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  • The public thinks economy and environment are immutable tradeoffs. This simple, but widely held view is that any improvement in the environment will result in higher costs.
  • There are twin goals for new energy production -- lowering pollution and reducing costs. This map illustrates the four possibilities. The center vertical axis is the cost per widget of production today, while the horizontal axis is the pollution per widget today. The four boxes are the directional possibilities. No one talks about solutions in the upper right hand box, i.e. solutions that would add cost and pollution. Most of those in the debate assume that the potential actions lie in one of the two boxes in red. Those who believe the power system is optimal today assume that any changes to reduce pollution will increase the costs of power. Media fascination with unproven technologies like fuel cells and micro turbines and political fascination with renewable technologies like photovoltaic and wind reinforce the notion that reducing pollution will increase costs. Those with an environmental focus assume that there would be even more pollution except for the rules, and that granting the power industry more freedom will result in lower costs from the deployment and use of dirtier technology. Both of these views are wrong. The bottom left box is obviously the target, where pollution and costs are down from new technology and new approaches to generating power.
  • W.senatorlibya

    1. 1. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    2. 2. Energy from Waste By Eng. : ALI F.ALI
    3. 3. It is generating energy from waste What is “waste-to-energy?”
    4. 4. Energy from Waste can make an important contribution towards sustainable development as a source of renewable energy: <ul><li>Municipal Solid Wastes contain biomass and can be used as a fuel </li></ul><ul><li>use waste to generate electricity, heat or both </li></ul><ul><li>The heat recovered from waste incineration can be used to generate electricity, or for industrial heat applications </li></ul>
    5. 5. Economy Environment If so,why we do not use Renewable energ on very large scale?
    6. 6. Actual Economy/Environment Choices Less Cost / widget More Less Pollution/widget More Cost Up Pollution Up No Interest Cost down Pollution up Disrupts environment Cost up Pollution down Disrupts Economy Cost Down Pollution Down Win-Win
    7. 11. JUST BURN IT !
    8. 12. <ul><li>can burn garbage in special plants and use its heat energy to make steam to heat buildings or to generate electricity </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>This may sound amazing, but it is really nothing new. More than half of electric power companies already burn another type of solid material to make electricity. That material is coal </li></ul><ul><li>Coal is a mineral that was formed from the remains of plants that died millions of years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Power companies use the heat energy in coal to make electricity. </li></ul>
    9. 13. GARBAGE energy                                                                                
    10. 14. <ul><li>WHY BURN GARBAGE? </li></ul>
    11. 15. <ul><li>Waste-to-energy plants generate enough electricity </li></ul><ul><li>to supply 2.4 million households </li></ul><ul><li>providing electricity is not the major advantage of waste-to-energy plants. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it costs more to generate electricity at a waste-to-nergy plant than it does at a coal, nuclear, or hydropower plant </li></ul><ul><li>The major advantage of burning waste is that it reduces the amount of garbage we bury in landfills. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning waste substantially reduces the amount of trash going to landfills. Waste-to-energy plants dispose of the waste of 40 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the use of fossil fuels by producing renewable energy for the National Grid </li></ul>
    12. 16. Why is reducing the amount of waste buried in landfills ?
    13. 17. <ul><li>Burning garbage releases the chemicals and substances found in the waste </li></ul><ul><li>Some chemicals can be dangerous to people, the environment </li></ul><ul><li>cutting emissions of greenhouse gasses </li></ul><ul><li>waste-to-energy plants produce air pollution </li></ul>
    14. 18. The Problem
    15. 19. <ul><li>Pollution of land, water and air </li></ul><ul><li>emission of dioxin </li></ul><ul><li>Non-availability of land for landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing cost of transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreeable (visual, mell,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks (epidemic) </li></ul>
    17. 21. work very much like coal-fired power plants. The difference is the fuel. Waste-to-energy plants use garbage—not coal—to fire an industrial boiler. The same steps are used to make electricity in a waste-to-energy plant as in a coal-fired power plant: 1. The fuel is burned, releasing heat. 2. The heat turns water into steam. 3. The high-pressure steam turns the blades of a turbine generator to produce electricity. 4. A utility company sends the electricity along power lines to homes, schools, and businesses. 
    18. 22.                                                
    19. 23. can think of garbage as a mixture of energy-rich fuels In 100 pounds of typical garbage, more than 80 pounds can be burned as fuel to generate electricity at a power plant. Those fuels include paper, plastics, and yard waste A ton of garbage generates about 525 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity energy to heat a typical office building for one day.
    20. 24. TRASH BURNED IN WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS                                                                                                                                                                 
    21. 25. ENERGY FROM WASTE <ul><ul><li>Potential of power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban and Municipal Wastes : 1000 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Wastes : 700 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Dairy, Distillery, Press Mud, Tannery, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp & Paper and Food Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL : 1700 MW </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. Number of Plants and Capacity
    23. 27. Energy production
    24. 28. FUEL FUEL WASTE ELECTRICITY 33% 67% ELECTRICITY STEAM WASTE 30% 45% 25% What is Combined Heat and Power?
    25. 29. Combined Heat and Power Waste Heat Recovery CHP Plant 33 units Waste Energy End User Site Fuel 100 units Pollution = 66 units Useful Work 33 units Electricity 33 units Thermal Energy
    26. 30. Industrial Energy Options Electricity Steam Hot Water End User Site Finished Goods Waste Energy Energy Recycling Plant Saved Energy Input Electricity Process Fuel
    27. 31. The Eco Cycle Society
    28. 32. Waste amount treated
    29. 33. Amounts of Waste Incinerated
    30. 34. emissions from waste
    31. 35. cumulative dioxin emissions from WTE plants in 2000 each point represents the emissions of a single plant, in grams                                                   
    32. 36. The distribution of dioxin sources in the US in recent years, showing how waste-to-energy ceased to be a major contributor of dioxin emissions                                                                
    33. 37. Health effects associated with dioxin exposure <ul><li>Chloracne and other skin disorders; </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts liver and kidney function; </li></ul><ul><li>Alters hormone levels: thyroid, testosterone and estrogen; </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive effects: altered sex ratio, reduced fertility; </li></ul><ul><li>Birth defects: hypospadias; </li></ul><ul><li>Endometriosis </li></ul>
    34. 38. Mercury emissions from WTE (1989-1999) and coal-fired power plants                                                                                 
    35. 39. Dioxin to air from W-t-E
    36. 40. What is hazardous waste ? <ul><li>Main hazardous properties available for treated wood waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H6 : very toxic, or containing very toxic substances at a total C  0,1%, or toxic, or containing toxic substances at a total C  3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H5 : harmful, or containing harmful substances at a total C  25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H14: ecotoxic (not yet specificed) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 41. Any Question!!!!
    38. 42. Thank you for listening!