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# Chapter 15 methodology

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### Chapter 15 methodology

1. 1. 1Chapter 15Methods - What was done? - Who did it? - What hypotheses? - Where was the study carried? - What characteristics did the location have? - How was the experiment designed? - Sampling - What variable(s) was measured and why? - Assumptions - How were materials/subjects handle/ house/treated (care, precautions taken)? - Equipment - Protocol - Analyses - Statistical procedures - Mathematical equations - Software - Statistical Significance - Saving time (Referencing others’ procedures) - Difficulties - Comparisons of methods to others - How to justify aims and choices?
2. 2. 2 - It’s somebody else’s method - What was done and justify choice  Describe the methods section in a logical order to enable readers to easily follow what you did (possibility of replication). How should I begin the methods section? - It depends on the target Journal. (a) Making a general statement (b) Referring to other investigation (c) Stating the origin of materials used (d) Origin of subjects (e) Geographical area of the investigation (f) By using a table (g) First step in the procedureWhat tense should I use? Should I use the active or passive? - Simple past tense and the passive voice.How many actions can I refer to in a single sentence? - Up to two actions in a sentenceHow can I avoid my methods like a series of lists? - Do not make it as a PP. - Use a narrative.Can I use bullets? - It’s necessary to number bullets if each bullet describes a step that is part of a chronological sequence.How can I reduce the word count? - Combine sentences - Assume readers possess basic knowledge of the techniques (delete superfluous information).
3. 3. 3 - Cite references - Use tables to summarize - Be conciseHow should I designate my study parameters in a way that my readers do not have to constantlyrefer backwards? - Name/number the procedures - Use names of the process - Use acronymShould I describe everything in chronological order? - Not necessarily - Present information in a way to make senseSummary: How can I assess the quality of my methods section? - Have I described my methods in a way that is easy for readers to follow and which would enable them to replicate my work? Have I ensured that I have covered every step? Is my structure clear and complete? - Have I been as concise as possible? Have I used references to previous works rather than repeating descriptions that readers could easily find elsewhere? - Do the individual sentences in each paragraph contain too many, too few, or just the right manageable number of steps? Have I assured that my sentences don’t sound like lists? - Have I thought about the way readers prefer to receive information (no ambiguity, no back referencing, everything in a chronological order, headings, bullets)?
4. 4. 4- Have I checked the grammar (infinitive, gerund, allow, thus etc.) with regard to how I outline how and why I made certain choices?