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Palestra 3 - Fabricação de moldes por micro-usinagem.

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Manufacturing of micro-moulds. …

Manufacturing of micro-moulds.

Palestrante: Msc. Benedikt Gellissen - Instituto Fraunhofer de Tecnologias da Produção - FhG IPT - Alemanha

Published in: Business, Technology

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  • 1. Manufacturing of micro-moulds Benedikt Gellissen Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT International Seminar: Application of new technologies in the metal mechanic sector Joinville, Brazil, September 2011© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
  • 2. Economic Developments in MSTThe booming of micro Batelle (1990) SEMI (1995)system technology (MST): 9 billion US$ 12 billion US$ 8 10 7- Main focus on industries 6 8 5 like life science, IT, bio- 4 6 and sensor technology 3 4 2 2 1- Annual growth of 18% 91 93 95 98 00 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 from 1996 to 2002 SPC (1994) NEXUS (1998)- Estimated growth of the 16 billion US$ 40 billion US$ 14 35 market from 2002 to 2005 12 30 of 28 to 65 billion US$ 10 25 8 20 6 15 4 10 2 5 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 96 97 98 99 00 01 02Source: NEXUS, VDI VDE-IT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 1
  • 3. Economic and Technical DevelopmentsPatent analysis of MST Number of patent registrationsfor microPRO Study 180in 2002: 160- Based on the 140 World Patent Index 120- The following terms were 100 taken under consideration: 80 MST, Micro -mechanic, 60 -optic, -fluidic, -assembly, UP- and micro machining 40 20- 29.7% of the patent categories come from the field of plastics processing 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 USA (880) e.g. 23 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Indications of upcoming 21 Robert Bosch GmbH Japan (445) 16 Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH mass production Germany (378) 15 Siemens AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 2
  • 4. International comparison - microPRO StudySwitzerland§ Predominantly affiliation of enterprises to mechanical engineering and precision engineering§ Industrially practiced miniaturization is closely connected to the watch industry§ Technical know-how is currently used to open up new market segments like information and communications technologyUSA§ Strong influence by electronics production and semiconductor technology§ High process automation demanded (due to prevailing high quantities in the above named sectors)§ Future market segments are seen in medical engineering, bio-technology and in electro-optical productsJapan, Taiwan, Singapore§ Company activities were focused on optics, electronics production and the production of tools and machine tools§ Trend towards integration of miniaturized systems into new (mass) products§ Development of extremely downscaled machine tools and complete assembly systems© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 3
  • 5. Summary of mikroPRO Study§ Numerous applications of micro manufacturing technologies in various industrial sectors§ Broad basic research - some excellent results in single manufacturing technologies§ There are deficits in the transfer of the technologies into real products, partly due to - low industrial maturity of the manufacturing technologies (process stability) - lack of technological knowledge for the design and development of new products (manufacturing specific design, technology limits, design rules) - limited accessible knowledge of industrial product and process requirements© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 4
  • 6. Typical branches –MST are found in different branches with the tendency for mass production Automotive industry Life sciences Telecommunication - Sensor technology - Medical technology - Optical data transfer and - Optical elements - Biotechnology coupling for interior and exterior - Techniques for analysis - Display technology - Micro mechanical devices - ... - ... - ... Source: Cooke Corp., microparts, Euronano© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 5
  • 7. Due to developments in the industry -MST is still a chance for mould and die makersPrecision Engineering Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Micro Mould MakingExample of micro cast Micro channel Bioreactorproducts (Source: FZK) Example of powder injection molding products; gear Micro pumps Detection (MIM), (Source: IFAM) cellMicro-structuring 10 µmTest piece and human hair structured with dicing blades Measuring instrument for alcohol(Source: Grundig) (Source: DISCO Corp.) (Source: IMT, TU Braunschweig)© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 6
  • 8. Focus of this presentation –Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 7
  • 9. Production processes in MST – Compromises and alignment with the costumer product 1 Silicon etchingSilicon etching (40%) Laser LIGA 5 Structure [µm] Chip removal Chip removal 10 (22%) EDM Grinding 25Grinding EDM(9%) (16%) 50 Complexity of geometry LIGA (11%) planar freeforms 200 100 50 25 10 5 Surface roughness Ra [nm] Source: IPA, ILT, IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 8
  • 10. Photolithography Etching of Silicon –Advantages are clearly visible but the limitations too industrial wave length min. use of illuminate structure 1980 - 1986 436 nm 0.60 µm 1986 - now 365 nm 0.35 µm 1992 - now 248 nm 0.20 µm 1998 - now 193 nm 0.15 µm R+D 157 nm 0.12 µm R+D 013 nm 0.08 µm Silicon dioxideSource: Cranfield University, Zeiss film to be etched© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 9
  • 11. Typical products –The requirements towards the products functionality is spreadwidelyFacette mirror Intracardial blood pump Micro fuel cellReflecting structures Lab on a chipSources: Scholz, Impella, Wikipedia.de, Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 10
  • 12. Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 11
  • 13. Micro Clip (Design)Micro Clip for medical applications - Insert with electrodesdetail of clip mechanism Electrode • Electrode ƒ Electrode ‚ Insert Insert Source: Zumtobel Staff Challenges Solution to date Aim - Steel mould insert - Complex fabrication and - Direct fabrication of - Micro free-form surfaces positioning of the three the inserts by 5-axis - Undercut of 54 µm electrodes micro milling© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 12
  • 14. Micro Clip (Mould Insert) Mould Insert (SEM image) Feature A with undercut Feature A 200 µm Source: Zumtobel Staff© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 13
  • 15. Application -Intracardiac Pump SystemIntracardiac pump systemfor patient-friendly andeconomic treatment ofacute heart diseases< Replacement of heart-lung machines via intrabody< No surgical intervention< On site placement in the heart through the leg artery< Post operation heart support for up to 7 days< Outer diameter of pump 4.0 and 6.4 mm respectively< Pump performance up to Measurements: 4,5 l/min 3.55mm x 7.7mm Source: Impella CardioSystems AGMaterial: PEEK© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 14
  • 16. Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of ImpellerFormer process: Five axis milling of PEEK Quelle: IBMT< Single part manufacturing< High effort for manual finishing< Low reproducability© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 15
  • 17. Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of ImpellerFormer process: Five axis milling of Now: Injection moulding PEEK Source: Horst Scholz GmbH + Co. KG Quelle: IBMT< Single part manufacturing < Batch production< High effort for manual finishing < Low effort for manual finishing< Low reproducability < Extremely high reproducability© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 16
  • 18. Manufacturing of Mould InsertsFormer process: Micro-EDM Now: Five axis micro milling< High process knowledge < 5 axis manufacturing necessary< Two-step process < One-step process< Effort for manual finishing© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 17
  • 19. Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 18
  • 20. UP-processes –Structures and processes strategies Face milling Fly Cutting UP-Planing Turning© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 19
  • 21. UP-planing-machine for large-scaled structured surfacesn Ultraprecision machine for the machining of large workpieces by means of diamond milling and planingn Max. working area 1000 x 1000 x 200 mm³n Rotary table (C-axis)n Hydrostatic bearings for all axis (not realised in vertical direction)n Two portal slides for either mass compensation or usage of two toolsn Equipped with standard NC controller© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 20
  • 22. Manufacturing technology for micro and nano structuresFly cutting Planing Tool shaftTool Diamond tool Manufactured surface Vorschub z x f - Cut direction Spindle rotation a a p Roughness Partn Tools: mono crystalline diamondn Structure size 3 µm, surface roughness 10 nm Ran Highest form accuracyn Work pieces up to 1 x 1 m2n High manufacturing times for big parts© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 21
  • 23. Fly-Cutting – Applications 100 mm Masterstruktur einer Beleuchtungs- 10 mm optik Element eines Retroreflektors 10 mm 100 µm Masterstruktur eines großflächigenHeißprägewerkzeug Reflektors 0,5 mm 0,5 mm 2 mm 50 mm© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 22
  • 24. Large area structuring with the fly-cutting processn Long time machiningn Structure: triangular corner cubes (1 mm)n Size of workpiece: 400 x 400 mm2n Distance of cut: 6.15 kmn Machining time: 5.3 dn Machined at tangential feedn Investigation on tool wear 2 mm Sample part with structure Machined master (CuNi18Zn20 400 x 400 mm2)© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 23
  • 25. Hybrid optics Sinus curve-surface Hybrid FTS 10 mm Facet mirror© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 24
  • 26. Machine for the production of hybrid opticsn MTC410 – Travel length of axis 410 mm Fast Tool – Max. work piece diameter 800 mm – Total weight 3.800 kg Case – Dimensions 1900x1500x1500 Granite base plate Height adjustment B-axis n Dynamic axis – Total weight 90 kg – Moving mass 10 kg – Max. acceleration 62 m/sec²© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 25
  • 27. Freeform reflectors - computable, but not to manufacture?Reflector surface Light sourcen Freeform surface Freeform-n Scaleable geometry mirror Projectionn Diameter = 20 mmn Non-rotationally symmetric portion: 0,45 mmn Data type: NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B- Splines) Simulated tool path NURBS-Mirror surface Brightness distributionManufacturing requirements y [mm]n Harmonic tool pathn Very high frequency position control NC code correction x [mm] Source: OEC AG© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 26
  • 28. Summary –Limitation of UP Machining Ultra precision machining with mono crystalline diamond tools Recent developments < ultra precision machining of nonferrous materials by turning, milling and fly cutting < extremely high surface quality of a few nanometers Ra < shape accuracy in the submicron range Restrictions < machining of ferrous materials causes high wear < life time of nonferrous metals cavities is not sufficient in many cases < galvanic process chain is time consuming, expansive and with limited reproducibilityGalvanic layer separation There is a huge demand for flexible production technologies to machine wear resisted mould inlays© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 27
  • 29. CompetitivenessPrecision Glass Molding vs. Alternative Manufacturing Technologie Grinding and Polishing Precision Glass Molding Conventional Molding – Oldest technology for – Technology for mass – Technology for mass glass optics production production manufacturing – Obtainable accuracy – Non-isothermal – Large variety geometries satisfying for imaging optics – Accuracies satisfying for possible lighting optics – Isothermal process – Nearly all optical glasses – Limitation in glass – Nearly all optical glass machinable moldable material choice – Highest accuracies – Ceramic molds – Geometric variability obtainable – Accuracies in the range limited by mold l to l/5 manufacturing© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 28
  • 30. Precision Glass Molding:An Integrative Approach Data HandlingOptic FEM Mold Molded Mold Design MoldingDesign Simulation Manufact. LensIdean Optimization of the process sequence for precision glass molding towards higher efficiency and more complex optical elementsn Generation of an integrated approach for the data handlingConceptn Consideration of each single process step including the different interfaces© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 29
  • 31. Precision Glass MoldingThe ProcessProcess cycle Temperatur and force cycle1. Loading and N2-purging Homogizing N2 Gas Tg2. Heating of glass IR -lamps Heating Cooling Temperatur and mold Force Pressing Mold3. Pressing Time F Force Temperatur4. Cooling and unloading N2 Gas Isothermal molding process leads to high accuracies!Source: Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 30
  • 32. An Integrative Approach:Data Handlingn Data flow (forward): Ideal data flow – Optic design (IGES file) Metrology – FE process simulation Data and NC code generation, both based on IGES file – Mold manufacturing – Moldingn Data flow (feedback) Data Metrology – Metrology data from mold manufacturing to create adapted NC code – Metrology data from molding to improve FE process simulationSource: Zemax, Toshiba, ModuleWorks© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 31
  • 33. Tool making for Precision Glass Molding Challenges n High Accuracy (shape deviation < 1µm) n Optical surface quality (Ra < 10 nm) n Mold material: carbide (HV10: 2825 GPa, Density: 15,75 g/cm³) Process n Ultra precision grinding (resolution < 1nm, air guided spindle) n Resin bonded grinding tools for ductile machining n 4-axis process for freeform applicationsSource: Faunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 32
  • 34. Precision Glass MoldingExamples 10 mm 5 mmn Double sided condensor lens for homogenization of coherent (excimer lasers) or incoherent light sources (ultra high power lamps)n Appr. 1800 single cavities with optical quality (1.2 mm in diameter)© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 33
  • 35. Machine set-up for ultrasonic assisted turning control monitor unit oszilloscope HF-generator spindle amplifier personal computer adjustable ultrasonic tool systemclamping device dynamometer workpiece capacitive sensor© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 34
  • 36. Comparison of Tool Wear in Diamond Cutting –Conventional Cutting versus Ultrasonic Assisted Cuttingn Conventional cutting n US-assisted cutting – cutting length < 50 m – cutting length > 5000 m 35µm 35µm SVy~4 µm SVy~4 µm rake face rake face nose radius rε = 0,899mm nose radius rε = 0,899mmmaterial: X3 CrNiMoAl 13-8-2depth of cut: ap = 8 µmfeed: f = 5 µm© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 35
  • 37. Ultrasonic Assisted Diamond Tools (40kHz) - The Principle andAdvantagesn diamond tool is loaded 1 vrel > 0 2 vrel = 0 3 vrel < 0 4 vrel > 0 5 vrel > 0 6 vrel = 0 top dead with ultrasonic vibration in centre cutting direction bottom – Amplitude 1 µm dead centre vc-rot vc-os – Frequency 80 kHz 6 amplitude [µm]n reduction of effective point of separation (Ta) (Ta) workpiece 4 contact duration and point of entrance (Te) movement 2 process forces 0 tooln better inflow of coolant -2 movement contact point (Te)n reduction of friction -4 Ta T Te Ta between tool and chip -6 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,5 reduced tool wear contact period without contact contact ductile cutting contact time [µs]© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 36
  • 38. Molds for micro optics manufacturingConcave and Convex Aspheresn Manufacturing on Moore Form deviation [nm] Nanotech 350 FG 600 PV 144 nmn On machine measurement 400 200 and compensation applied 0 -200n Shape accuracies on -400 aspheres < 210 nm -600 -800 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4n Tools with non controlled Radial Position [mm] waviness Form deviation [nm] 200 PV 204 nm 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Radial Position [mm]© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 37
  • 39. µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideasDemonstrator Mould by the Fraunhofer IPT© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 38
  • 40. µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideasDemonstrator with optimized Top Surface – Microscope Image burr formation© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 39
  • 41. Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT Dipl.-Ing. Benedikt Gellissen Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT Steinbachstraße 17, 52074 Aachen Phone: +49 241 89 04-256 Fax: +49 241 89 04-6256 Mail: benedikt.gellissen@ipt.fraunhofer.de© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 40

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