Lecture 8
Describing Input &
Assessing its Impact on
Acquisition
BY
MELIA SARI
(06012681318022)
Lecturer: Dr. Dinar Sitinj...
OUTLINES
• What is input?
• Input on Language Learning Outside the
Classroom
• Motherese
• Foreigner Talk
• The Role of In...
What is input?
Something is put
in
Individual hears or
receives from which he
or she can learn

Language addressed to
the ...
Types of Input
Conscious and unconscious
(Wang, 2010)

Three forms of input: written,
verbal and non-linguistic

Output of...
The role of acquisition& learning ; 5
hypotheses(Krashen,1981,1982)
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

The acquisition/learning hypothesis...
10/25/2013

Melia sari (06012681318022)

6
Krashen Input Hypothesis
Humans acquire language by

Understanding messages or receiving
comprehensible input

Understandi...
Input & Language Learning
Outside the Classroom

Foreigner
Talk

Motherese

10/25/2013

Melia sari (06012681318022)

8
MOTHERESE
Motherese : how mother talked to their children/ The
natural way that a parent communicates with a baby or
young...
• Feedback in L1 Acquisition. Some corrective data
Child : l like this candy. I like they.
Adult : you like them?
Child : ...
Some rules for feedback L1
acquisition

Self
correction

A non
standard
utterance

Corrective
feedback

Interactional
Feed...
Some rules for feedback in L1
acquisition
• Dialog 1 (interactional feedback)
C : I have a book good, daddy.
A : a good bo...
Foreigner talked
The language used by native
speakers while addressing nonnative speakers

Types of
Foreigner
talked

Inte...
The function of foreigner talked
• To promote communication
• To establish a relationship between the native speaker & non...
Lecture 9 :more on input,
negotiation & interaction
Negotiation
A major feature of conversation involving L2 Learners
wher...
Negotiation of meaning & language acquisition
(taken from Long 1985)

Talk involving
informationexchange

Learner gives
fe...
From input to interaction: selected
aspects of Classroom Talk
• Metalinguistic input : explicit information about
regulari...
REFERENCES
Ellis, R . 1985. Understanding Second Language
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Ltd.

Acquisition.

Edmondson, W. 1...
THANK YOU........

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Transcript of "Describing input & its impact"

  1. 1. Lecture 8 Describing Input & Assessing its Impact on Acquisition BY MELIA SARI (06012681318022) Lecturer: Dr. Dinar Sitinjak, M.A Machdalena Vianty, M.Ed., M.Pd.,Ed.D
  2. 2. OUTLINES • What is input? • Input on Language Learning Outside the Classroom • Motherese • Foreigner Talk • The Role of Input in SLA; Krashen Hypotheses • More on Input- Negotiation & Interaction 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 2
  3. 3. What is input? Something is put in Individual hears or receives from which he or she can learn Language addressed to the learner by native speakers or other L2 learners (Ellis,1985) 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 3
  4. 4. Types of Input Conscious and unconscious (Wang, 2010) Three forms of input: written, verbal and non-linguistic Output of teacher is input for students Output of students is input for teacher Interaction is another type of input Output : the outcome of what the 10/25/2013 Melia students/people have learned sari (06012681318022) 4
  5. 5. The role of acquisition& learning ; 5 hypotheses(Krashen,1981,1982) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The acquisition/learning hypothesis adults have 2 distinct &independent ways of developing competence in L2. The natural order hypothesis The acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order The monitor hypothesis learning has only one function, namely as a monitor or editor The input hypothesis Humans acquire language in only one way-by understanding messages/ by receiving „comprehensible input‟. The affective filter hypothesis Affective factor can play a negative role in LA. 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 5
  6. 6. 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 6
  7. 7. Krashen Input Hypothesis Humans acquire language by Understanding messages or receiving comprehensible input Understanding language that contains structure When communication / input is understood, (i + 1) will provide automatically Production ability emerges. It’s not taught directly 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 7
  8. 8. Input & Language Learning Outside the Classroom Foreigner Talk Motherese 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 8
  9. 9. MOTHERESE Motherese : how mother talked to their children/ The natural way that a parent communicates with a baby or young child. Features of motherese: – Clear articulation – Marked intonational contours – Lexical adjustment/negotiations – Grammatical well-formedness – Limited ranged of grammatical relations – Absence of coordination – Repetitions – Checks and uptakers – Tutorial questions – High redundancy 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) – Topic concerns the here-and-now 9
  10. 10. • Feedback in L1 Acquisition. Some corrective data Child : l like this candy. I like they. Adult : you like them? Child : yes, I like they. Corrective feedback is sometimes waste of time. Adult : say them If parents give feedback at all, it is on the CONTENT of what Child : them. their children say, rather than Adult : say I like them. on the FORM in which they said it. Child : I like them. Adult : Good. Child : I‟m good. These candy good too. Adult : are they good too? Child : Yes I like they. You like they? 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 10
  11. 11. Some rules for feedback L1 acquisition Self correction A non standard utterance Corrective feedback Interactional Feedback 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 11
  12. 12. Some rules for feedback in L1 acquisition • Dialog 1 (interactional feedback) C : I have a book good, daddy. A : a good book is it? C : Yes, I have a good book. A : I see. • M V M Dialog 2 (Self correction) : No daddy, me not hungry. : you‟re not hungry? : No, I‟m not daddy. 10/25/2013 dialog 3 (Corrective feedback) M : They want to go down the /Eeee/ W : Want to go the beach, do They? M : No, they want to go down the /eee/ W : To the beach? M : (She points out of the window) W : Oh down the street. Melia sari (06012681318022) 12
  13. 13. Foreigner talked The language used by native speakers while addressing nonnative speakers Types of Foreigner talked Interactional adjustment Interactional & Grammatical input adjustment 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) Both grammatical & ungrammatica l adjustment 13
  14. 14. The function of foreigner talked • To promote communication • To establish a relationship between the native speaker & non-native speaker • It serves as an implicit teaching mode. - The use of ungrammatical foreigner talked depends on 4 conditions: The native speaker has very low proficiency in the L2. The native speaker thinks he is of higher status. The native speaker has considerable prior experience off foreigner talked. The conversation occurs spontaneously. (Hatch in Ellis,1985) 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 14
  15. 15. Lecture 9 :more on input, negotiation & interaction Negotiation A major feature of conversation involving L2 Learners where native speaker strive to solve the communicative difficulties which are likely to arise as a result of learner‟s limited L2 resources (Ellis,1985:141-142) How to negotiate : use strategies and tactics Device for repairing trouble Selecting salient topic Checking comprehension 10/25/2013 Conversatio nal device to Avoid Melia sari (06012681318022) trouble Topic switching, clarificatio n, using a slow pace (step), repeating utterances, stressing key words 15
  16. 16. Negotiation of meaning & language acquisition (taken from Long 1985) Talk involving informationexchange Learner gives feedback on comprehension Comprehensibl e input 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) Negotiated conversational modification Language acquisition 16
  17. 17. From input to interaction: selected aspects of Classroom Talk • Metalinguistic input : explicit information about regularities of the target language (the level of phonology, morphology, social usage). Unusual word also counts of MI. • Focussed input : learner‟sattention is focused on some features of target language. • Scaffolded input : teacher or other learners help an individual learner to say what he/she wants to say. • Evaluative input : to mean feedback, correction 10/25/2013 Melia sari (06012681318022) 17 or repair.
  18. 18. REFERENCES Ellis, R . 1985. Understanding Second Language Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Acquisition. Edmondson, W. 1999. Twelve Lectures on Second Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag Tubingen. Language Oxford. acquisition. Easterbrooks, S. 2006. Motherese/Fatherese “ Food for Baby‟s Thought”. Georgia State University. Escobar, D. 2012. Input, Interaction, Foreigner and Teacher Talk. Refublica Bolivariana De Venezuela. Institudo Pedagogaco De Caracas. Neardy, N.& Bandith, P. 2010. The Role of L2 Input In Second Language Acquisition / Learning. English Department: Institute of Foreign Language, Quintero, M. & Acosta, J. 2012. Input &Interaction Foreigner/ Teacher Talk Error Analysis. Linguistic Seminar 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU........ 19

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