The twenty-first century Europe consisting of twenty-seven countries with 499.2 million people, as it is known today involves multiple characteristics, such as different languages, customs, cultures, political power, currencies, social services, religion, etc…, that have marked and still do the path of our European Union to create its own identity
Phoenicians, Greeks, Celts, Cart haginians, Romans, Jews, VisigSpain’s history and its culture oths and Muslims have is a rich mixture of different occupied our country, in elements set up by different different areas and times of our invasions and settlements history, from ancient times to that have taken place over the Reconquest in the Middle the centuries and have Ages. influenced, in a significant way the formation of our identity.
“The Camino de Santiago” has been a stream of pilgrims since the Middle Ages. It became a communication route, integrating and spreading the culture of the different peoples who made up Europe. Along the “Camino de Santiago” European cultural elements were introduced in Spain, including the Romanesque and Gothic Art. It had its peak in the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Many intellectuals, philosophers andthinkers, from Rousseau to Marx, and from Kant to Leibniz, proposed the idea of a European Community as a long-term desirable political objective
THE RENAISSANCE ANDTHE ENLIGHTENMENT The Renaissance and the Enlightenment spread across Europe ideas of tolerance, freedom, respec t for human rights and democracy on which the European Union is based.
WORLD WAR IThe First World War (1914-1918) and its dreadful consequences, marked the beginning of the cooperation process and later on the The conflict brought up the will to integration of the future create an environment in which wars European Union. would not be possible in the continent. Thus, it was during this period that the first initiatives of private nature arose. For example, the “Treaty of Locarno”, a set of eight agreements designed to strengthen the peace in Europe after the First World War, were signed by Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany and Poland in October 16, 1925.
For many people, The First World War was the beginning of the end of Europeancivilization. Others understood that the resilience capacity of Europe depended on the adoption of the ideal of a United and Peaceful Europe as a common project.In 1923 the Austrian Coudenhove-Kalergi founded thel Pan-Europe Movement which in 1926 succeeded in gathering some outstanding political figures in the first Pan-European Congress, in Vienna. …The European problem will only be solved by the union of the European peoples. … The main obstacle to the creation The United States of Europea was thousands of years of rivalry between the two most populated nations in Europe: Germany and France. Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Pan –Europa 1923
WORL WAR IIEurope had to wait till the SecondWord War (1939-1945) to becomeaware of the suicidal absurdity thatthe nationalist rivalry had led theContinent to. The need of some kindof European integration thatwould, in a new way, re-order thepolitical map of Europe becameevident.After the end of the Second WorlWar, the economies of the countriesin Europe were seriouslydamaged, and that put an end to thetraditional European hegemony inthe world. They tried to rebuild Europe as a new unified nation, to avoid having a new confrontration between the European States. The two World Wars had begun as European conflicts and therefore the continent had been the main battlefield in both.
We would have to search among the major natural disasters such as earthquakes and fires to find somethingNever so much damage had been comparable to the caused by man. destruction a war can cause.
In the air raids during World War II, theCathedral of Cologne in Germany sufferedserious damage, although the structureremained intact, it was the only buildingleft standing.The Cathedral had a lighting system, so, itdominated the skyline over the city inruins. Amid fierce fighting, there was a respect and consideration for those symbols that were common to all peoples in Europe and its roots.
In 1946, the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made a celebrated speech at the University of Zurich (Switzerland), which was considered to be as the first step towards the integration in the postwar period.“I wish to speak today about the tragedy of Europe. Among the victors there isonly a Babel of voices. Among the vanquished there is nothing but silence and despair. …It is to re-create the Europe family or at least, as much of it as we can and provide it with a structure under which it can dwell in peace, in safety and in freedom. We must build a type of United States of Europe… In order that this urgent task could be accomplished, France and Germany must be a partnership.Winston ChurchillSeptember, 1946
In 1948 the “Benelux” was established, (The Customs Unions of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). A common tariff for goods originating from outside the three countries was also established. Another significant step wasthe establishment of theCouncil of Europe in 1949. …France has acted and the consequences of its action can be immense. The first step in creating the“European Community” was …France has acted for Peace sake.given by the French Foreign Europe strongly united and highly structured. A Europe whereMinister , Robert Schuman, the standard of living will rise thanks to the clusters ofon May 9, 1950. production and market expansion that will encourage the lowering of prices. Declaración de Schuman May, 9 1950
Every action taken by the European Union is based on the “TREATIES”, which have been adopted voluntarily and democratically by all member countries. The MainTreaties: - Lisbon Treaty - (2009). - Treaty of Nice – (2003). - Treaty of Amsterdam – (1999). - Treaty of Maastricht – (1993). - Single European Act - (1986). - Brussels Treaty – (1967). - Treaties of Rome (ECC and Euratom) – (1957). - Treaty of París (Coal and Steel Community – (1951).
TREATY OF PARIS The “Treaty of París” was signed in 1951. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established. TREATY OF ROME On March 25, 1957 two treaties were signed in Rome: -European Economic Community (EEC). They were signed by: -European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC). Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg and the Netherlands.
In 1973 three new countries joined the Treaty: The “oil crisis” in 1973 put an end to a United period of spectacularKingdom, Denmark and economic growth Ireland. which the European countries had enjoyed for many years.
In 1979 the European Monetary System wasIn 1975, the European launched, they also create Council, where the the ECU (European Currency Heads of State and Unit) direct predecessor of Govemment the euro. gathered, was established.
The so-called “Schengen Agreement” was signed by the three Benelux countries, France and West Germany. Most of the countries of the European Union signed the agreement some years later. Thus began an ambitious initiative to guarantee free movement of people and the gradual removal of borders between Community states.
Spain signed the “Treaty of Accession to the European Community on June EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 12th, 1985 at the Royal Palace of Madrid and came into force on January 1 st, 1986.After this adhesion, there came a period of economic prosperity for Spain, in which, the highest growth rate throughout the Community was achieved for five consecutive years. This was the most comprehensive and systematic process of liberation, openness and rationalization of the Spanish ecoomy after the National Economic Stabilization Plan in 1959. This addition of new values took place without giving up our traditional idiosyncrasies.
After the fall of the military dictatorship goverments in Greece, Portugal and Spain, these countries became new members of the EEC. Greece in 1981. Spain and Portugal in 1986. The Single European Act signed in 1986, came into effect on January 1 st, 1987. This was the first step in the implementation of the founding treaties of the European Communities.
The fourth enlargement of theEuropean Community came into effect on February 1 st, 1995, with the accession of the following countries: Austria, Finland and Sweeden.The “Europe of the Fifteen” was born.
The EURO The “Euro” was introduced on January 1 st, 1999,and it is the official currency in seventeen of the twenty seven member States of the European Union. The Treaty of the European Union (TEU) which is in force since 1993 provided for the creation of an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the introduction of the single currency . To participate in the EMU all member States must request it and fulfill a set of conditions of entry. I was introduced gradually.
In May 2004 eight new countries joined the European Union: Czech Republic Two more Slovakia countries joined Slovenia European Union Estonia in January, 2007: Hungary Latvia Bulgaria Lithuania Rumania Poland Cyprus Malta
On October 29 th, 2004, the 25 Europe Member countries sign a Treaty establishing a “European Constitution”. A Treaty cannot enter into force until it has been ratified by each of the Member States.This is the major ongoing challenge of the European Union.
European Parliament..European Council.Council of the European Union.European Commission.The Court of Justice of the European Union.European Central Bank.The Court of Auditors.Europ. Economic and Social Committee.Committee of Regions.The European Ombudsman.
Citizenship is a legal and political status by which citizens acquire certain rights and duties asan individual in respect of a political community, as well as the power to act in the collectivelife of a State.The Treaty on the European Union (The Maastricht Treaty), established the EuropeanCitizenship . Article 17.- “Citizenships of the Union is hereby established. Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and will not replace national citizenship”
EUROPEAN FLAGThe twelve stars in a circle represent the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the people of Europe.
THE EUROPEAN ANTHEM The melody used to symbolize the European Union is adapted from thefinal movement of the Ninth Symphony, composed by Ludwig van Beethoven.
The values upon which the European Union is based, were presented for the first time onMay 9, 1950, in a speech by the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman.That is why a celebration is held on the ninth of May,as a key date in the European Union. The official motto of European Union is: “UNITED IN DIVERSITY”.
In order that the European identity can be developed within the framework of the European Union the following will be essential: A constitution of the European Union must be designed in a concise and comprehensible way and shoud be presented for acceptance to all citizens of the European Union. A continuous training for citizens of the Union. Common Economic policies, monetary, social and environmental. A policy of education and culture that encourages a European Union Identity and a European member state Identity. To promote multilingualism. A declaration of the political reasons the European Union aims to do.
The values that sustain the EUROPEAN UNION are: FREEDOM, PEACE, HUMAN DIGNITY, EQUALITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICETo secure and to develop those values further, Europe needs a polliticalmorally convincing setup and a supportive policy that would strengthenthe European common sense, that will make the European Unityworthy of credibility and of which we can be proud of. When this has been achieved, there will also be a stronger EUROPEAN IDENTITY.
EUROPEAN WORKSHOP “MORE THAN NEIGHBOURS” Senior Learners Group: Mª Isabel Cainzos Teijido Mª Teresa Cela Milia Isabel Granullaque Dapena Mª Jesús Iglesias Blanco Alberto Langtry Grandal Coordinator: Rafael López Miranda Pilar Millor Arias José M. Malde Varela Ferrol Campus José Martínez Filgueira Pilar Rico Sainz de la Maza “Senior” University José M. Vales Ramos A Coruña- Ferrol 2011-2012