duties among different users, this feature will ensure that they purchase the right items or their favorite brands, even when one or more of the co-shoppers are not present. • Co-shoppers check off products from a list or make entries onto a shared shopping list/ calculator. Only someone signed in as “executive” can approve the submission. • A co-shopper uses an augmented reality dressing-room app to overlay clothing on the “live” shopper to save time trying on clothing. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  14. 14. Recommended GuidelinesPassive user-identification One-handed useA passive user-ID experience allows different Key benefits of the experience can be enjoyedpeople to use a single or multiple devices or easily with one-handed use. A user shouldto enter data into a single platform without be able to operate the interface with his/hercreating confusion. Multiple users need to know thumb, while using their other hand to examinewho has entered what information—ideally a product or to hold their child’s hand.without having to think about it. STRUCTURALExample: Free, fast WiFi • A multi-user shopping list that identifies input by particular users when the phone is For any fully supported in-store mobile handed off (e.g., by facial recognition, etc.). experience, as we’ve argued, providing free wireless access is essential. Shoppers need toPHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE stay “in the flow” when they are shopping, so free wireless access in the store is the costScan-ability of entry for retailers. Access speed must be guaranteed.The experience is simple enough, in both logicand visibility, to allow users to easily shift theirattention from the screen to companions andacross layers in the physical environment.As a user-centered design partnership committed to delivering the optimal experience across digital channels, White Horseand Sensis are in the business of helping brands innovate in their use of emerging technologies like mobile retail. For questionsabout this study, or to explore how the White Horse/Sensis team can make mobile retail work in the aisle for a particularbrand and its customers, contact us at sales@whitehorse.com or 1-877-471-4200. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  15. 15. REFERENCES REFERENCESe-Marketer, “Minorities More Active on Mobile Web,” November 16, 2011<http://www.emarketer.com/Mobile/Article.aspx?R=1008694>.Nielsen, “Among Mobile Phone Users, Hispanics, Asians are Most-Likely Smartphone Owners in theU.S.,” February 1, 2011<http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/?p=25901>.Reese, William, and Anderson, Eric, “The Future of In-Aisle Mobile: A Framework for Consumer-Centered Innovation,” White Horse, July 2011.U.S. Census, “Table 690. Money Income of Households—Percent Distribution by Income Level,Race, and Hispanic Origin, in Constant (2009) Dollars: 1990 to 2009”< http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0690.pdf>.U.S. Census, “Population by Sex, Age, Hispanic Origin, and Race: 2010”<http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hispanic/cps2010.html>.U.S. Census, “Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over by Sex, Hispanic Origin,and Race: 2010”< http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hispanic/cps2010.html>. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  16. 16. APPENDIX I :: METHODS APPENDIX I METHODSApproachNumerous quantitative studies of in-store mobile retail behavior exist, but have generally relied onself-reported behavior without observing how consumers actually use their phones to shop in real-world contexts. Beginning with our earlier study (Reese and Anderson, July 2011), we felt that morequalitative research was needed as a foundation.Accordingly, our studies since then have combined quantitative online survey methods withqualitative observational research. This is the same approach we took with the current studyabout the Hispanic in-store mobile experience. The qualitative component consisted of on-site“ethnographic” or “contextual” research, which we conducted video-recorded shop-alongs with 15subjects at various retail venues in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in November 2011.We followed this qualitative research with a survey of 500 Hispanic smartphone owners in the U.S.who use their phones to help them shop in retail stores. We conducted the quantitative survey inJanuary 2012 using an online panel service that specializes in Hispanic audiences.Our areas of study in the quantitative survey included: • Types and frequency of mobile in-aisle activity • Goals when shopping with a smartphone in stores • Experience with price-checking tools and services • Experience with retail mobile apps and web sites • Preferences about shopping companionsObservational Research Recruitment: Facebook and Hispanic Media OutreachWe conducted the in-aisle research with 15 primary participants (9 men, 6 women), and five oftheir companions. The primary participants varied in age from early 20’s to early 50’s and haddiverse educational and socio-economic backgrounds. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  17. 17. Appendix I : MethodsWe recruited through ads in Facebook and local Retail venuesHispanic media, offering a financial incentive ofa $75 gift card to be applied, as appropriate, To help cement their interest in the process, weto the purchase of in-store merchandise of the asked participants to choose the retail venues atparticipant’s choosing. Two of the 15 qualitative which they would shop as well as the items toresearch partcipants (Gilda, and Moises) were consider purchasing. Stores we visited includedrecruited through friends of Sensis. the following:Criteria for participation included: Apple (1) Best Buy (1) • Age 18 or over Big 5 (1) • Smartphone ownership Food 4 Less (1) • Hispanic/Latino identity K-Mart (2) • Use of a smartphone to accomplish tasks Macy’s (1) relative to shopping Ralphs (2) • Residence in the Los Angeles metro area Target (2) • Permission to make the resulting video ToysRUS (1) record public Vaillarta (1) Walmart (2) © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  18. 18. Appendix I : MethodsProtocol Quantitative Survey: Sample CharacteristicsOur protocol followed the general outline Following are the key characteristics of thebelow. The overall instruction for the 500 respondents participating in the onlinesession was, “Decide what to buy, using your quantitative survey.smartphone as appropriate and necessary.” Recognizing that income was likely to be theActivities included: greatest potential source of bias in the study, we made every effort to include Hispanics 1. Background contextual interview (at a of middle and upper income levels in the coffee shop, near the retail venue) quantitative survey. As shown below, the final income distribution of our sample aligns 2. In-store shop-along, with narration by the reasonably well with US Census data for participant (in-store) Hispanics (2009). 3. Retrospective of the just-completed shopping experience: good and bad, ideal vs. actual (out- side, in front of the store)To observe as much naturally occurringbehavior as possible in the shopping exercise,we provided light non-directive prompts andprobes, as in the following phrases: “Just do whatever you would normally do.” “Take whatever time you need.” At the very uppermost range of income “How come you’ve stopped to look at this?” (as is typical of online surveys) the number of respondents in our survey is somewhat “So what’s going through your mind right lower than expected for the U.S. population now?” as a whole. Of those taking our survey, 8.2% respondents (or 41 of 500) reported an annual “Is this working for you or not?” household income of over $100k, which is slightly lower than the percentage for the U.S. “What are you seeing?” population as a whole according to Census data (11.7%, or 59 individuals expected for a sample of 500). But apart from that difference the numbers at other income brackets are comparable to those of population as a whole. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200
  19. 19. Appendix I : Methods Nearly ¾ of our sample was bilingual or Spanish-speaking. All identified themselves culturally as Hispanic or Latino.Above is the age distribution of our sample ofHispanic smartphone users. As consistent withother studies of smartphone users, our sampleis relatively young. At just 9%, the numberof people aged 50 or over in our sample isroughly half that expected for the U.S. Hispanicpopulation as a whole (or 17.6%, accordingto the U.S. Census 2010). Smartphone usershave historically tended to be younger, althoughthat trend is slowing as overall smartphonepenetration increases.Our sample of Hispanic smartphone users isbetter educated than the percentage of theU.S. Hispanic population as a whole: 21% moreHispanic smartphone users spent some time incollege or earned a 2 year or technical degree. © 2012 White Horse Productions, Inc. Content may not be reused without permission. | 877.471.4200