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The United Kingdom - A Timeline
 

The United Kingdom - A Timeline

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The United Kingdom - A Timeline The United Kingdom - A Timeline Presentation Transcript

  • By Sophia Trigg and Shea Sweeney The United Kingdom
  • The Stuart Dynasty
    • The Stuart Dynasty lasted from 1603 – 1714
    • in England and Scotland.
    • During this time, there was a short republic for the first time in history.
    • The Stuart Dynasty ended with the death of Queen Anne.
    • It led to the Act of Settlement
    • in 1701 which said that only
    • protestants could hold the
    • throne.
  • Theocracy
    • The Irish were mostly Monks and Saints during the time of The Stuart Dynasty.
  • Parliamentary Democracy
    • The overthrow of James II during the Glorious Revolution in 1688, began the modern English Parliamentary Democracy.
    • The Monarch would never again hold absolute power.
    • The Bill of Rights became the most important document in the political history of Britain.
  • The Hanoverian Dynasty
    • The Hanoverian Dynasty occurred from 1714 – 1837 and only had five monarchs
    • Britain's first Prime Minister, Robert Walpole came into office and income tax was introduced.
    • Britain gained most of their overseas territory during this time period.
    • By the end of the Hanoverian Dynasty, the British empire covered a third of the globe.
  • The Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Dynasty
    • The Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Dynasty was “at the beginning of the modern age in the early years of the twentieth century” ( www.royal.gov.uk ).
    • The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha came about when Queen Victoria married Prince Albert, son of Ernst, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
    • King George V replaced the name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha with Windsor.
  •  
  • Constitutional Monarchy
    • Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom.
    • When government is headed by a king or queen it is a monarchy.
    • The British monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. This means that the queen is Head of State, but the decisions lie with the elected Parliament.
    • The monarch does not have political role but is still important to citizens and the nation.
  • The House of Windsor
    • The House of Windsor began in 1907 and is still the name of the royal family today.
    • Kings and Queens have fulfilled many duties within the constitutional monarchy. One of them is raising the public morale during wars.
    • The monarchs also play a vital part in “promoting international relations” (www.royal.gov.uk).
  • Development of the British Flag aka. The Union Jack
  • Timeline Norman Conquest – Queen Victoria: by Sophia Trigg Industrial Revolution – Tony Blair: by Shea Sweeney
  • Norman Conquest
    • The Norman conquest of England was an invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066.
    • William, a Norman, conquered England in October 1066 during the battle of Hastings (see next slide).
    • The Norman Conquest had many effects: linking England more closely with Continental Europe and creating one of the most powerful Monarchies in Europe.
    Norman Conquest - 1066
  • Battle of Hastings
    • The Battle of Hastings was close but in the end, Harold of England was killed and the Saxon army fled.
    • William took the throne. In 1072, he moved north to stop the frequent rebellions of the Anglo-Saxons.
    • The conquest of Wales took a long time. It finished in 1282 during the reign of King Edward I. Edward also tried to take over Scotland but did not really conquer it. Scotland kept a separate monarchy until 1603, and did not unite with England until 1707.
    Battle of Hastings – October 14, 1066.
  • Magna Carta
    • Magna Carta is Latin for Great Charter. It is an English Charter made in 1215.
    • Its original purpose was to spell out the rights of the king. Magna Carta was written to settle a dispute between Pope Innocence III, King John and his English barons about the rights of the king.
    • It has influenced many more recent documents like the Bill of Rights and the United States Constitution.
    Magna Carta - 1215
  • Wars of the Roses
    • The Wars of the Roses were a series of wars for the possession of the throne between the House of Lancaster and The House of York. They lasted from 1455-1485.
      • Both houses are branches of the Plantagenet royal house. They can both trace their lineage back to King Edward the Third.
    • The last big battle was fought at Towton, where the Yorkists beat the Lancastrians. The Duke of York got crowned Edward IV in 1461.
    Wars of the Roses – 1455 - 1485 Yorkshire Rose Lancaster Rose
  • Henry VIII
    • He became King at eighteen years old.
    • He was famous for having six wives:
      • He married his dead brother’s wife, Catherine of Aragon.
      • The most famous wife, Anne Boleyn, had six fingers on one hand and some other deformities.
      • Jane Seymour, died.
      • Anne of Cleves was remarkably ugly, but the marriage was a good political idea.
      • Catherine Howard turned out to be smarter than Henry so he had her head chopped off.
      • The last was Katherine Parr. She outlived him.
    • In total: three Catherines, two Annes and a Jane.
    Henry VIII: Reign - April 22, 1509 – 28 January 1547
  • Henry VIII cont.
    • Born - 28 June 1491, Palace of Placentia Reign - April 22, 1509 – 28 January 1547
    • Father - Henry VII
    • Mother - Elizabeth of York
    • Royal House – Tudor
    • Predecessor - Henry VII
    • Coronation - 24 June 1509
    • Successor - Edward VI
    • Died - 28 January 1547, aged 55, Palace of Whitehall
    • Buried - St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle
    Henry Tudor VIII – born 28 June 1491 – died 28 January 1547 aged 55
  • Elizabeth I
    • HM Queen Elizabeth I was 25 when crowned and was considered by the Catholics to be illegitimate.
    • She wore ‘over the top’ clothing to disguise her not so pretty features.
    • She also wore lead based face powder that ate away her skin.
    Queen Elizabeth I: Reign - 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603
  • Elizabeth I cont.
    • Born - 7 September 1533, Palace of Placentia
    • Father - Henry VIII
    • Mother - Anne Boleyn, 2 nd wife of Henry VIII
    • Royal house - House of Tudor
    • Predecessor - Mary I
    • Coronation - 15 January 1559
    • Reign - 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603
    • Successor - James I
    • Died - 24 March 1603, Richmond Palace
    • Burial - Westminster Abbey
    Elizabeth Tudor I – born 7 September 1533 – died 24 March 1603 aged 70 Princess Elizabeth
  • Oliver Cromwell
    • Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader who was best known for making England a republic.
    • He took control of England, Scotland and Ireland as Lord Protector, from December 16, 1653 until his death.
    • He debated whether to take the crown himself but decided against it. But he had more power than Charles I
    • Some historians think of him as a dictator and others think of him as a hero of liberty. But in a BBC Poll of 100 Greatest Britons, he was voted number 10.
    • When the Royalists returned to power, they dug up Oliver’s corpse, hung it in chains and beheaded.
    Oliver Cromwell: In Office - 16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
  • Oliver Cromwell cont.
    • Born - 25 April 1599 Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire
    • Spouse - Elizabeth Bourchier
    • Preceded by - Charles I (as King)
    • In office - 16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
    • Succeeded by - Richard Cromwell
    • Died - September 3, 1658 Whitehall, London
    • Religion - Independent
    Oliver Cromwell – born 25 April 1599 - died September 3, 1658 aged 59
  • Glorious Revolution
    • The Glorious Revolution is also called the Revolution of 1688
    • It was the overthrow of James II in 1688 by parliamentarians and William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
    • The Glorious Revolution was the last successful invasion of England.
    Glorious Revolution - 1688
  • British East India Company
    • The British East India Company is also known as “John Company”. It was created in 1717.
    • It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600.
    • The company eventually changed from a trading company to one that ruled India.
    • It gained military and
    • government functions
    The East India Company Flag The British East India Company – 1717 - 1858
  • Seven Years War
    • Prussia
    • Great Britain
    • Hanover
    • Portugal
    • Brunswick
    • Hesse-Kassel
    • Austria
    • France
    • Russia
    • Sweden
    • Spain
    • Saxony
    • Naples and Sicily
    • Sardinia
    Vs. Result: Treaty of Paris Seven Years War - 1754 or 1756–1763
  • American Revolution
    • Lasted from 1775 – 1783.
    • This war was the war in which America gained independence from the British Empire.
    American Revolution – 1775 - 1783
  • Napoleonic Wars
    • The Napoleonic Wars were series of global conflicts that happened during Napoleon Bonaparte’s rule of France.
    • These wars revolutionized European Weapons.
    • The Napoleonic Wars ended on November 20 1815 after
    • Napoleons defeat at
    • Waterloo and the Second
    • Treaty of Paris.
    Napoleonic Wars – 1803 - 1815
  • Wellington
    • The Duke of Wellington is a title held by the most recent duke or duchess by the name of Wellesley.
    • The first Duke of Wellington was Arthur Wellesley who took the title in 1769.
    Wellington 1 st Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley: In Power – 1769 - 1852
  • Queen Victoria
    • Her reign lasted sixty-three years and seven months, longer than that of any other British monarch.
    • She was queen at the height of the Industrial Revolution.
    • The Victorian era was named after her reign.
    Queen Victoria: Reign - 20 June 1837–22 January 1901
  • Queen Victoria cont.
    • Born - 24 May 1819, Kensington Palace, London, England
    • Father - Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
    • Mother - Victoria, Duchess of Kent
    • Full name - Alexandrina Victoria
    • Titles - HM The Queen HRH Princess Victoria of Kent
    • Royal house - House of Hanover
    • Predecessor - William IV
    • Coronation - 28 June 1838
    • Reign - 20 June 1837–22 January 1901
    • Successor - Edward VII
    • Died - 22 January 1901, Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England
    • Burial - 2 February 1901 Frogmore, Windsor, England
    Princess Victoria age 4 Alexandrina Victoria – born 24 May 1819 – died 22 January 1901 aged 82
  • Industrial Revolution
    • “ The Industrial Revolution was the major shift in technological and cultural conditions in the 18 th century” (Wikipedia.com).
    • It began in Britain and spread
    • from there to the rest of the
    • world.
    • Canals, and improved roads
    • and railways were introduced,
    • along with steam power.
    Industrial Revolution – 18 th Century
  • Crimean War
    • Location: Crimean Peninsula, Balkans, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and the Pacific Ocean.
    • Result: Allied victory
    • The Crimean War was fought between imperial Russia and an alliance between France, the United Kingdom, and the Ottoman Empire.
    • The war “introduced technical
    • changes which affected the
    • future course of warfare”
    • (Wikipedia.com).
    Crimean War - 1854 - 1856
  • Gladstone
    • William Ewart Gladstone was the Prime Minister of England and was known for his populist (people’s party) speeches.
    • He was regarded as one of the greatest British Prime Ministers by Winston Churchill.
    • Gladstone was at odds with Queen Victoria and she once complained, “He always addresses me as if I were a public meeting.”
    • His supporters knew him as “Grande Old Man” or “The People’s William”.
    William Ewart Gladstone: In Office - 3 December 1868 – 17 February 1874
  • Gladstone
    • Born: 29 December 1809 Liverpool, England
    • Religion: Church of England (Low church)
    • Preceded by: Benjamin Disraeli
    • In office: 3 December 1868 – 17 February 1874
    • Political party: Conservative and Liberal
    • Succeeded by: Benjamin Disraeli
      • In office: 23 April 1880 – 9 June 1885
    • Died: 19 May 1898 Hawarden Castle, Flintshire, Wales
    William Ewart Gladstone – born 29 December 1809 - died 19 May 1898 aged 89
  • British Empire
    • The British Empire was the biggest empire in history for quite a while. It was the result of the European ‘Age of Discovery’.
    • In 1912 the it had power over a population of about 458 million people (one quarter of the world’s population), and covered about 14.2 million square miles.
    • At the peak of its power it was
    • said that the “sun never sets
    • on the British Empire” because
    • of the way the Empire was spread
    • throughout the world (which
    • ensured that the sun was always
    • shining somewhere in the
    • British Empire).
    British Empire – 15 th Century – approx. 1921
  • British Empire in 1914
  • World War I
    • Allied Powers : Central Powers : Russian Empire Austria-Hungary France German Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Italy Bulgaria
    • United States
    • World War I was known as the “war to end all wars” and much of the fighting was fought in trenches which spread from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland.
    • The war caused the breakup of many empires including the German and Ottoman empires.
    VS. World War I - 1914 and 1918
  • Winston Churchill
    • Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was the best known prime minister of the United Kingdom during World War II.
    • He was one of the most important leaders in modern Britain and world history.
    Sir Winston Churchill: In Office - 10 May 1940 – 27 July 1945
  • Winston Churchill
    • Preceded by: Neville Chamberlain
    • In office: 10 May 1940 – 27 July 1945
    • Succeeded by: Clement Attlee
    Sir Winston Churchill – born 30 November 1874 – died 24 January 1965 aged 91
  • World War II
    • The two major sides in World War II were the Axis and the Allies.
    • The Axis consisted of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
    • The Allies consisted of the US, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.
    World War II - 1939 until 1945
  • The Battle of Britain
    • The Battle of Britain (or Operation Sea Lion) took place when Luftwaffe (a German) tried to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF).
    • The objectives of this attack were: to neutralize the RAF so future attacks on the British Isles could be made, destroy airplane production, to attack places of political significance, and to terrorize the British people.
    • It was a victory for the British.
    The Battle of Britain - July 1940 – May 1941
  • Clement Atlee
    • Clement Atlee was the Prime Minister of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951.
    • Under Atlee, won the election for Prime Minister by a landslide over Winston Churchill who had just lead Britain though WWII.
    • Part of his term was during the decolonization of a big part of the British Empire, where India, Burma, Ceylon, and Pakistan gained independence.
    • His government made the major industries and public utilities as well as the creation of the National Health Service, nationwide.
    Clement Atlee: In Office - 27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
  • Clement Atlee
    • Born: 3 January 1883 Putney, London
    • Religion: Raised Anglican, but personally believed in Athiesm
    • Preceded by: Sir Winston Churchill
    • In Office: 27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
    • Political Party: Labour
    • Succeeded by: Sir Winston Churchill
    • Died: 8 October 1967 London
    Clement Atlee – born 3 January 1883 – died 8 October 1967 aged 84
  • Suez Crisis
    • The Suez Crisis was a war in 1956.
    • Egypt fought against Israel, the United Kingdom, and France, on Egyptian territory.
    • The United Kingdom had gained control over the Suez Canal in 1936 because of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty.
    • In 1951, Egypt declared the treaty ‘null
    • and void’ and the United Kingdom
    • eventually agreed and pulled out.
    • The UK disagreed when the Egyptian
    • leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, made
    • the Suez Canal Company national in
    • 1956.
    • Eventually the UK, France, and Israel
    • were forced to withdraw. The Crisis
    • resulted in the British Prime Minister,
    • Sir Anthony Eden, to resign.
    The Suez Crisis - October 1956 – March 1957
  • Margaret Thatcher
    • Margaret Thatcher is the only woman to ever hold the position of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
    • She was the longest serving Prime Minister since Lord Salisbury and the longest continuous time in office since Lord Liverpool.
    Margaret Thatcher: In Office - 4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
  • Margaret Thatcher
    • Preceded by: James Callaghan
    • In office: 4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
    • Succeeded by: John Major
    Margaret Thatcher – born 13 October 1925 – still alive age 81
  • Falklands War
    • The Falklands War was fought on April 2, 1982 to June 14, 1982 over the Falkland Islands, South George, and the South Sandwich Islands.
    • The United Kingdom fought against Argentina and ended
    • when Argentina surrendered to
    • the British (even though neither side actually declared war).
    • Today, Argentina is still not giving up its claim to the Falkland Islands.
    Falklands War - April 2, 1982 to June 14, 1982
  • Tony Blair
    • Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament.
    • With Blair’s leadership, the Labour Party won the general election in 1997, which ended 18 years of government by the Conservative Party.
    • On September 7, 2006, he said that he would step down, but has not yet given a date.
    Tony Blair: In office - May 2, 1997 – Present Day
  • Tony Blair
    • Preceded by: John Major
    • Current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
    • Assumed office  May 2, 1997
    Tony Blair - born May 6, 1953 – still alive age 53
  • Bibliography
    • Farman, John. The Very Bloody History of Britain (Without the Boring Bits!) the First Bit! Vol. 1. London: Red Fox, 2001. 11-155.
    • 1707. &quot;Norman Conquest of England.&quot; Wikipedia . 9 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_conquest>.
    • &quot;History of the United Kingdom.&quot; Wikipedia . 9 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_UK>.
    • Kings and Queens of the United Kingdom . 20 Mar. 2007 <www.royal.gov.uk>.
    • &quot;Clement Atlee.&quot; Wikipedia . 20 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clement_Attlee>.
    • &quot;Gladstone.&quot; Wikipedia . 19 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladstone>.
    • &quot;Crimean War.&quot; Wikipedia . 22 Mar. 2007 <http://www.regiments.org/wars/19thcent/53crimea.htm>.
    • &quot;Duke of Wellington.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_of_Wellington>.
    • &quot;Napoleonic Wars.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_wars>.
  • Bibliography cont.
    • 27 Mar. 2007 <http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/post/uk/ishiguro/rodsuez2.html>.
    • &quot;Margaret Thatcher.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Thatcher>.
    • 27 Mar. 2007 <http://freespace.virgin.net/gordon.smith4/NAVAL1982FALKLANDS.htm>.
    • &quot;Falklands War.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falklands_War>.
    • 27 Mar. 2007 <http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page4.asp>.
    • &quot;Tony Blair.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Blair>.
    • &quot;Suez Crisis.&quot; Wikipedia . 27 Mar. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis>.
  • The sun never set on the British Empire because the sun sets in the West and the British Empire was in the East. ~Anonymous Student