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• Source: http://www.ccnr.org/breeding_ana.html
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• ### Nonrenewable Energy -senatorlibya

1. 1. Nonrenewable EnergyNonrenewable Energy ChaptersChapters
2. 2. 1. Energy Resources1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
3. 3. Energy SourcesEnergy Sources Modern society requires large quantities of energy that are generated from the earth’s natural resources. Primary Energy Resources: The fossil fuels(oil, gas, and coal), nuclear energy, falling water, geothermal, and solar energy. Secondary Energy Resources: Those sources which are derived from primary resources such as electricity, fuels from coal, (synthetic natural gas and synthetic gasoline), as well as alcohol fuels.
4. 4. ThermodynamicsThermodynamics The laws of thermodynamics tell us two things about converting heat energy from steam to work: 1)1) The conversion of heat to work cannot be 100 % efficient because a portion of the heat is wasted. 2)2) The efficiency of converting heat to work increases as the heat temperature increases.
5. 5. Energy Units and UseEnergy Units and Use Btu (British thermal unit) - amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1 ºF. cal (calorie) - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ºC. Commonly, kilocalorie (kcal) is used. 1 Btu = 252 cal = 0.252 kcal 1 Btu = 1055 J (joule) = 1.055 kJ 1 cal = 4.184 J
6. 6. Two other units that are often seen are the horsepowerTwo other units that are often seen are the horsepower and the watt. These are not units of energy, but are unitsand the watt. These are not units of energy, but are units of power.of power. 1 watt (W) = 3.412 Btu / hour1 watt (W) = 3.412 Btu / hour 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W Watt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describeWatt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describe electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt-hour (kW-h)electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt-hour (kW-h) since it is larger.since it is larger. quad (Q) - used for describing very large quantities ofquad (Q) - used for describing very large quantities of energy. 1 Q = 10energy. 1 Q = 101515 BtuBtu Energy Units and UseEnergy Units and Use
7. 7. Evaluating Energy ResourcesEvaluating Energy Resources U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy; 84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas); 7% from nuclear power; 9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).
8. 8. Changes in U.S. Energy UseChanges in U.S. Energy Use www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.pptwww.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
9. 9. Energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
10. 10. Fossil FuelsFossil Fuels Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S. The fossil fuels used in energy generation are: Natural gas, which is 70 - 80% methane (CH4) Liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum Coal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1
11. 11. Problems with Fossil FuelsProblems with Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources At projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st century Impurities in fossil fuels are a major source of pollution Burning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO2, which contributes to global warming
12. 12. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
13. 13. OilOil Deposits of crude oil often are trapped within the earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a well Fossil fuel, produced by the decomposition of deeply buried organic matter from plants & animals Crude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, with small amounts of S, O, N impurities How Oil Drilling Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.
14. 14. Sources of OilSources of Oil •Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -- 13 countries have 67% world reserves: • Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & Venezuela •Other important producers: Alaska, Siberia, & Mexico. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
15. 15. Oil in U.S.Oil in U.S. •2.3% of world reserves •uses nearly 30% of world reserves; •65% for transportation; •increasing dependence on imports. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
16. 16. Low oil prices have stimulated economic growth, they have discouraged / prevented improvements in energy efficiency and alternative technologies favoring renewable resources.
17. 17. • Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming. • Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
18. 18. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
19. 19. OilOil Crude oil is transported to a refinery where distillation produces petrochemicals How Oil Refining Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.
20. 20. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
21. 21. Natural Gas - Fossil FuelNatural Gas - Fossil Fuel • Mixture •50–90% Methane (CH4) •Ethane (C2H6) •Propane (C3H8) •Butane (C4H10) •Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
22. 22. Sources of Natural GasSources of Natural Gas •Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. •Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%); •90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline). www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
23. 23. billion cubic metres
24. 24. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
25. 25. Natural GasNatural Gas Experts predict increased use of natural gas during this century
26. 26. Natural GasNatural Gas When a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) The rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried, cleaned, and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distribution Liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships
27. 27. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
28. 28. Coal: Supply and DemandCoal: Supply and Demand Coal exists in many forms therefore a chemical formula cannot be written for it. Coalification: After plants died they underwent chemical decay to form a product known as peat Over many years, thick peat layers formed. Peat is converted to coal by geological events such as land subsidence which subject the peat to great pressures and temperatures.
29. 29. garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
30. 30. Ranks of CoalRanks of Coal Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high inherent moisture and volatile matter. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb. Subbituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is 8,300 BTU/lb. Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb. Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. www.uvawise.edu/philosophy/Hist%20295/ Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt
31. 31. PEATPEAT LIGNITELIGNITE garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.pptgarnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
32. 32. BITUMINOUSBITUMINOUS ANTHRACITEANTHRACITE garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.pptgarnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
33. 33. Main Coal DepositsMain Coal Deposits BituminousBituminous AnthraciteAnthracite SubbituminousSubbituminous LigniteLignite
34. 34. garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt
35. 35. Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages and Disadvantages Pros •Most abundant fossil fuel •Major U.S. reserves •300 yrs. at current consumption rates •High net energy yield Cons •Dirtiest fuel, highest carbon dioxide •Major environmental degradation •Major threat to health © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
36. 36. Sulfur in CoalSulfur in Coal When coal is burned, sulfur is released primarily as sulfur dioxide (SO2 - serious pollutant) Coal Cleaning - Methods of removing sulfur from coal include cleaning, solvent refining, gasification, and liquefaction Scrubbers are used to trap SO2 when coal is burned Two chief forms of sulfur is inorganic (FeS2 or CaSO4) and organic (Sulfur bound to Carbon)
37. 37. CoalCoal Coal gasification → Synthetic natural gas (SNG) Coal liquefaction → Liquid fuels Disadvantage Costly High environmental impact
38. 38. 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy5. Nuclear Energy www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
39. 39. Nuclear EnergyNuclear Energy In a conventional nuclear power plant a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction heats water produce high-pressure steam that turns turbines generates electricity.
40. 40. Nuclear EnergyNuclear Energy Controlled Fission Chain Reaction neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as of Uranium or Plutonium release energy (heat) www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
41. 41. Controlled Nuclear Fission ReactionControlled Nuclear Fission Reaction cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
42. 42. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
43. 43. • Radioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactive • Radioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy RadioactivityRadioactivity www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
44. 44. • Types • Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively charged • Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons) • Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays) • Sources of natural radiation • Soil • Rocks • Air • Water • Cosmic rays RadioactivityRadioactivity www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
45. 45. Relative Doses from Radiation Sources cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
46. 46. The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope Half-time emitted Uranium 235 710 million yrs alpha, gamma Plutonium 239 24.000 yrs alpha, gamma During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands Half-LifeHalf-Life www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
47. 47. Diagram of Radioactive Decay cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
48. 48. • Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes • Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation • Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers Effects of RadiationEffects of Radiation www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
49. 49. www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
50. 50. 1. Low-level radiation (Gives of low amount of radiation) • Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities • 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean • Today deposit into landfills 2. High-level radiation (Gives of large amount of radiation) • Fuel rods from nuclear power plants • Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24000 years • No agreement about a safe method of storage Radioactive WasteRadioactive Waste www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
51. 51. Radioactive WasteRadioactive Waste 1. Bury it deep underground. • Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater… 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun. • Problems: costs, accident would affect large area. 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet. • Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming 4. Most likely plan for the US • Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada • Cost of over \$ 50 billion • 160 miles from Las Vegas • Transportation across the country via train & truck www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
52. 52. Yucca Mountain www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
53. 53. Plutonium BreedingPlutonium Breeding 238U is the most plentiful isotope of Uranium Non-fissionable - useless as fuel Reactors can be designed to convert 238U into a fissionable isotope of plutonium, 239Pu www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
54. 54. Conversion ofConversion of 238238U toU to 239239PuPu Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breedbreed" more fuel, from otherwise non- fissionable isotopes, than they consume www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
55. 55. Reprocess Nuclear FuelReprocess Nuclear Fuel During the operation of a nuclear reactor the uranium runs out Accumulating fission products hinder the proper function of a nuclear reactor Fuel needs to be (partly) renewed every year www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
56. 56. Plutonium in Spent FuelPlutonium in Spent Fuel Spent nuclear fuel contains many newly formed plutonium atoms Miss out on the opportunity to split Plutonium in nuclear waste can be separated from fission products and uranium Cleaned Plutonium can be used in a different Nuclear Reactor www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/ EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
57. 57. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
58. 58. Nuclear EnergyNuclear Energy Concerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industry Accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible
59. 59. Nuclear Power Plants in U.S.Nuclear Power Plants in U.S. cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20- %203.ppt
60. 60. Three Mile IslandThree Mile Island •March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown •50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area •Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released •Partial cleanup & damages cost \$1.2 billion •Released radiation increased cancer rates. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
61. 61. ChernobylChernobyl •April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere •Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths •Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths; •About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes •~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated •> Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity •Cost of incident > \$358 billion www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
62. 62. Nuclear EnergyNuclear Energy Nuclear plants must be decommissioned after 15-40 years New reactor designs are still proposed Experimental breeder nuclear fission reactors have proven too costly to build and operate Attempts to produce electricity by nuclear fusion have been unsuccessful
63. 63. Use of Nuclear EnergyUse of Nuclear Energy • U.S. phasing out • Some countries (France, Japan) investing increasingly • U.S. currently ~7% of energy nuclear • No new U.S. power plants ordered since 1978 • 40% of 105 commercial nuclear power expected to be retired by 2015 and all by 2030 • North Korea is getting new plants from the US • France 78% energy nuclear www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
64. 64. Phasing Out Nuclear PowerPhasing Out Nuclear Power •Multi-billion-\$\$ construction costs •High operation costs •Frequent malfunctions •False assurances and cover–ups •Overproduction of energy in some areas •Poor management •Lack of public acceptance www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
65. 65. 2) Energy2) EnergyEnergy &Energy & Mineral resourcesMineral resources garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt