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Gas Turbine TheoryGas Turbine Theory
and Constructionand Construction
IntroductionIntroduction
• Comprehend the thermodynamic
processes occurring in a gas turbine
• Comprehend the basic compon...
BackgroundBackground
• Aircraft turbojet/turbofan engines are precursors
to gas turbines
• Installed for propulsion in:
• ...
Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle
• Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle
• Open cycle, unheated engine
1-2: Compression
2...
Basic ComponentsBasic Components
Basic ComponentsBasic Components
Basic ComponentsBasic Components
• CompressorCompressor
• Draws in air & compresses it
• Combustion Chamber
• Fuel pumped ...
Basic ComponentsBasic Components
• Compressor
• Draws in air & compresses it
• Combustion ChamberCombustion Chamber
• Fuel...
Basic ComponentsBasic Components
• Compressor
• Draws in air & compresses it
• Combustion Chamber
• Fuel pumped in and ign...
CompressorCompressor
• Supplies high pressure air for combustion
process
• Compressor types
• Radial/centrifugal flow comp...
CompressorCompressor
• Radial/centrifugal flow
• Adv: simple design, good
for low compression
ratios (5:1)
• Disadv: Diffi...
CompressorCompressor
• Controlling Load on Compressor
• To ensure maximum efficiency and allow for
flexibility, compressor...
Use of Compressed AirUse of Compressed Air
• Primary Air (30%)
• Passes directly to combustor for combustion
process
• Sec...
Blade CoolingBlade Cooling
Combustion ChambersCombustion Chambers
• Where air & fuel are mixed, ignited, and
burned
• Spark plugs used to ignite fuel...
TurbinesTurbines
• Consists of one or more stages designed to
develop rotational energy
• Uses sets of nozzles & blades
• ...
TurbinesTurbines
• Split Shaft
• Gas generator turbine drives compressor
• Power turbine separate from gas generator turbi...
Dual Shaft, Split ShaftDual Shaft, Split Shaft
Gas Turbine SystemsGas Turbine Systems
• Air System
• Air intakes are located high up & multiple
filters
• Exhaust dischar...
Gas Turbine AccessoryGas Turbine Accessory
SystemsSystems
• Starting System
• To get compressor initially rotated, HP air
...
GTG vs SteamGTG vs Steam
• For the same hP,
• Weight reduction of 70%
• Simpler (less maintenance, fewer
components)
• Red...
Engine Power TransferEngine Power Transfer
• Turbojet
• Thrust provided by reaction against expansion of
exhaust gases
• T...
What’s ImportantWhat’s Important
• Block Diagram of Split-Shaft GTG system
• Types of Compression and characteristics
• Ma...
Questions?Questions?
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Lesson 09 Gas Turbines Senatorlibya

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Transcript of "Lesson 09 Gas Turbines Senatorlibya"

  1. 1. Gas Turbine TheoryGas Turbine Theory and Constructionand Construction
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction • Comprehend the thermodynamic processes occurring in a gas turbine • Comprehend the basic components of gas turbine engines and their basic operation • Comprehend the support systems associated with gas turbine engines
  3. 3. BackgroundBackground • Aircraft turbojet/turbofan engines are precursors to gas turbines • Installed for propulsion in: • FFG’s • DD’s • DDG’s • CG’s • M-1 tanks • Also used for electrical generation & auxiliary applications
  4. 4. Brayton CycleBrayton Cycle • Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle • Open cycle, unheated engine 1-2: Compression 2-3: Combustion 3-4: Expansion through Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle (4-1: Atmospheric Pressure)
  5. 5. Basic ComponentsBasic Components
  6. 6. Basic ComponentsBasic Components
  7. 7. Basic ComponentsBasic Components • CompressorCompressor • Draws in air & compresses it • Combustion Chamber • Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air • Turbine • Hot gases converted to work • Can drive compressor & external load
  8. 8. Basic ComponentsBasic Components • Compressor • Draws in air & compresses it • Combustion ChamberCombustion Chamber • Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air • Turbine • Hot gases converted to work • Can drive compressor & external load
  9. 9. Basic ComponentsBasic Components • Compressor • Draws in air & compresses it • Combustion Chamber • Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air • TurbineTurbine • Hot gases converted to work • Can drive compressor & external load
  10. 10. CompressorCompressor • Supplies high pressure air for combustion process • Compressor types • Radial/centrifugal flow compressor • Axial flow compressor
  11. 11. CompressorCompressor • Radial/centrifugal flow • Adv: simple design, good for low compression ratios (5:1) • Disadv: Difficult to stage, less efficient • Axial flow • Good for high compression ratios (20:1) • Most commonly used
  12. 12. CompressorCompressor • Controlling Load on Compressor • To ensure maximum efficiency and allow for flexibility, compressor can be split into HP & LP sections • Vane control: inlet vanes/nozzle angles can be varied to control air flow • Compressor Stall • Interruption of air flow due to turbulence
  13. 13. Use of Compressed AirUse of Compressed Air • Primary Air (30%) • Passes directly to combustor for combustion process • Secondary Air (65%) • Passes through holes in perforated inner shell & mixes with combustion gases • Film Cooling Air (5%) • Insulates/cools turbine blades
  14. 14. Blade CoolingBlade Cooling
  15. 15. Combustion ChambersCombustion Chambers • Where air & fuel are mixed, ignited, and burned • Spark plugs used to ignite fuel • Types • Can: for small, centrifugal compressors • Annular: for larger, axial compressors (LM 2500) • Can-annular: rarely used
  16. 16. TurbinesTurbines • Consists of one or more stages designed to develop rotational energy • Uses sets of nozzles & blades • Single shaft • Power coupling on same shaft as turbine • Same shaft drives rotor of compressor and power components
  17. 17. TurbinesTurbines • Split Shaft • Gas generator turbine drives compressor • Power turbine separate from gas generator turbine • Power turbine driven by exhaust from gas generator turbine • Power turbine drives power coupling
  18. 18. Dual Shaft, Split ShaftDual Shaft, Split Shaft
  19. 19. Gas Turbine SystemsGas Turbine Systems • Air System • Air intakes are located high up & multiple filters • Exhaust discharged out stacks • Fuel System • Uses either DFM or JP-5 • Lubrication System • Supply bearings and gears with oil
  20. 20. Gas Turbine AccessoryGas Turbine Accessory SystemsSystems • Starting System • To get compressor initially rotated, HP air used (can use electrical also) • Once at certain RPM, fuel injected and spark ignited • Power Transmission System • Reduction gears used to transfer torque • With split shaft, turbines can run @ different speeds
  21. 21. GTG vs SteamGTG vs Steam • For the same hP, • Weight reduction of 70% • Simpler (less maintenance, fewer components) • Reduced manning – automated control • Quicker response time • Modular replacement
  22. 22. Engine Power TransferEngine Power Transfer • Turbojet • Thrust provided by reaction against expansion of exhaust gases • Turbofan • Thrust provided by reaction against expansion of large volumes of air • Marine systems • Thrust provided by turbine • SCRAMjet/RAMjet
  23. 23. What’s ImportantWhat’s Important • Block Diagram of Split-Shaft GTG system • Types of Compression and characteristics • Major difference between aviation and marine GTs
  24. 24. Questions?Questions?
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