Food Safety Management in the U.S.           Meat Industry              Peter Taormina, Ph.D.     Principal Microbiologist...
Smithfield Foods, Inc. - U.S. Pork Group
John Morrell Food Group Locations18 operating plants2 corporate offices(Cincinnati, OH & Lisle, IL)~$3.9B Ann. Sales (FY20...
Some Products
Just what is safety?• safety n 1: the condition of being safe  from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or  loss.• safe ad...
Food Safety Hazards• Pathogenic microorganisms and microbial  toxins• Allergens• Foreign Objects• Chemical Contaminants• E...
RecallsClass of Recall     U.S. Food and         U.S. Department of                         Drug             Agriculture (...
Factor Risk Indices By Food Product                    Sector                                                In-Transit Ri...
Distribution of Primary Reportable Food Registry Entries by Food Safety Hazard       Year 1                               ...
http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsFoodborneEstimates/  from Scallan et al. 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17(1)7-15
Three Pillars of Successful Food     Safety Management  Culture    Science    Systems
Culture
Culture• Food safety culture  – Behavior-based  – Ethos
Creating a Food Safety Culture1. Expectations2. Education3. Communication of food safety messages   frequently4. Goals and...
Managerial Complexity, Dependent Upon Ambiguity and Uncertainty  Luning and Marcelis. 2006. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17:3...
The Techno-Managerial Approach  Luning and Marcelis. 2006. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17:378-385
Food Safety Culture• Covers the intangibles and grey areas• Foundational for food safety management
The First Step in HACCP• Gain management support• “The criticality of gaining management support for  HACCP programs canno...
Attributes of Food Safety Culture• Top-down commitment• Autonomy of the chief food safety  executive  – Final Macro decisi...
Food Safety Culture Covers the   Intangibles and “Grey Areas”• You cannot do everything  – Need cooperation from personnel...
Food Safety Culture• Old way: penalize plants for positive  pathogen test results in their environment.• New way:  – Liste...
Science
Science    • Hazard Analysis    • Scientific Validation    • Statistically-Based      Sampling
Cooling of Thermally-Treated Meat &            Poultry Products• Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control ...
Validation of Safe Cooling                                                    Temperature Profiles of Rare Prime Rib      ...
Extended Cooling of Ham and PMP 6.1 Prediction     of C. perfringens Growth in Cured Beef                              Tem...
Laboratory Simulation of Extended Cooling ofHam Inoculated with Clostridium perfringens                    180            ...
Publications                 Scientific Support                                           OrganizationsPredictive Models  ...
Science• Without science, you can spend a lot of  effort on things that will impart no  substantive reduction of risk but ...
Finished Product Testing            • Listeria monocytogenes              sampling of dry sausage            • “severe dir...
Statistically-Based Sampling• If 10% of lot was the  contaminated, and you  test 15 samples:   – 70% chance you would     ...
Cost of Product Testing for       Pathogens (Hold & Test)• Overnight shipping samples R$        133• R$30 per pathogen tes...
“It’s been tested”
Sample Size Sensitivity  25 g          5,500 g   Result = NEGATIVE                    …but less than 0.5%                 ...
Environmental Sampling   A Better Sample
Systems
Why Systems?• Change Management  – Workflow• Gatekeepers  – Checks and Balances• Consensus  – Standardized    specificatio...
Three Key Systems• HACCP  – Risk management system• Auditing  – Governmental (USDA, FDA)  – Third-Party (GFSI)  – Customer...
Hazard Analysis Critical Control         Point (HACCP)• First systematic way to manage risk in  food production  – U.S. Ar...
Seven Principles of HACCP1.   Conduct a hazard analysis.2.   Determine the critical control points (CCPs).3.   Establish c...
HACCP – Then and Now• Initially, many CCPs• Currently, as few  CCPs as possible  – Prerequisite programs  – CPs
“HACCP Is Dead”• “Hazard analysis is qualitative, whereas  risk assessment is now used to quantify  risk. However, the pub...
“HACCP Is Dead”• “Diluting the power of the CCP by saying  that it may merely reduce risk to an  acceptable level (not eli...
What’s Next for HACCP?• SPC• System thinking• eHACCP
Third-Party Auditing• Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)  – The Consumer Goods Forum     • 16 Board Members of Industry ...
Audits•   USDA-FSIS•   FDA•   CODEX Alimentarius•   GFSI (1 of 9 schemes)•   Customers
Niche!
Training• Various training systems are available• Training should be…  – Multilingual  – Followed by certification (i.e. t...
Qual é a causa principal derevocações nos Estados Unidos?
Mislabeling
Mislabeling -             Printed Packaging Film Allergen   Free Product AllergenContaining Product
Allergen Label Training &  Management System
Three Pillars of Successful Food     Safety Management  Culture    Science    Systems
Successful Food Safety      Management• Culture   – Management commitment & leadership   – Employee buy-in• Science   – Ha...
Gestão de sistemas de segurança alimentar na indústria de alimentos
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Gestão de sistemas de segurança alimentar na indústria de alimentos

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Gestão de sistemas de segurança alimentar na indústria de alimentos

  1. 1. Food Safety Management in the U.S. Meat Industry Peter Taormina, Ph.D. Principal Microbiologist, Corporate Food Safety & Quality John Morrell Food Group Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 9th International Meat Industrialization Seminar Chapecó, SC, Brazil | 20 September 2012
  2. 2. Smithfield Foods, Inc. - U.S. Pork Group
  3. 3. John Morrell Food Group Locations18 operating plants2 corporate offices(Cincinnati, OH & Lisle, IL)~$3.9B Ann. Sales (FY2012)
  4. 4. Some Products
  5. 5. Just what is safety?• safety n 1: the condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or loss.• safe adj 1: freed from harm or risk: UNHURT 2a: secure from threat of danger, harm, or loss Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, 1979
  6. 6. Food Safety Hazards• Pathogenic microorganisms and microbial toxins• Allergens• Foreign Objects• Chemical Contaminants• Economic Adulteration• Intentional Contamination (Food Defense)
  7. 7. RecallsClass of Recall U.S. Food and U.S. Department of Drug Agriculture (USDA) Administration (FDA)Class I serious adverse reasonable health probability health consequences or problems or death deathClass II may cause potential hazard temporary or remote probability of reversible harm or adverse health probability is remote consequencesClass III not likely to cause will not cause adverse health adverse health consequences consequences
  8. 8. Factor Risk Indices By Food Product Sector In-Transit Risk 0 20 40 60 80 100 120Bulk liquids (dedicated tanker) Bulk raw ingredients Eggs and egg products Frozen foods Fresh produce Meat & poultry (raw) Other nonperishables Packaging materials Refrigerated raw & RTE Soft-packed nonperishables Seafood (raw) >100 indicates greater than average risk for that factor adapted from Ackerley et al., 2010. Food Prot. Trends.
  9. 9. Distribution of Primary Reportable Food Registry Entries by Food Safety Hazard Year 1 Year 2FDA, Foods and Veterinary Medicine Program, THE REPORTABLE FOOD REGISTRY:TARGETING INSPECTION RESOURCES AND IDENTIFYING PATTERNS OF ADULTERATIONSecond Annual Report: September 8, 2010 – September 7, 2011
  10. 10. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsFoodborneEstimates/ from Scallan et al. 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17(1)7-15
  11. 11. Three Pillars of Successful Food Safety Management Culture Science Systems
  12. 12. Culture
  13. 13. Culture• Food safety culture – Behavior-based – Ethos
  14. 14. Creating a Food Safety Culture1. Expectations2. Education3. Communication of food safety messages frequently4. Goals and measurements5. Consequences and rewards for behaviors
  15. 15. Managerial Complexity, Dependent Upon Ambiguity and Uncertainty Luning and Marcelis. 2006. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17:378-385 Wageningen University, The Netherlands
  16. 16. The Techno-Managerial Approach Luning and Marcelis. 2006. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17:378-385
  17. 17. Food Safety Culture• Covers the intangibles and grey areas• Foundational for food safety management
  18. 18. The First Step in HACCP• Gain management support• “The criticality of gaining management support for HACCP programs cannot be over emphasized. Without a long term commitment, the time and effort required to develop and implement such a program cannot be sustained, particularly when decisions related to process deviations require actions that may negatively impact productivity or profitability.” – R.L. Buchanan. 2012. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System: Use in Managing Microbiological Food Safety Risks, Chap. 46 In Doyle, M.P. and R.L. Buchanan, eds. “Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 4th ed.” ASM Press. Washington DC.
  19. 19. Attributes of Food Safety Culture• Top-down commitment• Autonomy of the chief food safety executive – Final Macro decisions• Employee contribution – Micro decisions – Ownership/empowerment
  20. 20. Food Safety Culture Covers the Intangibles and “Grey Areas”• You cannot do everything – Need cooperation from personnel in operations, engineering, sales, marketing, etc.• You cannot be everywhere all the time – Worker training (education)
  21. 21. Food Safety Culture• Old way: penalize plants for positive pathogen test results in their environment.• New way: – Listeria hunters – reward plants for proactively searching out niches and destroying Listeria in the production environment
  22. 22. Science
  23. 23. Science • Hazard Analysis • Scientific Validation • Statistically-Based Sampling
  24. 24. Cooling of Thermally-Treated Meat & Poultry Products• Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule 9CFR Part 304, et al. • Appendix B: Compliance Guidelines for Cooling Heat-Treated Meat and Poultry Products (Stabilization) – Clostridium botulinum and C. perfringens• Performance Standard is less than 1-log increase in C. perfringens – Safe Harbor for Uncured • 120ºF to 55ºF within 6 h, then down to 40°F • 130ºF to 80ºF in 5 h 80ºF to 45ºF in 10 hours (15 hours total cooling time) – Safe Harbor for Cured • 130ºF to 80ºF within 1.5 h, 80ºF to 40ºF within 5 hours (6.5 hours total cooling time) or – Validated “customized process” that prevents a 1 log increase in C. perfringens and C. botulinum
  25. 25. Validation of Safe Cooling Temperature Profiles of Rare Prime Rib Probe 388 Probe 393 Probe 407 Probe 389 Probe 737 Probe 419 Probe 536 135 120 18/20 lbs 105Temperature (°F) 90 16/18 lbs 75 14/16 lbs 60 12/14 lbs 45 30 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (h) Internal temperatures of the various weight ranges of ribeye select (rare) were monitored during chilling with 7 calibrated probes. Probes were placed in the geometric center of each ribeye. USDA guidelines for roast beef stabilization are cooling from 120°F to 55° in 6 hours or less. F
  26. 26. Extended Cooling of Ham and PMP 6.1 Prediction of C. perfringens Growth in Cured Beef Temperature (oF) Population UCL LCL 140 3.5 Population (log CFU/g) 120 3Temperature ( oF) 100 2.5 80 2 60 1.5 40 1 20 0.5 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (h)
  27. 27. Laboratory Simulation of Extended Cooling ofHam Inoculated with Clostridium perfringens 180 160 2.7 log10 CFU/g 140 Temperature ( F) o 120 100 2.5 80 60 2.9 40 6h 20 h 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Time (h)
  28. 28. Publications Scientific Support OrganizationsPredictive Models Specific Solutions Targeted Action
  29. 29. Science• Without science, you can spend a lot of effort on things that will impart no substantive reduction of risk but will… – Provide a false sense of security – Cost money – Keep you busy – Make you look good • Appease media…
  30. 30. Finished Product Testing • Listeria monocytogenes sampling of dry sausage • “severe direct” health hazard • Conditions of handling the food would reduce the degree of concern • Case 13 sampling: 2-class, n = 15, c = 0 International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, 1986
  31. 31. Statistically-Based Sampling• If 10% of lot was the contaminated, and you test 15 samples: – 70% chance you would detect the contamination• If 0.1% contaminated – 10% chance you would detect the contaminant – 90% chance that contamination slips through – You would have to test 50 units to reach 95% confidence
  32. 32. Cost of Product Testing for Pathogens (Hold & Test)• Overnight shipping samples R$ 133• R$30 per pathogen test x 15 R$ 450• Product hold time for 48h R$ 6,130 R$ 6,713320 lots of production/year R$ 2,148,160
  33. 33. “It’s been tested”
  34. 34. Sample Size Sensitivity 25 g 5,500 g Result = NEGATIVE …but less than 0.5% of the product sample was actually tested
  35. 35. Environmental Sampling A Better Sample
  36. 36. Systems
  37. 37. Why Systems?• Change Management – Workflow• Gatekeepers – Checks and Balances• Consensus – Standardized specifications – Codes of practice – Qualification of vendors – Qualification as a vendor
  38. 38. Three Key Systems• HACCP – Risk management system• Auditing – Governmental (USDA, FDA) – Third-Party (GFSI) – Customer-Specific• Worker training
  39. 39. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)• First systematic way to manage risk in food production – U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) – Pillsbury Company (contractor)• Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)• Haz-Ops
  40. 40. Seven Principles of HACCP1. Conduct a hazard analysis.2. Determine the critical control points (CCPs).3. Establish critical limits (CLs).4. Establish monitoring procedures.5. Establish corrective actions.6. Establish verification procedures.7. Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
  41. 41. HACCP – Then and Now• Initially, many CCPs• Currently, as few CCPs as possible – Prerequisite programs – CPs
  42. 42. “HACCP Is Dead”• “Hazard analysis is qualitative, whereas risk assessment is now used to quantify risk. However, the public wants and expects a risk-free food supply, so no level of risk is ultimately seen as acceptable..” - Dean O. Cliver, Ph.D. (late), Emeritus Member of IFT, Professor Emeritus of Food Safety, University of California, Davis, Food Technology March 2010, Volume 64, No.3
  43. 43. “HACCP Is Dead”• “Diluting the power of the CCP by saying that it may merely reduce risk to an acceptable level (not eliminate the hazard) has degraded HACCP to a fashionable, hollow acronym.” - Dean O. Cliver, Ph.D. (late), Emeritus Member of IFT, Professor Emeritus of Food Safety, University of California, Davis, Food Technology March 2010, Volume 64, No.3
  44. 44. What’s Next for HACCP?• SPC• System thinking• eHACCP
  45. 45. Third-Party Auditing• Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) – The Consumer Goods Forum • 16 Board Members of Industry (retail and supplier) • Advisory Council: – WTO, FAO, CDC, FDA • GFSI Recognized Schemes: – BRC, CanadaGAP, FSSC 22000, Global Aquaculture, GLOBAL G.A.P., GRMS, IFS, PrimusGFS, SQF
  46. 46. Audits• USDA-FSIS• FDA• CODEX Alimentarius• GFSI (1 of 9 schemes)• Customers
  47. 47. Niche!
  48. 48. Training• Various training systems are available• Training should be… – Multilingual – Followed by certification (i.e. testing) – Documented – Repeated and reinforced
  49. 49. Qual é a causa principal derevocações nos Estados Unidos?
  50. 50. Mislabeling
  51. 51. Mislabeling - Printed Packaging Film Allergen Free Product AllergenContaining Product
  52. 52. Allergen Label Training & Management System
  53. 53. Three Pillars of Successful Food Safety Management Culture Science Systems
  54. 54. Successful Food Safety Management• Culture – Management commitment & leadership – Employee buy-in• Science – Hazard analysis – Validation – Sampling• Systems – HACCP – Auditing – Training

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