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Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas.
 

Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas.

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Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas - Palestrante: Msc. Hans Kyling- Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology – IWES / ...

Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas - Palestrante: Msc. Hans Kyling- Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology – IWES / Alemanha.

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    Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas. Tecnologias de controle de conversores diretos e híbridos em turbinas eólicas modernas. Presentation Transcript

    • Fraunhofer IWES Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology Hybrid & direct drive technology in modern wind turbines Hans Kyling, Dr. Jan Wenske, Hans-Georg Moll, Louis Quesnel Jaraguá do Sul, 28.06.20121 © Fraunhofer IWES
    • General Map About the Fraunhofer IWES Some wind turbine basics Overview of different drive train topologies Current drive train trends2 © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Fraunhofer IWES in figures Research spectrum: Wind energy from material development to grid optimization Energy system technology for all renewable energies Foundation: 2009 Formerly: Fraunhofer Center for Wind Energy and Maritime Technology (CWMT) in Bremerhaven Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology ISET in Kassel Directors: Prof. Dr. Andreas Reuter Prof. Dr. Jürgen Schmid Annual budget: € 31 million (2011) Employees: 376 IWES in Some Drive train Current3 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Portfolio example: test facilities at Fraunhofer IWES Sorted by test level according to V-model (VDI 2206) Material • Climate chambers • Offshore test field Component • Rotor blade (full scaled, down scaled) • Composite part testing and development Sub-system and integration • Dynamic Nacelle Laboratory (DyNaLab) -in development- IWES in Some Drive train Current4 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Introduction: some history on wind turbines extreme high number of load cycles (N > 108) very high flexible structure Wind torques and parasite turbine loads boundary conditions Permanently slow changing rotational service loads speed There was no comparable application in engineering, so that the design needed to be developed from scratch The first big industrial wind turbines were designed with components sourced from other industries (no wind turbine specific components available by that time) The different drivetrain components didn’t match perfectly with each other. With a growing market for wind turbines specialized components and designs were developed. IWES in Some Drive train Current5 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Positive influence of the rotor diameterSome basic physics:The kinetic energy/power of the wind is 1Ε= ⋅ m ⋅ v2 v 2 & 1 & 1P = Ε = ⋅ m ⋅ v 2 = ⋅ ρair ⋅ π ⋅ R 2 ⋅ v 3 R 2 2The power extracted by a wind turbine 1P = c p ⋅ ⋅ ρair ⋅ π ⋅ R 2 ⋅ v 3 c p : wt s power coefficient 2The theoretically extractable power grows withthe square of the rotor radius! >>>Higher energy yield<<< IWES in Some Drive train Current6 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Negative influence of the rotor diameter increased blade length mBlade ~ lBlade 3 higher mass/ aerodynamical loads strengthened drivetrain/support structure higher turbine weight/cost Source: Alstom energy weight/cost yield IWES in Some Drive train Current7 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Why are there so many different drivetrain concepts? The shown ambivalent problem regarding the blade length is a good example for explaining the variety of concepts: Depending on the drivetrain design the rotor loads may “flow” in a different way through the turbine structure and effect thus the component design There are a couple of parameters that have to be considered in order to find the best suited drivetrain concept, like: • Global/local market situation (e.g. rare earth availability) • Site assessment (high turbulences, ) • Availability of turbine (e.g. offshore very important) • Service & maintenance costs • Etc. Which drive train concept is the best? Answer is project-specific IWES in Some Drive train Current8 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • How to classify drivetrains? There are various drivetrain topologies, and different ways to classify them. A practical way to classify wind turbines is the generator speed/number of gear box stages: • High speed generator (HSG) (approx. 500 – 2000 rpm) These drivetrains make use of a 3-4 stage gearbox (planetary/spur) • Medium speed generator (MSG) (approx. 40 – 200 rpm) These drivetrains make use of a 1-2 stage planetary gearbox • Slow speed generator (SSG) (approx. 4 – 35 rpm) These drivetrains are called direct driven, because the rotor torque is transmitted directly (without a gearbox) to the generator. IWES in Some Drive train Current9 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Drivetrains with 3-4 stage gearbox (HSG) Characteristics: positive neutral negative • The generator • High number of torque is low rotating parts thanks to the (within gearbox) gearbox. • High maintenance • Classical drivetrain effort solution (a lot of • High drivetrain experience total length available) • Reduced torsional • High availability on stiffness the supplier’s • Low efficiency market (resulting in lower prices) IWES in Some Drive train Current10 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 3-4 stage gearbox – moment bearing Example: Vestas V90-3.0 Tower head mass: approx.: 114 t Source: Vestas No main shaft 2 planetary, 1 spur stages Moment bearing integrated into gearbox housing Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) (bending moments transmitted through gearbox) IWES in Some Drive train Current11 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 3-4 stage gearbox – double suspension Example: GE 2.75-103 Tower head mass: approx.: XXX t Double suspension 2 planetary, 1 spur stage (in stiff housing) Permanent magnet synchron generator (PMSG) IWES in Some Drive train Current12 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 3-4 stage gearbox – 3-point suspension Example: Vestas V112-3.0 Source: Vestas Tower head mass: approx.: 120 – 130 t 4-stage gearbox Shrink disc Main bearing PMSG generator Support bearing integrated into first gearbox stage IWES in Some Drive train Current13 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Drivetrains with 1-2 stage gearbox (MSG) Characteristics: positive neutral negative • Moderate generator • Smallest global torque market share (little • Moderate generator experience available) size, weight and cost • Limited generator • Moderate number of availability on the rotating parts (within supplier market gearbox) • Moderate maintenance effort • Moderate drivetrain total length • Moderate torsional stiffness • Moderate efficiency IWES in Some Drive train Current14 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 1-2 stage gearbox, moment bearing Example: Fuhrländer FL 3000 Tower head mass: approx.: 165 t2 stage planetary gearbox (1:43)PMSG Flexible coupling (elastic bolts) Moment bearing (3 row cylindrical roller bearing)Winergy HybridDrive (flexible bolted to bedplate) Source: Fuhrländer IWES in Some Drive train Current15 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 1-2 stage gearbox, double suspension Example: Gamesa G10X-4.5 Tower head mass: approx.: 250 t2 stage planetary gearbox (1:38, flanged to bearing case)Double bearing in common stiff case,Planet carrier is supported by main shaft’s rear bearing PMSG (housing flanged to gearbox) IWES in Some Drive train Current16 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • 1-2 stage gearbox, double suspension Example: DSME 7 MW Offshore • Integrated power unit “FusionDrive” • (approx. 90 t, from Moventas/TheSwitch) 2 stage planetary gearbox PMSG • Prototype installation scheduled for Q1-2013 IWES in Some Drive train Current17 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Drivetrains without a gearbox (direct drive) (SSG) Characteristics: positive neutral negative • Simple drivetrain design (no • Moderate experience on the • High generator torques lead gearbox, coupling and main market to a bigger and thus heavier shaft necessary) generator • Less dynamic loads due to • Generator relatively higher torsional stiffness expensive (higher material (lower safety factor, lighter demand) design, better controllability) • Wind turbine’s purchase cost • Modularization and relatively high compared to Standardization applicable geared solutions (mass production) • higher efficiency, especially for under rated conditions (no gearbox losses) • Mechanically little maintenance needed • Short design • Small number of rotating parts (within gearbox) IWES in Some Drive train Current18 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Direct drive, moment bearing Example: Siemens SWT-2.3-113, SWT-3.0-101 Tower head mass: approx.: 140 t PMSG Moment bearing (3 row cylindrical bearing) IWES in Some Drive train Current19 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Direct drive, double suspension Example: Enercon E-101 Tower head mass: approx.: 250 t IWES in Some Drive train Current20 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Direct drive, double suspension Example: GE 4.0-110, Alstom PureTorque 6 MW IWES in Some Drive train Current21 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Which company uses which drivetrain concept? Geared 3-4 Stages 1-2 Stages DFIG Vestas (old), Sinovel, Vestas Areva Wind, Gamesa PMSG Double-Fed REpower (new), Offshore, Samsung, Vestas V164, Permanent EESG Kenersys GE Fuhrländer Magnet Synchronous Generator Electrical Excited Siemens (new), Enercon, Synchronous Gen. Goldwind, MTorres GE Offshore, Alstom Direct Drive IWES in Some Drive train Current22 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Efficiency of different drivetrain/generator systems IWES in Some Drive train Current23 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • PMSG Volume and weight vs. gear ratio vδ1 pel Rotor volume per power: (related to „direct drive“) D ~ 6m P = 3,8MW 16rpm D ~ 1,8m total D ~ 0,7m 81.000kg D ~ 0,8m 0,1 P = 1,7MW P = 2,7MW 150 rpm 1650 rpm total P = 1,0MW total 7750 kg vδ (i ) ≈ 1 17.000kg 1200 rpm pel i total π M Magnets _ mass = 4 [(D + 2 h ) − D ]α M 2 2 P L ρM 3.400kg 0,01 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Transmission gear ratio i IWES in Some Drive train Current24 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Drivetrain concepts of the global TOP15 OEMs Commercialized through 2010 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l IWES in Some Drive train Current25 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Global gearbox/generator segmentation IWES in Some Drive train Current26 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Nacelle weight trend IWES in Some Drive train Current27 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Drivetrain mass contribution for key concepts data derived from 3 MW turbines IWES in Some Drive train Current28 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Generator weight trend IWES in Some Drive train Current29 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Rare earth material price development in 2011 IWES in Some Drive train Current30 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Cost structure for onshore wind turbine no logistics cost included IWES in Some Drive train Current31 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Newly installed power capacities in South America global growth rate 1900n1900r00l +23% +19% 1900n1900r00l +5% 1900n1900r00l +9% 1900n1900r00l +6% +4% +4% 1900n1900r00l 1900n1900r00l -5% Source: Make Consulting IWES in Some Drive train Current32 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Estimated compound annual growth rate (2012 – 2016) IWES in Some Drive train Current33 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • Some impressions from Asian fabrication sites IWES in Some Drive train Current34 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES
    • End of presentation IWES in Some Drive train Current35 figures basics topologies trends © Fraunhofer IWES