1. INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEINDUSTRIALIZATION<br />SPAIN<br />
2. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION<br />The Industrial Revolutionwasthebiggesttechnological, socioeconomic and cultural changethattook place at theend of theeighteenth and earlynineteenthcenturies. Itstarted in the UK and later spread totherest of theworld.<br />The Industrial activities are of greatimportance in the global and nationaleconomy, sincetheybecometheenginethatdragstheeconomicdevelopment.<br />Fromthepoint of view of industrialization, Spaincan beconsidered as belongingtothesecondgeneration of industrializedcountries in Europe. Itstartedlater, almost a centuryafterthefirst Industrial Revolution.<br />
3. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES<br />Theeconomybasedon manual labourwasreplacedbyindustry and machinery and thetradewasduetotheimprovement of roads and railways.<br />
4. INDUSTRY (1940-1973)<br />Afterthe civil war, the country isleftwithoutanymeans, jobless and withouteconomicresources. <br />Spainlacksalmosteverything<br />TheGovernmenttakes control of thesectorsconsideredtobestrategic.<br /><ul><li> ENSIDESA iscreated in 1950.
5. HUNOSA in 1954.
7. RENFE and so on….</li></li></ul><li>INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING <br />(The crisis of 1973)<br />In 1973 the crude oil crisis started, which would affect the whole of Europe and unemployment begins to increase enormously.<br />The economic crisis lasts until 1984. In this year the Spanish industry starts a reconversion process that aims at modernizing the oldest factories.<br />The most affected sectors by the industrial restructuring were: mining, the steel industry and shipbuilding. <br />The Government sought to attract investors by means of creating industrial sites and technological parks to encourage high-tech industry.<br />
8. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION<br /> The previous stage to deindustrialization was the industrial restructuring, which ended up in loss of employment but not in deindustrialization, as the same productive structure remained and improved by technological know-how.<br />On the contrary, deindustrialization was typified by the relocation of industries from one country to another. For every factory that closes in Europe another one is opened in Southeast Asia, or in some other less developed country with European capital, European technology and with the abolition of customs and duties<br />
9. Globalizational is the biggest transformation of all-time industrial production and therefore in the global economy.<br /> <br />The abolition of customs and duties, allows the manufactured products from abroad to be sold in Europe without any problems.<br />This has a positive side; it enables countries with poor living standards to get out of poverty, but the speed and intensity of this phenomenon involves a counterbalance of deindustrialization in Europe. <br />
10. ferrol<br />(As deindustrializedcityexample)<br />Deindustrialization affects the whole of Europe but not equally in all the areas. We shall refer to the deindustrialization in the town of : <br />
11. FERROL<br />Ferrol is located in the northwest of Galicia, in the province of La Coruña. Galicia is the Spanish Autonomous Community situated in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula.<br />Spain is a member of the UE.<br />
12. DEFENSE OF THE “RIA OF FERROL” ( “San Felipe”, “La Palma”, “San Martín” and “San Carlos’sCastle)<br />To defend the estuary of Ferrol and attacks by land and sea in the sixteenth century began to build the castle of “San Felipe”, predominantly neoclassic style, was renovated between 1731-1775 following the model of his time, Enlightenment.<br />It is one of the best examples of the great "battery-bastioned" eighteenth century.<br />
13. In 1590 at the entrance of the Ria de Ferrol is built for defense surveillance and other military fortress, the Castillo “de la Palma”, opposite the castle of San Felipe. Not retained any of this work, it was destroyed to build the present.<br />“San Carlos” Castlepredominantlyneoclassic (1731-1739). Tookpart of a proyect in thefortificacion of theestuary of Ferrol, being a supporttothecastle of ”San Felipe”. <br />Thewalls are of hugesize. The material usedthereismasonry and example of militaryarchitecture. <br />At the same time near the Palma Castle rose another named "San Martín" in ruins.<br />
14. Arsenal and Royal Shipyard<br />In 1726 Felipe V decided to strengthen the Navy and to build a huge Arsenal and Royal Shipyard, for which he chose the town of Ferrol and its enclosed and secure harbour. Fernando VI and Carlos III continued the works. <br />Ferrol became the capital of the Maritime Department of Spain.<br />The Shipyards founded under Felipe V, have been for many years the engine of Ferrol and its area. Nowadays it is an area in crisis, but it still remains being a place of the most industrial capacity in Galicia.<br />
15. Ferrol is an example of the City of Enlightenment built in the eighteenth century. It was born by and for the Navy. <br />
16. It was in Ferrol where the launching of the first Spanish steam ship took place in 1858, as well as the first iron-hulled ship in 1881 and in 1912 King Alfonso XIII attended the launching of the first battleship.<br />In 1945 the shipbuilding yard was converted into a public factory under the name of BAZÁN. Many years later it was renamed as IZAR and since January 2005 its name is NAVANTIA.<br />
17. <br />Industry in Ferrol went on expanding till it reached its peak when:<br /><ul><li> BAZÁN Factory had about 10,000 workers and
18. ASTANOFactory some 6,000. </li></ul>Many workshops that emerged up around the Shipyards.<br />
19. E.N. BAZÁN <br />E.N. Bazánmonopolized the shipbuilding in Spain from 1909 till the Spanish Civil War. <br />It consisted of several Spanish businessmen linked to some British firms that provided capital, technology and organizational and technical expertise with the English technicians and operators they sent to Ferrol.<br /> <br />During the war it was confiscated by the state and its activity was non stop, day and night, repairing ships and other Navy equipment.<br />
20. <ul><li>In 1938 the Apprentice School was opened.
21. In 1942 the Yard signed a major contract for technical assistance with two French industries for the construction of turbines in the factory.
22. In 1947 was integrated into the I.N.I. (InstitutoNacional de Industria), devoted to the military and merchant shipbuilding.</li></li></ul><li>NORTH WEST SHIPYARD AND WORKSHOPS (ASTANO)<br />In 1941 a small shipyard is created in Ferrol, and started its career with some thirty workers. This Shipyardbecame, a few years later, one of the most important shipbuilding yards in the world. <br />The impressive growth in the size of vessels built in this Yard, went from this small fishing boat of 23 metres to the giant oil tanker “Arteaga”, of 325,795 tons, dead weight. <br />
23. <br />Until the mid-70’s of last century, a network of businesses occupied the entire shore of the port of Ferrol.<br />Every morning, a symphony of hooters, calling the workers, broke the silence of Ferrol estuary.<br />The port of Ferrol turned into a real swarm of people from the nearby villages.<br />
24. Economic crisis in Ferrol<br />The fierce competition and globalization caused many companies to Ferrol, unable to adapt to changing times, had to close their doors.<br />The economic crisis that went with the transition and the commercial opening of the frontiers put an end to a protective production model and a captive market.<br />
25. Despite the difficulties of the shipbuilding industry due to the competition of companies based in Southeast Asia, with lower production costs, many small firms still remain 99% dependant on the most important factory in town: NAVANTIA.<br />
26. government schemes<br />Alternative Energy<br />Some government schemes have been designed to find other sectors of development to draw the city from its agony.<br />Sectors that opt for alternative energy as the manufacture of parts for wind turbines and the production of biodiesel.<br />
27. The start of the new millennium, however, has generally been a time of relative expansion of small businesses and the improvement of infrastructures with the building of a new highway and an external harbour, but still awaiting the completion of the rail link that will make the port and harbour of Ferrol “Europe’s West Gate”.<br />THE EUROPE’S WEST GATE<br />
28. EVOLUTION IN FERROL’s POPULATION<br />
29. EVOLUTION IN THE SHIPYARD STAFF<br />
30. It is said that when you reach the bottom there is no other way to go than upwards.<br />Ferrol in this new millennium, has a big challenge ahead: to regain the splendour of the past with the most innovative tools and competitiveness.<br />