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Our Continent – Our Culture



Exhibition of the essays from OC-OC Spanish group.

Exhibition of the essays from OC-OC Spanish group.
Belfast, May 2011



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Our Continent – Our Culture Our Continent – Our Culture Presentation Transcript

  • Our Continent – Our Culture2009-2010
    Universidade Sénior
    Universidade da CoruñaSpain
    International Meeting “OC – OC”Belfast, May 12-16th 2010
  • Carlos Piñeiro
    Luz Mary Calderón
    Mª Luisa Morado
    Mª Carmen Varela
    Changes in Women’s role since 1945
    Universidad Senior
    Ferrol (A Coruña)
  • Introduction
    A long proccess of change
    First stage of franco 1945-1960
    Second stage of franco 1960-1975
    The transition
    The last 30 years
  • Introduction
    Never before throughout History has there been, nor will there possibly be, such an extraordinary time of change for women, as the twentieth century.
  • To the extent that it has been said that women´s revolution has been one of the most important phenomena of the twentieth century. What has happened in our country in recent decades that besides has coincided with the transition to Democracy, does nothing else to corroborate this process of change, heightened by the fact that the delay we suffered was greater than in other European countries
  • The two world wars in the early and mid-century, led to the massive entry of women to work, replacing men who were in the front.
    This was the beginning of a feminist revolution to achieve social and professional equality with men that continues nowadays.
  • Emilia Pardo Bazán
    Throughout this time, though rare, great female personalities arise. All in their respective fields defending their rights and raised their voices against the role society forced, upon them.
    Clara Campoamor
    Concepción Arenal
    Rosalía De Castro
  • In this long period that left behind nearly a million dead, Franco´s Government launched a plan in order to increase the country demographics. The family was the basis of the population. Political measures were taken to:
    Divorce law is abolished
    Marriage among young is encouraged
    Abortion and contraception are penalized
    Protection to large families is established
    Female adultery is penalized
  • What the Feminine Section intended, was to instill a model of woman that chose obedience and service for her necessary biological reproductive role. To create this stereotype they counted on strong support from the Catholic Church.
  • Carmen Laforet
    Carmen Martín Gaite
    Despite the terrible censorship that NationalCatholicism had imposed, the narrativeSpanish in the twentieth century, which is knownas generation of the fifties, will bemarked by important writers about the life after the war.
    Ana María Matute
    Josefina Aldecoa
  • In the sixties, Spain discovered tourism under the strict gaze of Franco´s moral. Spain entered the ONU and the recognition of women's privileges takes place from July 15, 1961 with the law on political, professional and labor.
  • The opening to Europe with migration and tourism came to join to the economic and religious changes. A wave of liberality undermined the uses of a fossilized moral.
  • The entrance of women into the workforce and their increasing access to higher education was one of the causes of the profund changes that hapened in customs, values an ideas.
  •  By increasing training it also increases women´s presence in the world of work. There is a change in mentality. Equality policies that have been developed over these years, have ended with the prohibitions of entering the profession you want, but they faces an obstacle race that must be overcome day by day.
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    Women’s massive entry into the job market in Spain and its influence in children’s education.
    Course 2010-2011
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    The Spanish schedule and the working time
    The women’s entry into the labour market in Spain
    The school system in Spain – PISA Report
    Collateral effects of women’s participation in the Spanish labour market
    Work-life balance. An overview of the EU countries and the Spanish Status
    Key findings and recommendations
    Finland: A model to follow
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    1.1 Starting Point
    PISA Report: Bad results for the Spanish school system.
    1.2 Key Factors:
    Spanish time-table
    Increasing participation of Spanish women in the labour force and its collateral effects.
    The life-work balance in Spain.
    1.3 Study Goals
    Evaluating these key factors and their influence on the children's education.
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    Key Findings and recommendations
    1.1The work and family life balance is a pending subject in Spain. The lack of solutions penalizes the lives of thousands of women in our country, forcing them to resign to maternity (or to have less children than wished), to have children at older ages and/or to resign to higher education.
    1.2The Spanish delay in women’s participation in the labour force has meant that the measures to arrange the conciliation between work and family have less time to develop than other countries
    1.3Nordic countries, particularly Finland and Sweden, have put in place aids to the families from companies, institutions and governments towards the work-life balance. Among other factors beyond the scope of this study, this situation certainly contributes to the success of Finnish and Swedish students, who invariably obtain good results in the PISA evaluations. This institutionalized support greatly differs from the situation in Spain.
    1.4However, we think there is a crucial factor that makes it difficult for Spain to adopt effective conciliation measures: the Spanish Schedule!.
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    Key Findings and recommendations
    2.1Hour Change
    Go to the European Western Hour
    2.2European Day Change
    8x8x8 Day
    2.3 Change of mentality in the family and society environment
    Campaigns focused on putting on value non-paid housekeeping work and gender equality in it.
    Improve the use of the parental rights, attention and care of dependent people.
    Improve the education in gender equality issues in the school system.
    Change men's mentality with the purpose of modifying the gender role.
    Mass media monitoring and control of sexist contents and male stereotypes
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    Key Findings and recommendations
    2.4 Government Policies
    Spanish Law of Conciliation must be improved. Right now, in case the law is not followed, there aren’t sanctioning procedures.
    More public services for the caring dependent people (i.e. geriatric centers, day care centers)
    More open time at day care centers.
    Programs to develop skills and jobs for the care of dependent people.
    Support for services implementation for the care of dependent people at the work centers or around.
    2.5 Company Policies
    Lights-off policy.
    Gender equality language use.
    Introduction of conciliation policies that surpass the stipulated ones in the Workers’ Statute and shift the scope towards a gender equality policy.
    Time management courses and stress prevention.
    Diversity and Equality Department.
    Gearing Committee of conciliation policies.
    Study impact of the implemented policies.
  • Workshop OC/OC Universidad Senior A Coruña
    Finland: A model to follow
    1.Finland is in the proper time zone and its schedule is adapted to the solar time
    2.Finland has a rational working time.
    3. In Finland people believe in the gender equality at the home
    4.The Finnish State implements policies towards work and family conciliation
    5.The Finnish companies have a good support to the family – work balance
  • Women and migration
    A view from the Spanish cinema
  • Women and migration
    Recognise and analyse the rol of the women in the Spanish migratory flows of 1945-1973 and 1975-2009
    Through the
  • Women and migration
    Emigration: Postwar and dictatorship
  • Women and migration
    Analysis of the films
    • Emigrate as men’s partners or single
    • Their education is sexist
    • Are restricted to the private space
    • Do not have legal capacity
    • Are punished for what is excused
    to the men.
    • Recibe educación sexista
  • Women and migration
    Immigration: Transition and Democracy
  • Women and migration
    Analysis of the films
    • Have children and dependents
    • Migrate first than their husbands. Illegals
    • Can not practice their job
    • Are looking for a stable life
    • Are or were prostitutes
    • Bear physical violence and xenophobia
  • Women and migration
    In both periods
    • Otherness
    • Migrate from necessity
    • Have no the papers
    • Work as servants
    • Bear social discrimination and gender violence
  • Conclusions
    Peoplemigratebecausetheyhave no place in their country
    FromSpanishcinemawe can seethatwomen, emigrant and inmmigranthaveanaddedhandicap, theinferiority of gender.
    The social rejection is caused by the ignorance of other cultures and gives rise to the stereotypes.
    Power is the basis of well-being and migration a path for women’s empowerment.
    To be continued...
    • Deindustrialization was typified by the relocation of industries from one country to another. For every factory that closes in Europe another one is opened in Southeast Asia, or in some other less developed country with European capital, European technology and with the abolition of customs and duties
    Globalizational is the biggest transformation of all-time industrial production and therefore in the global economy.
  • Deindustrialization affects the whole of Europe but we shall refer to the deindustrialization in the town of : Ferrol
    Ferrol is located in the northwest of Spain in the province of La Coruña
    Spain is a member of the UE.
  • Arsenal and Royal Shipyard
    In 1726 Felipe V decided to strengthen the Navy and to build a huge Arsenal and Royal Shipyard, for which he chose the town of Ferrol and its enclosed and secure harbour. Fernando VI and Carlos III continued the works.
    Ferrol became the capital of the Maritime Department of Spain.
    The Shipyards have been for many years the engine of Ferrol and its area. Nowadays it is an area in crisis.
    Ferrol is an example of the City of Enlightenment built in the eighteenth century.
    It was born by and for the Navy.
  • It was in Ferrol where the launching of the first Spanish steam ship took place in 1858, as well as the first iron-hulled ship and King Alfonso XIII attended the launching of the first battleship.
    In 1945 the shipbuilding yard was converted into a public factory under the name of BAZÁN. Many years later it was renamed as IZAR and since January 2005 its name is NAVANTIA.
  • Industry in Ferrol went on expanding till it reached its peak when:
    • BAZÁN Factory had about 10,000 workers and
    • ASTANOFactory some 6,000.
    Many workshops that emerged up around the Shipyards.
    E.N. BAZÁN
    E.N. Bazánmonopolized the shipbuilding in Spain from 1909 till the Spanish Civil War.
    During the war it was confiscated by the state and its activity was non stop, day and night, repairing ships and other Navy equipment.
    In 1941 a small shipyard is created in Ferrol, and started its career with some thirty workers.
    This Shipyard became, a few years later, one of the most important shipbuilding yards in the world.
  • Economic crisis in Ferrol
    The fierce competition and globalization caused many companies to Ferrol, unable to adapt to changing times, had to close their doors.
    The economic crisis that went with the Transition and the commercial opening of the frontiers put an end to a protective production model and a captive market.
    Some government schemes have been designed to find other sectors of development (alternative energy) to draw the city from its agony.
    The start of the new millennium, however, has generally been a time of relative expansion of small businesses and the improvement of infrastructures with the building of a new highway and an external harbour, but still awaiting the completion of the rail link that will make the port and harbour of Ferrol “Europe’s West Gate”.
  • It is said that when you reach the bottom there is no other way to go than upwards.
    Ferrol in this new millennium, has a big challenge ahead: to regain the splendour of the past with the most innovative tools and competitiveness.
    Mª Isabel CainzosTeijido
    Mª Teresa Cela Milia
    Isabel GranullaqueDapena
    Alberto LangtryGrandal
    Rafael López Miranda
    In this paper, we make an approach to the process of modernization in Spain through the European Community influence, since the end of the civil war until our integration into the EU.
    We analyze the most important events that have influenced in it. We are going to see how these ones have determined adaptations and changes that marked the path to a democratic and modern state.
    Before diving into the development of the issue, we will approach from the science of Sociology, the various stages and rhythms, which are identified in any modernization process.
    A new legal structure
    The transformation of economic structure
    The democratization of political regimes
    The universalization of education
    State organization
    Moreover, the pace of events is explained in the theory of the Three Clocks, in Dahrendorf (1960):
    The creation of standards
    The economic model
    The acceptance of cultural / ideological
    We will describe the national and international events that were most important milestones in the political and social adjustments of Spain.
    After three years of a very bloody civil war, Spain was subjected to a dictatorial regime which abolished democracy. We should remark the following Spanish features:
    It was an autarchy
    No industrialization
    Economically polarized society
    Human losses
    The world was coming out of the Second Worl War. The great nations were polarized and aligned into two big blocks: The Atlantic Alliance and the Warsaw Pact.
    Franco's regime wanted to join into the Atlantic bloc, but it was rejected.
    Of the many circumstances that defined this period, we would highlight the following:
    Potsdam 1943 and the UN
    The U.S. political repositioning
    The Munich Congress
    Here we see how the strength of Europe in its
    economic development has a significant influence on
    the implementation of liberalization measures in Spain,
    which would eventually become the germ of a whole
    social process for the modernization of the country.
    In this way, almost as a logical consequence, we will present
    how beginning to take the first steps in the process of
    opening up to Spain in the field of the democratic world.
    In the multilateral agency
    In the approach to the EEC
  • THE EPILOGUE OF FRANCO (1967-1975)
    After Franco´s death, there was a period of political struggle for the succession. Spain had to face and overcome great tensions and difficulties:
    Concerns about the political capacity and loyalty to the regime of the Crown Prince, Juan Carlos de Borbon
    The increasingly strong social pressure calling for "political freedom.“
    The worldwide rejection of the death sentences in trials held without due process.
    The assassination of president of government and the appointment of a successor who was more of the same.
    The socio-political analysis of this period, has been for us the most interesting part of the project.
    It was the most substantive of the modernization of Spain because of its consequences.
    This process of democratization, although it develops from top to low, is accompanied by a strong pressure from the civil society and international communities, especially from Western European countries.
    In chronological order, the most significant milestones of political change:
    • The death of the dictator (1975)
    • The speech of the King of Spain
    • The conditions of the EEC
    • Legalization of political parties and trade unions
    • An extensive amnesty for prisoners and political reprisals
    • Democratic elections
    • The EEC is open toSpain
    Having overcome the barriers imposed by the lack of political freedom it was when we could find out other kind of big difficulties. We had to deal with the adjustment measures in the productive and economic model that produced social and political tensions:
    European Economical Community negotiations. Europe yes, but not at any price
    The Spanish consensus cracks
    In a context of great social problems, ETA terrorism, with multiple economic failures and scandals, in 1982, for the first time in the young democracy, wins the election the Spanish Socialist Workers Party with absolute majority to govern alone.
    The dilemma before the demands of the EU to join, it was not the right thing to do, eliminate protectionism; it was who we had to do it.
    The country's structural adaptations included the following facts:
    • The Communist and Socialist parties refocused his own political vision.
    • The UGT union took the convenience of adjustment.
    • The essential transformation of corporate culture, moving from a reactive position to another proactive.
    • The behaviour of Spanish society, its capacity to reinvent itself through a collective intelligence.
    • Spain becomes a member of EEC
    To support the analysis of this phenomenon, we chose a set of statistical variables that represent the progress that have occurred:
    Illiteracy rate (over 10 years)
  • Secularization A:practicing Catholics, B: No practitioners and non-believers
    In this section we discuss the results of a field study, conducted amongst 45 people, workers, teachers, junior and senior students of the University of A Coruña, aged 23 to 75 years old.
    We can say that the best experience was not only to have had the opportunity to share with other colleagues our objectives but to be in contact with them working together.
    The data produced, would remark:
    They are Spanish and European citizens at the same time, 43%.
    They are not well represented in Europe by any political party (students under 25 years 100%), 57%.
    The last word on important decisions should be held by the national government, 64%.
    That belong to Europe has benefits, 80%.
    The influence of Spain in Europe is low, 77%.
    At this end of the work, we are going to see some of the reflections made about the sociological phenomenon of modernization of a country, that was consolidated following carefully the steps and rhythms that identify modern sociology.
    We should stress the following ones:
    • The process was led by the elites.
    • The process was accompanied by external forces.
    • The process was assimilated and materialized within society itself. Long time has been taken, fifty years.
  • Changes in thewomen’s role since 1945
    Fromtheearlyyears of civilization, womensufferedallkind of discrimination, untilthe late nineteenthcenturywomenhadfew legal rights in allspheres of life.
    Althoughthesituationimproved in thefirsthalf of thetwentiethcentury, womenstillhadtowinrightsfrommen and their role and status in societywasdecidedbymen.
  • TheXXthcenturywasthebeguinning of theequalaccesstothewomentoeducation, paidwork and politicallife. Aftertheend of thesecondworldwar in 1945, itbecameclearthatwomenwouldplay a more important role, in 1945 theyweregiventherightto vote in France; in Italyobtainedtherighttobeelectedtotheparliament and otherpoliticalcharges.
    Women in spainhadalreadyhadtheserights in 1931, butwerelostafterthe Civil War in 1936, and recovered in 1978 aftertheFranco’sdead.
    The role of the women was supposed to be important only in family affairs, they should be very good housekeepers or housewives, daughters or sisters. (Law named “Moyano” in force since 1857 until 1970)
    Catholicchurchcontributedverymuchto set women in that role
  • Professional Institute of women instruction
    Feminine attendance increased in Industry
    73% of women working in agriculture, without salary helping the family.
    1971 Women earn 75/pts/ day , and men 125/pts/day
    1975 Working women increased to 50% in the total of feminine population, mainly in Teaching, Health, Trade and Office. and some few in Public Administration.
    Until 1976 women needed the marital permission to accept any job, legal or economical act.
    In 1995 in the Fourth World Conference in Pekín about women, was adopted to assure the equal participation of the women in the responsibilities, power and rights of every country Governments..
    However, the most difficult task was to change the men’s mentality and even some women’s as well.
    In 1984 onemillionwomenincorporatedtowork
    In 1994 fourmillions
  • But, there were two events that dramatically helped to reconfigure how women were seen and more important, how they saw themselves: The scientific developments like the birth controll pill in 1960( in Spain 1978) and the abolition of the 416 article of the CC referred to the “marital permission” and laws against adultery.
    This two events helped to cast women’s roles in more assertive light, in a way that allowed them greater autonomy and to be the owners of their lives, choosing, in spite of Nature, their roles.
    As a result of every change, at present women are active in any fields of Science, Business, Politics, University carry out all kind of responsibilities successively.
    And thousands of anonyms women that go out to work every morning after doing, furthermore, the housework.
    Amelia Pardo Rama
    Eloy Palenzuela Herrero
    FloriPagán Saura
    Francisca GareaMartinez
    Elvira Albertino López
  • Spanish and Portugal transition to democracy and integration into the EU, through the perspective of singer-songwriters
  • Singer songwritersin Spain and Portugal
    • Manuela Corral Villar
    • Aida García López
    • Helena López Prado.
    • Francisco Morales Rey
    • Celia Quintana Martínez
    • Javier Rey Mancebo.
  • Singer songwriters for freedom are a large group of singers who have left their mark on the music scene, social and policy of our country mainly in the final period of the dictatorship of Franco and the first years of democratic transition.
    Through their compositions, not only protest and demand, but also love and solidarity, they collaborated with the weapons of their voices and guitars to convert these times of repression and shame in times of strength and hope.
  • We are speaking about Raimon, Serrat, LuísLlach, PacoIbañez,, Labordeta, Victor Manuel y Ana Belén, Amancio Prada, VocesCeibes, FuxanosVentos,
    And also we are speaking about our brothers songwriters from across the Atlantic, like Victor Jara, Pablo Milanés, Quilapayún, Violeta Parra,.. We are talking about the songwriters for freedom.
  • OPS
    Portuguesesongwritersfromthe late 60’s sharedwiththeSpanish, the "samepolitical and social experience" againstthedictatorshipsof Francisco Franco and Oliveira Salazar, whichgeneratedamongthem a streamofmutualsympathy, understanding and solidarity.
  • .LuisCília, Zeca Afonso, Paulo de Carvalho,... werekeypieces to makethePortuguesepeopleawareoftheirfight for freedom.
    In Portugal therewas a revolution, on April 25th, 1974. "A Revolução dos Cravos" (CarnationRevolution): a militaryinsurrectionagainstthedictatorialregime.
    Severalsongslike "GrândolaVila Morena" served as thesignal for theuprising in thebarracks
  • The 60´sBriefhistoricalsituation
    • Seat car factory born with a daily production of 15 cars.
    • End of international isolation.
    • The economic stability is achieved
    •  Comes the boom in tourism.
    • As a result of this situation there is a more permissive policy and weakens the censorship.
    • At this time songwriters emerge.
    • 200 artists.
    • 3000 songs. 
    • All cultural activities in languages ​​other than Spanish are repressed; it was a threat
    • This situation continued for two decades until the arrival of the Constitution in 1976
    • Many songwriters recovered the poems of poets who had been banned and repressed by the regime.
    • So ,J.M.Serratrecovered Machado and Miguel Hernandez.
    Cantares de Machado
    “Nana de la cebolla” de Miguel Hernández
    • Francisco Ibañezsingspoems of poetssuch as Blas de Otero, Rafael Alberti, Quevedo, Gabriel Celaya, Miguel Hernández.
    • Raimon addsmusictothepoetry of AusíasMarch and Salvador Espriu
    “La poesía es un arma cargada de futuro”
    Gabriel Celaya
    “Cançó de l´Albada” de Espriu
    “Veles e vents” de AusíasMarch
    • Fuxan os ventossingpoems of C.E. Ferreiro
    “Irmans” from C.E. Ferreiro
  • The 70´s Briefhistoricalsituation
    • In September 1975, the regime sentenced to death and executed 3 members of FRAP and 2 of ETA
    • In March 1976 firedfive workers were killed and 150 wounded by armed police in a church in Vitoria.
    • Luis Llach composed for this occasion, “Campanadas a muerte" and "L‘Estaca" songs that became emblematic of this time.
    • From the decade of the 60’s different media fight for freedom of expression; In 1976, join “El País" and "Diario 16.“
    The 60´s and 70´sBriefhistoricalsituation
    • Colonial wars in Angola, Guinea and Mozambique produced conflicts between civil society and the military one.
    • With the economic model that the dictatorship implanted, the country became impoverished and a strong emigration was generated.
    • Singer songwriters exiled like: José MárioBranco, SérgioGodinho, Luis Cília,...denounced the colonial wars and the lack of freedom in Portugal
  • Our Continent – Our Culture2009-2010
    Universidade Sénior
    Universidade da CoruñaSpain
    International Meeting “OC – OC”Belfast, May 12-16th 2010