japanese invasion on Wake Island

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japanese invasion on Wake Island

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  • Should show- Hawaii, Midway and Tokyo
  • japanese invasion on Wake Island

    1. 1. Flight Lieutenant HSPB Kuragamuwa No 40 JC & SC BATTLE OF WAKE ISLAND
    2. 2. CONTENTS 6/3/2014 2 • Aim • Location • Background of wake island • Military Importance • Military Garrison • Key Characters • First attack
    3. 3. CONTENTS 6/3/2014 3 • First invasion attempt • Second invasion attempt • Battle damage • Aftermath • War crimes • Retrospect • Conclusion
    4. 4. AIM 6/3/2014 4 Educate the audience about the Battle of Wake Island and analyze the consequence.
    5. 5. • Northern Pacific Ocean • 2004 Nm from Hawaii. • 1029 Nm from Midway. • 1723 Nm from Tokyo. LOCATION 6/3/2014 5 Wake Island New Guinea Japan Hawaii
    6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS 6/3/2014 6  V-Shaped atoll  2.85 sq. miles  Composed of three islands:  Wake  Peale  Wilkes  12 miles of defendable coastline  21 miles of total coastline Wilkes Peale Wake
    7. 7. • “Alvaro de Medina” - first to discover in 1586. • Rediscovered by the English sailor “Samuel Wake” in 1796. • America took official possession in 1899. BACKGROUND 6/3/2014 7 Alvaro de Medina
    8. 8. • In 1935 Pan American airways started a refueling point for Trans-Pacific air service. • They built a hotel and pier for sea planes. BACKGROUND 6/3/2014 8
    9. 9. • A strategic advantage for both the United States and the Japanese. • If war broke out between Japan and the United States, Wake could; • Provide for a defensive outpost. • Enable long range reconnaissance deep into enemy territory. • Enable the disruption of shipping. • Serve as staging ground for offensive operations. • Be utilized as an emergency air station. MILITARY IMPORTANCE 6/3/2014 9
    10. 10. • August 1941, Marine and civilian workers began to construct barracks, defensive fortifications, and an airfield. • All construction was conducted under the highest priority. MILITARY GARRISON 6/3/2014 10
    11. 11. • Wake Island was soon transformed from a desolate expanse to a formidable military garrison. • 15 officers and 444 enlisted men. • Four 3-inch antiaircraft batteries. • Three 5-inch seacoast batteries. • Appropriate automatic weapons. • One SCR-268 fire-control radar, and one SCR-270B search radar. • 12 new F4F-3 (Grumman Wildcat) fighters. • The 1st Marine Defense Battalion and VMF-211 were assigned to the defense of Wake. MILITARY GARRISON 6/3/2014 11
    12. 12. MILITARY GARRISON 6/3/2014 12 Fortifications
    13. 13. Commander Winfield S. Cunningham • Officer in Charge, Naval Activities Wake Island. • Assumed command of Wake Island on November 28, 1941 • Received the Navy Cross for his leadership during the defense of Wake. KEY CHARACTERS 6/3/2014 13 The Defenders
    14. 14. Major James Devereux • Commanding Officer of the 1st Defense Battalion. • Received the Navy Cross for his leadership during the defense of Wake Island. 6/3/2014 14 KEY CHARACTERS The Defenders
    15. 15. Major Paul A. Putnam • Commanding Officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 211 • A "model of strong nerves and the will to fight" • Received the Navy Cross for his heroism during the defense of Wake Island. 6/3/2014 15 KEY CHARACTERS The Defenders
    16. 16. Rear Admiral Sadamichi Kajioka  Commander, Wake Island Invasion Force.  2,500 soldiers of the Imperial Special Landing Force (both landing attempts).  3 light cruisers.  6 destroyers.  2 patrol boats.  2 transports.  2 carriers (second landing attempt). 6/3/2014 16 KEY CHARACTERS The Attacker
    17. 17.  At 0650hrs on 08 December 1941 - a “call to arms” alerting that Pearl Harbor was under attack.  Approximately 1200hrs, the first Japanese air attack began.  36 Japanese long-range bombers.  Eight out of the twelve Marine fighters were destroyed.  One out of Four damaged on landing.  the airstrip was severely damaged.  Pan Air facility was destroyed.  VMF-211 had sustained nearly sixty percent causalities.  Weather made early detection impossible for marines. FIRST AIR ATTACK 6/3/2014 17
    18. 18.  Air attacks continued for three days.  The defenders tackled Japanese tactics and employed their defense accordingly.  Resulted in limited Japanese successes and shot downs. Civilians willingly supported to defend. FIRST AIR ATTACK 6/3/2014 18
    19. 19.  0300hrs on 11 December 1941.  Wake Island Invasion Force.  Flagship - Yubari.  Three light cruisers - Yubari, Tatsuta, Tenryu  Six destroyers - Oite, Hayate, Mutsuki, Kisaragi, Mochizuki, Yayoi  Two patrol boats - No. 32 , 33  Two transports - Kongo Maru ,Konryu Maru  450 men of the Special Naval Landing Force 5 FIRST INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 19
    20. 20. FIRST INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 20 • Commander Cunningham ordered to hold fire until ships come well within the range. • 0500 hrs - Japanese started firing. • 0515 hrs - 4 aircrafts took off to RV ( 12000 ft over Toki point). • 0615 hrs - firing orders for defenders. • Flagship “Yubari” got two hits . • 0652 hrs - destroyer “Hayate” got hit and sunk within 2 minutes with 185 crew.
    21. 21. FIRST INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 21 • 0700 hrs - Admiral Kajioka ordered a withdrawal. • Wildcats came in to play. • Heavy attack on retreating task force. • 10 shuttles carried out. • Destroyer “Kisaragi” was sunk and other ships were damaged by air attacks. • Marines remained only with 2 aircraft. THE FIRST JAPANENESE DEFEAT IN WORLD WAR II!
    22. 22. SECOND INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 22 • Japanese continued to bomb after defeat. • Requested reinforcement from Pearl Harbor. • 16 December Task Force 14 commenced sailing to Wake under the orders of Admiral Kimmel. • Carrier “Saratoga” commanded by Admiral Fletcher. • Three heavy cruisers. • Nine destroyers. • Seaplane tender. • Fleet oiler. • Members of the marine corps fighter squadron 221 with 18 “Brewster Buffalo” planes. D day at Wake 1030 hrs on 23 December
    23. 23. SECOND INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 23 • Rear Admiral Kajioka re-organized for second assault. • 2 aircraft carriers along with their escorts. • 6 heavy cruisers. • 6 destroyers. • 3 light cruisers. • 2 patrol boats. • 2 transporters. • 1,500 soldiers of the Imperial Special Landing Force.
    24. 24. SECOND INVASION ATTEMPT 6/3/2014 24 • 21 December carrier based aircraft started assaulting. • Marines Lost 2 remained aircrafts. • 22 December mid night – Japanese arrived off Wake. • Task Force 14 was 425 miles away from Wake. • Around 0200 hrs Japanese started landing. • 0700 hrs on 23 December Commander Cunningham took decision to surrender. • 1500 Japanese marines battled some 300-400 Americans for 12 hours until their inevitable surrender.
    25. 25. US MARINES • 58 Marines. • 11 Sailors. • An undetermined number of civilians. • Twelve aircraft. • Three 5-inch coastal guns. • Six 3-inch anti-aircraft guns. JAPANESE IMPERIAL NAVY • Over 1,000 soldiers. • Four warships sunk. • Eight more ships damaged. • Twenty-one aircraft. BATTLE DAMAGE 6/3/2014 25
    26. 26. AFTERMATH 6/3/2014 26 • Total of 1,537 Marines, Navy, Army, and civilian personnel were taken as POW. • 98 civilians were kept at Wake for construction. • Rest were sent to POW camps in China. • US never attempted to recapture Wake but bombed on and off. • US re-took a possession as Japanese surrendered in 1945.
    27. 27. • Aircraft from the USS Yorktown raided Wake on October 5, 1943. • Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara ordered the execution of the 98 remaining laborers. • One prisoner escaped the massacre and carved the message “98 US PW 5-10-43” on a rock before being killed. • After the war, Sakaibara and his subordinates were sentenced to hang for this massacre. WAR CRIMES 6/3/2014 27
    28. 28. RETROSPECT 6/3/2014 28 Japanese side • Underestimated the enemy – got first defeat in WW II. • They had to capture it however, • Strategic importance. • To save face. • Finally made the strategic interest of the country • With heavy losses. • Learned that US is not easy to defeat.
    29. 29. RETROSPECT 6/3/2014 29 US side • Showed the courage, determination and heroism. • Moral booster for Americans after Pearl Harbor attack. • Poor intelligence. • Showed the cost of timely decision and leadership. • Tactical victory Vs. strategic loss –Wake or Carriers. • Dip in moral of both US Citizens and military.
    30. 30. CONCLUSION 6/3/2014 30 • Japanese took the possession of strategic interest. • Heavy losses. • First defeat. • Americans declared tactical defeat over strategic victory. • Had enough time to prepare long and costly war. • It would be both tactical and strategic victory. • Betrayed own troops for strategic interest ?
    31. 31. 6/3/2014 31
    32. 32. BATTLE OF WAKE ISLAND 6/3/2014 32 Flight Lieutenant HSPB Kuragamuwa No 40 JC & SC

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