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NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations
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NOVEL Food Processing Technologies: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations

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Tatiana Koutchma, PhD. …

Tatiana Koutchma, PhD.
Guelph Food Research Center

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  • 1. NOVELFOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES: Emerging Applications, Research and Regulations Tatiana Koutchma, PhD. Guelph Food Research Center
  • 2. AAFC FOOD SAFETY RESEARCH•CL-02 pilot plant in Guelph•$1.2 mln Modernizing Federal Labs Initiative•Official opening on November 9, 2010•Certified as CL-2 on March 23, 2011•Research activity started in summer 2011 •Microbiological •Toxicological •Chemical safety•Opens opportunities to food safety engineering research 2010 2
  • 3. GFRC PILOT PLANT: CL-02 Certified Facility 2010 2009 2011 PHAC certification 3
  • 4. Objective• Review – Available groups of food high -techs• Provide – Information to assist in evaluation of relative capabilities of commercially available technologies and technologies-in-development to ensure safe and nutritious foods.• Discuss – Risk based approach for establishing a safe process• Research Highlights – UV light – Microwave heating – Pulsed Electric Fields
  • 5. Food High Tech Processing• Emerging in primary food production and processing – Transform raw materials into food products – Preserve fabricated foods and ingredients during transportation, retailing and consuming foods.• Provide Safety attributes higher than those of raw products• Maintain Health and Quality attributes at least equal to raw products• Enhance Functional properties• Provide Broader Sustainable and Environmentally friendly benefits 5
  • 6. Key Drivers• Freshness & Convenience & Less preserved• Enhanced Safety and Extended Shelf-Life – Pathogen reduction in fresh produce – Listeria post-lethality treatments• Heat labile functional ingredients• Engineering functional ingredients for delivery of healthy foods• Lower carbon footprint and reduce water volume used in heat transfer processes• Need for sound regulatory policy – U.S., Canada, EU 6
  • 7. Microbial Food Safety Food Preservation Inhibition Inactivation Spoilage Spoilage Pathogenic m/o Chemical Physical Pasteurization Sterilization Thermal Nonthermal Acidification Refrigeration Thermal Non-thermalWater activity FreezingPreservatives Heat Irradiation Heat Gamma Dielectric heating UV light High Pressure + heat Irradiation Ohmic heating High Pressure Dielectric heating PEF
  • 8. Classification of foods categories and post-processing storage conditions Foods Catego ries Acid & Shelf- Acidified High Acid Stable 3.5<pH<4. pH<3.5 pH>4.6 6 Sterilizat Pasteuri Pasteuri Pasteuri ion zation zation zation Growth inhibition Chilled Foods Refrigerated +barriers Ambient Ambient Ambient Storage Storage Storage LAPFs barrier ESL ESLLAF & +
  • 9. SterilizationProcess to remove or destroy all viable forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores – Long term preservation – “Commercial Sterility” – Packaging & storage environment will prevent growth of microorganisms of public health concern & spoilage type• Food Safety Objective (FSO) Approach
  • 10. Pasteurization• Prior to 2002 FDA considered pasteurization as a thermal treatment – FDA would not allow a nonthermal processing technology to promote its treatment as a “pasteurization” process• September 2004, the USDA National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) redefined the term pasteurization Any process, treatment, or combination thereof, that is applied to food to reduce the most microorganism(s) of public health significance to a level that is not likely to present a public health risk under normal conditions of distribution and storage Food Chemical News, 2004
  • 11. Examples of pasteurization process for products within different pH-groupsExamples of pH Pathogen Required Enzymes Products of Concern Reduction Destruction (Logs) Apple cider <3.5 E. coli O157:H7 5-log 10 Orange juice <3.5 Salmonella, 5-log10 Pectin- E. coli O157:H7 methylesterase Carrot juice >4.6 non-proteolytic C.botulinum 5-log10 Milk and milk ~6.5 -7 Mycobacterium 5-log10 Negative for alkaline products tuberculosis; phosphatase Coxiella burnetiiEggs products >7 Salmonella enteritidis; 7-log10 Salmonella typhimurium In-shell eggs >7 Salmonella 5-log10 RTE meals >4.6 Listeria 5-7 log10 Almonds Salmonella 5-log10 Fish and sea >4.6 non-proteolytic C.botulinum 6-log 10 products Crab meat >4.6 Type E non-proteolytic 12-log10 C. botulinum
  • 12. Food Technology AssessmentTechnology Readiness Level Description (TRL) 1 Basic principles observed and reported 2 Technology concept and/or application formulated 3 Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof of concept 4 Component validation in relevant environment 5 System or prototype demonstration in relevant environment (pilot scale) 6 Systems available commercially 7 Economic feasibility demonstrated or regulatory issues addressed (but not both) 8 Economic feasibility and regulatory issues addressed 9 Ready for full-scale commercialization 12
  • 13. Thermal Technologies Traditional (9) Novel/Emerging• Canning – in package retorting • Pressure + Heat (8)• Aseptic Sterilization • Radiative or Microwave dielectric (8) – Package in sterile conditions-Cool • High frequency (HF) or Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric (5-6)• Pasteurize - Package – Cool : • Infrared (6-7) – “Hot-Fill” Technique• Pasteurize - Cool – Package : • Ohmic heating/Conductive (5-6) – “Cold-Fill” Technique• Package - Pasteurize - Cool : – "Sous vide’ Technique 13
  • 14. Knowledge in Thermal Processing• Established organism of public health concern• Understood the destruction kinetics/mathematics necessary to evaluate a treatment• Developed knowledge how products heat for given processing systems• Generated principles on the relationships between the organism of public health concern and spoilage• Ability to express a complicated process delivery in simple “Lethality” terms so as to understand the equivalent safety of different processing systems 14
  • 15. Non-thermal Technologies Emerged Under development – Irradiation (9) • Cold Plasma (3-4) – High hydrostatic pressure (8-9) • Electrolyzed water (5) – Filtration (9) • Sonication (5) – Ozone (8-9) • Low dose e-beams (5) Emerging – Pulsed Electric Fields (6-7) – UV light (6) – Pressure and CO2 (6) 1503/16/2011 (C), 2011 Tatiana Koutchma
  • 16. Future Processing Trends Traditional Technologies Novel Technologies V SImprovements in Designs and Controls Novel Processes Redesign Transformation & PreservationImproved Manufacturing Performance Improved Quality Products Improved Product Quality Traditional Foods Novel Foods 16
  • 17. Example - UV light TechnologyTransformation / Added value Preservation § Milk • UV pasteurization of liquid foods Vitamin D synthesis and beverages § Mushrooms (cultivated and wild grown, lyophilized ) – Fresh juices Vitamin D2 synthesis – Iced teas, soft drinks § Peanut butter, soy Potential to reduce allergenicity – Liquid Sweeteners § Carrots Increased AO capacity 17
  • 18. Challenges of Novel Food Processing • Safety EquivalenceTraditional Foods VS Novel FoodsTraditional Process VS Novel Process 18
  • 19. Novel Foods 19
  • 20. Global RegulationsNOVEL FOODS NO DEFINITION OR OTHER TERMSü European Union ü USAü United Kingdom ü Japanü New Zealand/Australia ü Indiaü Canadaü China 20
  • 21. Novel Foods in Canada• Foods resulting from a process not previously used for food.• Products that do not have a history of safe use as a food.• Foods that have been modified by genetic manipulation, also known as genetically modified foods, GM foods, genetically engineered foods or biotechnology-derived foods. 21
  • 22. Risk Assessment of Safety of Novel Foods • Details of novel process O • Dietary Exposure O O • History of organism OH • Nutritional considerations • Toxicology considerations • Allergenicity considerations • Chemical considerations 22
  • 23. USANo Novel Regulations• US FDA considers food ingredients as novel that have not been previously used• New dietary compounds (NDI)• As food additives under existing law, the principal law being the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.• The ‘Generally Recognised as Safe’ or GRAS concept is the bench mark by which all foods, including novel foods, are assessed.• GRAS substances are: substances used before 1958 (excluding prior sanctioned food ingredients); and substances for which there is scientific evidence of safety as determined by competent experts and by published and available safety information. 23
  • 24. US Approvals of Novel Processes• 2001, Code 21 CFR Part 179.39 was published to improve the safety of fresh juice products: Source of UV radiation (LPM at 254 nm) defined as a food additive• 2004, USDA has approved High Hydrostatic Pressure as an intervention method for Listeria contaminated pre-packed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products• 2008, 73 FR 49593 The FDA published a final rule that allows the use of irradiation for fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach• 2009, the US FDA approved a petition for the commercial use of Pressure Assisted Thermal Sterilization process (PATS) for application in the production of LAF§ 2010, US FDA first time approved novel sterilization processing using 915 MHz microwave energy (MATS) for producing pre-packaged, LAF 24
  • 25. What Understanding is Needed when Establishing a Novel Process? A B B ProcessIngredients Product B ard is Regulatory az lys H a Process Acceptance Design An V alid atio nA 25
  • 26. UV Technology• UV light for Food Safety in Food Plants• Novel UV Preservation Processes Research Approaches and Results Novel Taylor Couette UV reactor Novel pulsed UV sources and foods quality Toxicological safety of apple juice• Future Needs 26
  • 27. Why UV?• Effective against microbial and chemical hazards• Physical non-thermal method 38 39 33 33• Chemicals free 25 23 17• Cost effective 14 16 12• Energy efficient 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011• Approved by Regulatory Agencies – EPA – US FDA (2001) – Health Canada (2003)
  • 28. UV lightFood Safety Preservation Transformation Value Added Non-Food Contact Pasteurization Toxins Nutrients Food Contact Shelf-Life Extension Allergens enhancement Surfaces Air Juices Peanuts Mushrooms Milk Peanut Butter Milk Fresh Produce Soy Carrots
  • 29. UV Sources• Continuous - Monochromatic – Low Pressure Mercury (LPM) 102-103 Pa – Low Pressure Amalgam lamps (LPA) – high output – Excimer Lamps • Selectable to the wavelength of interest• Continuous - Broad Band – Medium Pressure Mercury lamps (MPM) 10-30MPa• Pulsed - Broad Band – Xenon Flash Lamps – Surface Discharge High intensity (1-30Hz)• UV LEDs
  • 30. Comparison of UV sourcesUV source Electrical UV UV Lamp Lifetime, Output efficiency efficiency intensity surface Spectrum T, month % % W/cm2 Deg C LPM 50 38 0.001 - 40 18-24 Monochromatic 0.01 253.7 nm Excimer 10-25 10-30 0.05-0.5 ambient 13 Monochromatic selectable MPM 15-30 12 12 400- 0.5 Polychromatic 1000 200-400 nm Flash 45-50 9 600 1000- 1 Polychromatic Xenon 10000 100-1000 nm Surface 15-20 17 30,000 NA PolychromaticDischarge NA 200-800 nm
  • 31. Novel LED Diodes• Energy-efficient, long life, easy control of emission and no production of mercury waste• Inactivate by UV photons and creating reactive oxygen species (e.g.H2O2, O¯2 and OH¯) via the photooxidation of O2• Emission at 265nm ± 15nm• Output power 4.5 mW• Anticipate 10mW June 2011• Lifetime measurements• >10,000hrs @ 100mA input current• Emission strongly forward focused (±30o)• Cost is an issue
  • 32. CFR 21 179.39 UV radiation for the processing and treatment of foodRadiated food Limitations UseFood and food Without ozone production: Surface microorganism products high fat-content food control. irradiated in vacuum or in an inert atmosphere; intensity of radiation, 1 W (of 2,537 A. radiation) 2 per 5 to 10 ft.Potable water Without ozone production; Sterilization of water coefficient of used in food absorption, 0.19 per cm production. or less; flow rate, 100 gal/h per watt of 2,537 A. radiation; water depth, 1 cm or less; lamp-operating temperature, 36 to 46 deg. C. Juice products Turbulent flow through Reduction of human32 tubes with a minimum pathogens and other Reynolds number of 2,200. microorganisms
  • 33. Food Plant Microbial Hazards• Airborne – Molds Spores, human pathogens• Waterborne – Viruses, pathogenic bacteria and spores• Foodborne – Bacteria, spores• Spoilage – Yeats, molds, lactobacilli
  • 34. UV on Food Plant• Air and water treatments• Non-food contact surfaces• Food contact surfaces• Food surfaces OFFERS UV-PROTECTION!
  • 35. Air Purification to reduce microbial load• Production facilities air cleaning• Duct systems Spores are more resistant to UVGI Viruses are highly vulnerable Rate constant of E-coli is 3-4 times its plate value
  • 36. Non-Food Contact Surfaces– Facility surfaces • Walls • Ceilings • Floors– UV activated coating
  • 37. Food Contact Surfaces – Packaging • films • caps • cups, tubes – Conveyors – Equipment surfaces – Packaged Foods
  • 38. Food Products Surfaces• To reduce levels of pathogens(Listeria and Salmonella) onmeats, poultry, fish• Salmonella in Shell-eggs• Extended Shelf-life bakery products• Fresh Produce• Food powders • black pepper and wheat flour
  • 39. Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce• Retard microbial growth without causing undesirable quality changes – Whole Produce: apples, kiwi, lemons, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, raspberries and grapes – Leafy produce: lettuce, salad, spinach – Fresh-cut : watermelon and cantaloupe • 1-log reduction at 4.1 kJm-2 without affecting juice leakage, color and overall visual quality » Baulieu, J., 2007; Lamikanra, O. et al, 2005
  • 40. UV sensitivity on the surfaces: Listeria monocytogenes• Agar: • Products – D10= 0.5 mJ/cm2 – Frankfurters D10=300 mJ/cm2• Surfaces of packaging materials, conveyor belts – Cut Pear – D10 = 2.55 – 3.2 mJ/cm2 D10~ 2000 mJ/cm2 40
  • 41. Liquid Foods and Beverages• Fresh Juices Apple, apple cider, carrot, orange Tropical fruit juices§ Liquid sweeteners Sucrose, fructose, glucose§ Ice teas, soft drinks§ Liquid egg products§ Milk, cheese milk and calf milk§ Whey protein concentrates§ Brewery & winery§ Emulsions, brines, marinades
  • 42. UV preservation: pH Classification of Fluid Foods Groups of Fluid Foods Liquid- Clear Emulsions Particles Liquids Suspensions High Acid High Acid pH<3.5 pH<3.5 Low Low Acid Low Acid Acid pH > 4.6 pH > 4.6 Acid Acid pH>4.6 3.5<pH<4.6 pH<4.6 Iced teaApple Orange Carrot Watermelon MilkJuice juice Juice Juice Liquid PineappleGrape Liquid Tomato Egg JuiceJuice Sweeteners Products juice Guava
  • 43. Properties of fluid foods 100 140 90 120 80 100Abs orption coefficient per cm Viscosity, cP 70 60 80 50 60 40 40 30 20 20 10 0 0 water apple pineapple liquid Water Waste Clear Apple Orange Liquid juice juice syrup water apple cider juice sugars juice pH, deg Brix, suspended solids/turbidity
  • 44. Integrated sphere: diffuse transmittance Clear juices Juices with particles 2.5 y = 2.3998x 2.5 2.3 cranberry 2.3 y = 3.9464x 2.0 y = 2.6462x orange apple 2.0 1.8 1.8 A at 253.7 nm 1.5 A at 253.7 nm 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.0 Orange 0.8 y = 2.2102x y = 1.119x apple juice 0.8 apple cider grape Apple Cider 0.5 white grape juice 0.5 Tomato 0.3 Cranberry juice 0.3 Carrot 0.0 0.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Pathe length, mm Path length (mm) (a) (b) Absorption coefficient Absorption spectra 45 2 Orange juice 40 1.8 35 1.6 Cranberry 1.4 Orange 30 Absorbance Apple juice Grape 1.2 Cranberry a. 1/cm 25 White Grape Apple 1 Apple cider 20 0.8 15 0.6 Apple cider 0.4 10 0.2 5 0 0 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Fruit juice Wavelength, nm 44 (c) (d)
  • 45. Fluid Foods for UV preservation Non-Lambertian Lambertian Non-Newtonian Non-Newtonian NL-NN L-NN Non-Lambertian Lambertian Newtonian Newtonian NL- N L-NpH<3.5; 3.5 <pH<4.6; pH>4.6 45
  • 46. UV sensitivity Water Liquid Foods Cryptosporidium Bacteria Bacteriaresistance resistance Yeasts Yeasts Spores UV UV Spores Viruses Viruses (Adenovirus) Molds (spores) Depends on wavelength Depends on product parameters Emission Spectrum pH, Aw, composition
  • 47. Identification of surrogate for E.coli O157:H7 UV spectral chart of R52-G lampsample UV lamp: R52-G METHOD MATERIALS Sample volume: 4 mL apple juice Sample depth: 2 mL buffer UV fluence: 0.19 mJ/cm2
  • 48. UV inactivation of E.coli in buffer and juice Malate buffer pH 3.5 Allens apple juice 0 0 O157:H7 -1 -1 ATCC 8739 -2 log10(N/N0) -2log10(N/N0) -3 -3 -4 -4 O157:H7 -5 -5 ATCC 8739 -6 -6 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 UV fluence (mJ/cm2) UV fluence (mJ/cm2) 48
  • 49. UV sensitivity of E. coli strains in apple juice
  • 50. UV process Design Approaches for Low UVT fluids 1,2 1,0 Match 0,8 Absorbance 0,6 • emission spectrum of UV 0,4 source to absorption 0,2 spectrum of liquid or 0,0 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 beverages Wavelength (nm) Motts Apple Juice Allens Apple Juice 0,08 1,2 LPM Lamp 0,07 HIP-3 Lamp 1,0 Apple juice • design of UV reactor to 0,06 Vitamin C (1 mg/mL) Irradiance (mW/cm2/nm) 0,8 create total fluid volume 0,05 Absorbance 0,04 0,6 delivery to UV sources 0,03 0,4 – Volume Mixing 0,02 – Surface Refreshing 0,2 0,01 0 0,0 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Wavelength (nm) 50
  • 51. Design of UV units for Low UVT Liquids Annular reactor “UltraDynamics” Thin film reactor “CiderSure” L-NN L-NThin film mixers “Pure UV”/ “Iatros” Static Mixers – Dean Flow “Salcor” Outlet UV lamp NL- Teflon tube NL- NN wound in helix pattern NN Inlet
  • 52. Experimental set-up: UV TAYLOR – COUETTE FLOW UV lamp: LPM Lamp power: 3.80 W Flow regime: 1. 1500 ml/min, 0 rpm 2. 1500 ml/min, 200 rpm rotor outlet 3. 500 ml/min, 0 rpm 4. 500 ml/min, 200 rpm LampMATERIALS pumpapple ciderE. coli ATCC 8739 inlet
  • 53. INACTIVATION OF E. COLI ATCC 8739 IN APPLE CIDER PROCESSED WITH T-C UV REACTOR Apple cider - E. coli ATCC 8739 Residence Time of 5% NaCl in Apple Cider in TC Reactor 0,0 1,4 -1,0 1,2 500(0)avgConcentration of NaCl (%) -2,0 1,0 500(200)avg 1500(0)avg -3,0 log10(N/N0) 0,8 1500(200)avg 0,6 -4,0 0,4 -5,0 1500 - 200 rpm 0,2 1500 - 0 rpm -6,0 500 - 200 rpm 0,0 0 100 200 300 400 -7,0 0 200 400 600 800 Time (s) Residence time (s)
  • 54. E XPERIMENTAL SET- UP 10 mJ/cm2 – mercury lamps (LPM, MPM) UV fluence: 5 mJ/cm2 – pulsed lamps (HIP) Sample volume: 200 mL Sample depth: 6 cm Photography (without front cover) and scheme of CONTROL: collimated beam setup used with the LPM lamp. non-UV treatedA – Collimated beam box; B – UV lamp; C – aperture; sample D – sample dish
  • 55. Mercury Lamps: LOW PRESSURE (LPM) AND MEDIUM PRESSURE (MPM) LPM 0,50 maximum at: LPM Lamp 0,45 253.27 nm MPM Lamp 0,40 Irradiance (mW/cm2/nm) 0,35 Light output of 0,30 LPM and MPM 0,25 0,20 lamps 0,15 were measured 0,10 at sample 0,05 0,00 position -0,05 of 30.48 cm from 200 250 300 350 the centre of the Wavelength (nm) lamp
  • 56. HIGH INTENSITY PULSED (HIP) LAMPS HIP-1 0,040 HIP-1Energy/pulse: 31 J 0,035 HIP-2Pulse rate: 8 Hz HIP-3 Irradiance (mW/cm2/nm) 0,030 0,025 HIP-2 0,020Energy/pulse: 344 JPulse rate: 0.75 Hz 0,015 0,010 HIP-3 0,005 Energy/pulse: 644 J 0,000 200 250 300 350 Pulse rate: 0.50 Hz Wavelength (nm) Irradiance of each of HIP UV lamp was measured at sample position: 45.72 cm from the centre of the lamp
  • 57. 30% FRUCTOSE APPLE JUICE 0,08 1,2 0,08 2,00 LPM Lamp LPM 1,80 0,07 0,07 Lamp HIP-3 Lamp 1,0 HIP-3 Lamp 1,60 0,06 Apple juice 0,06Irradiance (mW/cm2/nm) Irradiance (mW/cm2/nm) 1,40 0,8 0,05 0,05 Absorbance 1,20 Absorbance 0,04 0,6 0,04 1,00 0,80 0,03 0,03 0,4 0,60 0,02 0,02 0,40 0,2 0,01 0,01 0,20 0 0,0 0 0,00 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) APPLE CIDER MILK
  • 58. QUALITY PARAMETERS THAT WERE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED (p > 0.05) BY ANY OF THE UV TREATMENTS 30% Fructose Apple juicepH (< 5.0) pH (< 0.5)[exception - MPM lamp: > 10%] Soluble solids (< 0.6)Soluble solids (< 0.5) Apple cider Milk pH (< 1.5) Color (< 3.0) pH (< 0.5) Soluble solids (< 0.5) Soluble solids (< 2.0) Total phenolic content (< 2.5) Alkaline phosphatase (< 8.0) Antioxidant capacity (< 3.0) Viscosity (< 2.0) Polyphenol oxidase (< 10.0)
  • 59. UV EFFECT ON COLOR OF FRUCTOSE CIELAB color scale L* a* b*
  • 60. UV EFFECT ON COLOR OF APPLE JUICE L* Black (0) – white (100) axis a* Green (-) – red (+) axis b* Blue (-) – yellow (+) axisUV EFFECTON COLOR OF MILK
  • 61. UV EFFECT ON VITAMIN C IN APPLE JUICE UV EFFECTON VITAMIN C IN MILK
  • 62. Inactivation of Enzymes• PPO, peroxidase, pectinolytic enzymes in model systems, apple juice and apple fruits• Alkaline phosphatase in milk• Trypsin and carboxypeptidase A in buffers Manzocco, L et al, 2009, IFS and ET 5.0 UV-C monochromatic, 3.94 J/cm^2: 4.5 ~ 40% loss after exposure clear apple juice to Apple juice 4.0 PPO units 3.5 Falguera et al 2010, LWT Polychromatic UV lamp at 400 W (250 – 3.0 740 nm) with max at 420 nm 2.5 PPO in apple juice 100% inactivated after 0 10 20 30 40 50 100 min of treatment UV dose (m J/cm 2) UV-C light ~ 30% destruction
  • 63. Patulin control• Mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys• Cause acute but more frequently, chronic toxication• Codex Alimentarius, CFIA & U.S. FDA recommended the limitation of apple products intended for human consumption is 50µg/L (50ppb)• Structure: [4-hydroxy-4H- furo (3, 2-c)-pyran-2- (6H)-one]• Peak absorption wavelength: 276nm.
  • 64. Patulin-Degradation by UV light Absoption of 10ppm patulin in water with UV exposure UV source 1,20Absorption coefficient (cm-1) 1,00 0,80 Sample 0,60 0,40 Static cuvette system 0,20 0,00 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 UV source Wavelength (nm) 0s 150 s 300 s 600 s 1200 s Sample Magnetic stirrer Dynamic - collimated beam system
  • 65. v Degradation of patulin followed the first order reactionv The degradation rate constants were affected by incident fluence rate, sample length, way of mixing and media in which patulin is dissolvedv Maximum UV delivered dose (which degrades almost all patulin, eg. 99.99%) is only associated with the quantum yield, initial patulin concentration and sample length.v The time to reach specific level of maximum dose (eg. 50% or 90%), however, decided by the degradation rate constant.
  • 66. UV - What are PROS?• Commercially available UV sources present options to solve specific needs of SURFACE and VOLUMETRIC applications• Offers numerous solutions to food processors to improve Microbiological, Toxicological and Chemical safety• Low cost non-chemical protection against microbes in the air, water, non-food and food surfaces, pre-packed foods• As a method of preservation, UV light can be used for fluid foods – to extend shelf-life of fresh produce – as alternative to thermal pasteurization of liquid foods and beverages – to destroy toxins• Potential to create value-added products
  • 67. Risk of UV Processes• Over processing due to UV dose non-uniformity• Photo-reparation of bacteria due to under processing• Furan formation• Migration of packaging compounds 67
  • 68. Electro Heating Techniques Radiative or Microwave Dielectric 915 or 2450 MHz Commercial systems ~ 915 MHz Home systems ~ 2450 MHz High frequency (HF) or Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric
  • 69. History• 1921-magnetron was developed by Hill• 1945-Dr. Spencer built the first microwave oven from a farmers milk can and obtained a patent• 1955 -the first microwave oven was introdoced by Raytheon Co.• 1970 Radiation control for Health and Safety Act• 1974 variable power control were available• 1984-microwave ovens accounted for the largest annual shipment of any home appliances in history
  • 70. Basics of MW heating• MW energy is generated by special oscillator tubes magnetrons or klystrons• MW energy is transmitted to an applicator or antenna through a waveguide or coaxial transmission line• MW are guided primarily a radiation phenomenon• MW are able to radiate into a space which could be the inside of the oven or cavity
  • 71. Heat is generated volumetricallydue to interaction between EM field and the material
  • 72. Advantages§ Volumetric origin§ Reduced processing time§ Improved quality§ Controllable heat deposition§ Selective heatingLimitations§ Uneven heating§ Non isothermal§ A lack of reliable method for food safety
  • 73. Major Challenges• Non-uniformity of MW-induced temperature within the product• Location of the slowest heating point is unknown and varies• A time-temperature profile of the coldest spot is difficult to measure• Evaluation of MW process lethality in a geometrical center may be fairly inadequate Critical limitation for microwave sterilization of LACF
  • 74. Trace of the Load Coldest Point3D Migration of Tm(t) within the Load in the Course of MW Heating Rectangular load: a × b × c = 100 × 76 × 30 mm
  • 75. Status of Microwave Processing§ MW heating is well understood from a physics, food science and engineering§ Cost of MW equipment has fallen§ Advances in computer design and modeling§ Selective MW heating of food components can be achieved
  • 76. Advantageous MW Processesü Pasteurizing or cooking high-viscosity, low-acid liquids (pH>4.6 ), liquids with particlesü Pasteurizing products with fouling problemsü Pasteurizing heat labile products ü quality optimization ü In-shell eggsü MW high temperature - short time sterilization (HTST)
  • 77. Commercial Applications• North America – Tempering of frozen foods – Cooking of meat emulsions – Sterilization of sweet potatoes• Europe – Pasteurization and sterilization of ready-to-eat meals – Cooking of sauces – Drying of particulate foods – Tempering of frozen foods• Japan – Pasteurization and sterilization of ready-to-eat meals – Drying of particulate foods
  • 78. Modeling of MW heating• Microbial destruction 1 50 – Non-isothermal heating conditions 0.1 45 – Lack of temperature control 40 0.01 Residence time, s Survival Ratio 35• Quality degradation 0.001 30 – Less thermally degrading 0.0001 if heats faster and more uniform steam 25 MW 0.00001 Time-steam 20 Time-MW• Heating characteristics 0.000001 53 57 60 62 65 67 15 – spatial and time-temperature curves during transient and steady state Temperature, oC – heating rates – absorbed power – coupling efficiency
  • 79. Coupling and Food Properties
  • 80. MATS Process§ In February 2010, US FDA first time approved novel sterilization processing using 915 MHz microwave energy for producing pre-packaged, low-acid foods§ Technology immerses packaged food (mashed potatoes) in pressurized hot water while simultaneously heating it with microwaves at a frequency of 915 MHz§ This combination eliminates food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in just 5 to 8 min§ Chemical markers were used to identify a food’s cold spot§ Produces safe foods with much higher quality than conventionally processed RTE products
  • 81. Microwave Process for Pumpable Foods• Microwave high temperature short time sterilization (HTST)• Industrial Microwave Systems (915 MHz)• Delivers uniform heating in a continuous flow• Sweet potato puree• Approved process by US FDA Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, V.85 (4)
  • 82. Pasteurization of In Shell Eggs• Eggs can commercially be pasteurized by conduction heating in airor water• Davidson-Process assures the necessary 5-log-reduction ofSalmonella Enteritidis.• Due to the low heat conductivity of the albumen and the yolk theprocess time is about 180 min• For the whole time the yolk and the albumen is exposed to elevatedtemperatures of up to 57°C.
  • 83. In-Shell Egg Nutrients Whole Egg Yolk WhiteEgg (g per 100g)Shell Thin Egg White Air Cell Protein 11.95 15.50 9.80 Moisture 75.85 56.20 88.55 Fat (total Lipid) 10.20 25.60 0.00 Ash 0.95 1.55 0.60 Thick Egg Yolk White Carbohydrate 1.05 1.15 1.05 Outer and k cp Inner 20°C/ 915MHz ε ε" Membrane [W/m*K] [kJ/kg*K] Egg White 67.22 17.54 0.58 3.91 Egg Yolk 30.02 9.62 0.40 3 (Gregory Fleischman, 2004)
  • 84. Characterisation of In-Shell Eggs 50 Mean 61,07 70 Variable StDev 3,465 W idth N 300 Length 60 Mean StDev N 40 1,713 0,03706 120 50 2,253 0,06419 120 30Frequency Frequency 40 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 54 57 60 63 66 69 1,65 1,80 1,95 2,10 2,25 2,40 Mass [g] Diameter [inch] • Mass: important for predicting microwave heating conditions
  • 85. Dielectric properties of egg components albumen, e yolk, e80 45 5 °C 5 °C70 40 3560 55 °C 3050 2540 20 55 °C30 1520 1010 5 0 00.00E+00 5.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.50E+09 2.00E+09 2.50E+09 3.00E+09 3.50E+09 0.00E+00 5.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.50E+09 2.00E+09 2.50E+09 3.00E+09 3.50E+09 yolk, e" albumen, e" 2050 1845 55 °C 1640 5 °C 1435 1230 5 °C 1025 820 615 55 °C 5 °C 410 55 °C 2 5 0 0 0.00E+00 5.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.50E+09 2.00E+09 2.50E+09 3.00E+09 3.50E+090.00E+00 5.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.50E+09 2.00E+09 2.50E+09 3.00E+09 3.50E+09
  • 86. D- and F-values of Salmonella Enteridius Process Temperature D-Value [min] F-Value [min] [°C] Yolk White Yolk White 55 9.8 8.0 49.0 40.0 57.2 3.2 --- 16.0 --- 58.3 --- 1.0 --- 5.0 60 0.7 --- 3.5 ---
  • 87. Microwave Pasteurization of In-shell Eggs• Advantages of MW process : • Reduce the CUT • Establish different pasteurization temperatures for yolk and albumen • Attain less temperature abuse of egg constituents • Achieve better quality retention 60 50 40 T-Ti [°C] 30 20 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 10 25 30 15 20 Time [s] 300W 250W 100W 50W conduction heating (59°C)
  • 88. Performance Criteria 5-logs reduction of Salmonella , FDA Microwave Pasteurization Process Specification D T -values of Sm Time, Temperature No denaturation of Process egg proteins Boundary Conditions T < 65 C Emulsion stability Rapid Energy Uniform Selected Quality Foam ability heating Efficiency Heating Heati ng Computer Modeling Electromagnetic Field CalculationsCoaxial Frequency Cou pling Shape One Egg StaticWaveguide 433, 915, Dimensions Multiple Eggs Rotation 2450 MHz Moving Heat Transfer Manufacturing of MW cavity Conveyor Coaxial cavity Waveguide 915 MHz, 300W 915 MHz, 300 W 915 MHz 6 KW Validation of MW unit s Equipment Micr obial Quality Critical Inoculation Functional Waveguide process Waveguide Inactivation Waveguide Properties of parameters (C) 2011, of Sm Tatiana Koutchma albumen Uniformity Haugh Units
  • 89. MW pasteurizers Conveyor type Cylindrical MW Applicator,915 MHz, 300 W output power Tatiana Koutchma (C) 2011, 915 MHz, 300 Watts
  • 90. Implication of salt reduction on MW re-heating• Many manufacturers review their labelling claims and recipes and reformulate their products• Scale of changes can significantly alter the MW heating balance of their ingredients• Salt, sugar and fat are three of the most MW reactive ingredients likely to be used in a microwaveable food product• Salt significantly reduces microwave penetration, and salt reduction would potentially increase energy penetration depth• MW Heating instructions may need to be validated and adjusted!
  • 91. PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS PEF
  • 92. PEF Technology• High intensity (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of high voltage (typically 20 - 80 kV/cm) to foods placed between 2 electrodes• PEF treatment is conducted at ambient, sub-ambient, or slightly above ambient temperature for less than 1 s• Energy loss due to heating of foods is minimized• For food quality attributes, PEF technology is considered superior to traditional heat treatment of foods• Avoids or greatly reduces the detrimental changes of the sensory and physical properties of foods
  • 93. Electrical circuit for the production of exponential decay waveforms• DC power supply• Capacitor bank• Charging resistor• Discharge switch• Treatment chamber
  • 94. Square pulse generator using a pulse-forming network• 3 capacitors• Inductors• Solid state switching devices• More lethal and effective
  • 95. Treatment chambers and equipment• 2 commercial systems available – PurePulse Technologies, Inc. – Thomson-CSF• Batch• Continuous
  • 96. PEF Technology in Food Preservation• Improve the shelf-life of – bread – milk – orange juice – liquid eggs – apple juice – fermentation properties of brewers yeast
  • 97. Microbial Inactivation• Microbial inactivation increases with an increase in the electric field intensity – above the critical transmembrane potential• Gram-positive are more resistant to PEF than those that are Gram- negative• Yeasts are more sensitive to electric fields than bacteria due to their larger size• At low electric fields they seem to be more resistant than gram- negative cells• A comparison between the inactivation of 2 yeast spp. of different sizes showed that the field intensity needed to achieve the same inactivation level was inversely proportional to cell size• Spores are high resistant to PEF
  • 98. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism • Electrical breakdown(a) cell membrane with potential Vm, (b) membrane compression,(b) (c) pore formation with reversible breakdown,(d) large area of the membrane subjected to irreversible breakdown with large pores(Zimmermann, 1986)
  • 99. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism• Electroporation Vega-Mercado, 1996b
  • 100. PEF effects on enzymes• 51.7% and 83.8% of pepsin was inactivated at 37.0 kV/cm and 41.8 kV/cm for a treatment time of 126 µs, respectively• Activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased 38.2% when treated at 33.6 kV/cm for 126 µs• Activity of peroxidase and chymotrypsin decreased 18.1% and 4.0% treated at 34.9 kV/cm 34.2 kV/cm, respectively• No significant change in lysozyme activity was observed after PEF from 0 to 38 kV/cm for 126 µs• Enzyme inactivation was determined for lactoperoxidase in milk in comparison to thermal inactivation.• Both PEF and the induced heat contributed to the observed inactivation effect, depending on the properties of enzymes and test conditions. » Yang et al. Journal of Food Science, 2006, May
  • 101. Plant Tissues Permeabilization• Extractability of fruit and vegetable juices or intracellular compounds can be enhanced after a PEF-treatment – Apples, sugar beets, potatoes• An increase of up to 7 % of yield was found in comparison to untreated samples, juice quality was equivalent• A critical field strength of 0.3 to 0.5 kV/cm for plant and animal and 10 to 15 kV/cm for microbial cells was observed• Meat, fruit and vegetable treatment were identified as the most promising applications to achieve a broad industrial exploitation of the PEF technique• Energy requirements of 1 to 3 kW/t for cell disintegration and 30 to 50 kW/t for preservation
  • 102. PEF Critical Factors• Process – electric field intensity – pulse width – treatment time and temperature (50-60oC) – pulse waveshapes and polarity• Microbial entity – type, concentration, and growth stage of microorganism• Treatment media – pH, antimicrobials, and ionic compounds, conductivity, and medium ionic strength – Foods with large electrical conductivities generate smaller peak electric fields across the treatment chamber and therefore are not feasible for PEF treatment
  • 103. Aspects to be considered in PEF• Generation of high electric field intensities• Design of chambers that impart uniform treatment to foods• Minimum increase in temperature• Design of electrodes that minimize the effect of electrolysis
  • 104. Gaps in Novel Food Preservation• Process equivalency• Target organisms of concerns has to be determined along with the surrogates• Detailed knowledge of microbial dose-response behavior• Complete representation of the distribution of the lethal agent and velocity fields for development of an accurate process models• Chemical safety• Process uniformity• Process monitoring, verification and validation 104
  • 105. Summary• Advances in science and engineering, progress in regulatory approvals make Novel Processing Technologies (NPT) a viable option for commercialization in foods preservation and transformation• Preservation using NPT comprise two general categories: (1) technologies suited for pasteurizing high-acid liquid products such as HHP, PEF, US, UV and chemical processes, including gases; (2) technologies for processing shelf-stable foods, e.g., HHP combined with temperature, MW and RF heating, ohmic heating, and irradiation• Regulations on Novel Foods produced by novel process differ around the world 105
  • 106. Questions and Additional Information• Dr. Tatiana Koutchma koutchmat@agr.gc.ca• Thank you for you attention!

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