Portfolio
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    Portfolio Portfolio Presentation Transcript

    • PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
    • What is a PORTFO
    • PORTFOLIO is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas.
    • What is an ASSESSM
    • ASSESSMENT is a systematic process for gathering information about student learning; it answers the question, "How do we know what students are learning, and how well they
    • What is PORTFOLI O
    • PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT – is also called Alternative Assessment. 1. Requires a presentation of a collection of student work essentially constituting dossier or a portfolio. 2. Ranges from portfolios that demonstrates the student’s best work to an “expanded student record” that holds a full representation of the student’s work, from math equations to essays on literature. 3. Is one of the several authentic and non- traditional assessment techniques in education.
    • PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT emphasizes the active demonstration of knowledge through evidence of student’s work and veers away from traditional testing in the sense of pencil-paper cognitive tests. Thus, portfolio assessment can be used for evaluating not only the learning outcomes but more importantly, in gauging the quality of the learning
    • THE COLLECTION MUST INCLUDE: 1. student participation in selecting contents 2. the criteria for selection 3. the criteria for judging merit 4. evidence of student self-reflection
    • What do you think is the purpose of creating portfolio?
    • In fact, the overall purpose of creating portfolio is to enable the students to demonstrate to other’s learning and progress. The greatest value of portfolios is that, in building them, students become active participants in learning process and its assessment.
    • In sharp contrast, students do not have any control or influence in traditional testing i.e. the teacher decides on the items to be included in the
    • Features and Principles of Portfolio Assessment
    • 1. A Portfolio is a form of Assessment that students do together with their teachers. The teachers guide the students’ in the planning, execution and evaluation of the contents of the portfolio. Together, they formulate the overall objectives for constructing the portfolio. As such, students and teachers interact in every step of the process in developing a portfolio.
    • 2. A portfolio represents a selection of what the students believe are best included from among the possible collection of things related to the concept being studied. It is the teachers’ responsibility to assist the students in actually choosing from among a possible set of choices to be included in the portfolio. However, the final selection should be done by the students themselves since the portfolio represents what the students believe are important considerations.
    • 3. A portfolio provides samples of the student’s work which show growth over time. By reflecting on their own learning (self-assessment), students begin to identify the strengths and weaknesses in their work. These weaknesses then become improvement goals.
    • 4. The criteria for selecting and assessing the portfolio contents must be clear to the teacher and the students at the outset of the process. If the criteria are not clear at the beginning, then there is a tendency to include among unessential components in the portfolio and to include those which happen to be available at the time the portfolio is prepared. At each step of the process, the students need to refer to the agreed set of criteria for the construction and development of the portfolio.
    • Purposes of Assessment Portfolio
    • 1. Portfolio assessment matches assessment to teaching. The final outputs to be assessed are products of classroom discussions and classroom work and are not simple diversions from the tedium of classroom activities. Unlike test items which mainly measure cognitive skills, portfolio assessments can asses other components of the students’ formed abilities based on classroom discussions.
    • 2. Portfolio assessment has clear goals. In fact, they are decided on at the beginning of instruction and are clear to teacher and students alike. In cognitive testing, the objectives are set at the beginning but the actual items mayor may not reflect achievement of such objectives. In portfolio assessment, however, the students control the items to be included and therefore are assured that the goals are achieved.
    • 3. Portfolio assessment gives a profile of learner abilities in terms of depth, breadth, and growth. In terms of depth, portfolio assessment enables the students to demonstrate quality work done without pressure and constraints of time present in traditional testing through the help of resources such as reference materials and the help of other students. In terms of breadth, portfolio assessment can show a wide range of skills to be demonstrated in the
    • Finally, in terms of growth, portfolio assessment shows efforts to improve and develop and clearly demonstrates students’ progress overtime.
    • 4. Portfolio assessment is a tool for assessing a variety of skills not normally test able in a single setting for traditional testing. The portfolio can show written, oral and graphic outputs of students in a variety of ways which demonstrate skills developed by the students.
    • 5. Portfolio assessment develops awareness of own learning by the students. Students have to reflect on their own progress and the quality of their work in relation to known goals. This is achieved at each stage of the process since the students continually refer to the set of goals and objectives set at the
    • 6. Portfolio assessment caters to individuals in a heterogeneous class. Such flexibility is attributed to the fact that portfolio assessment is open- ended so that students candemonstrate their abilities on their own level and caters to differential learning styles and expression of
    • 7. Portfolio assessment develops social skills. Students interact with other students in the development of their own portfolios. Sometimes, they are assessed on work done in groups or in pairs sot hat they necessarily have to interact and collaborate to complete the tasks.
    • 8. Portfolio assessment develops independent and active learners. Students must select and justify portfolio choices; monitor progress and set learning goals. Traditional testing cannot achieve this educational objective no matter how skilfully the tests are constructed.
    • 9. Portfolio assessment can improve motivation for learning and thus achievement. When students are empowered to prove their own achievement and worth they become highly motivated to pursue the learning tasks. It is when they lose this feeling of empowerment that they feel inadequate and become less motivated as in traditional classroom testing.
    • 10. Portfolio assessment provides opportunity for student-teacher dialogue. It enables the teacher to get to know every student. Moreover, portfolio assessment promotes joint goal- setting and negotiation of grades which can never happen in
    • Essential Elements of Portfolio
    • Every portfolio must contain the following essential elements: 1. Cover Letter “About the author” and “What my portfolio shows about my progress as a learner” (written at the end, but put at the beginning). The cover letter summarizes the evidences of a student’s learning and progress.
    • 2. Table of Contents with numbered
    • 3. Entries- both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of student’s choice). The core elements will be required for each student and will provide a common base from which to make decisions on assessment. The optional items will allow the folder to represent the uniqueness of each student. Students can choose to include “best” pieces of work, but also a piece of work which gave trouble or one that was less
    • 4. Dates on all entries, to facilitate proof of growth over time.
    • 5. Drafts of aural/oral and written products and revised versions; i.e., first drafts and corrected/revised versions.
    • 6. Reflections can appear at different stages in the learning process (for formative and/or summative purposes.) and at the lower levels can be written in the mother tongue or by students who find it difficult to express themselves in English.
    • For each item – a brief rationale for choosing the item should be included. This can relate to students’ performance, to their feelings regarding their progress and/or themselves as learners. Students can choose to reflect upon some or all of the following: ·What did I learn from it? ·What did I do well? ·Why (based on the agreed teacher-student assessment criteria) did I choose this item? ·What do I want to improve in the item? ·How do I feel about my performance? ·What were the problem areas?
    • Stages of Implementing Portfolio Assessment
    • Stage 1: Identifying teaching goals to assess through portfolio The usual first step of organizing portfolio assessment is to establish the teaching goals.
    • Stage 2: Introducing the Idea of Portfolio Assessment Portfolio assessment is a new thing for many students who are used traditional testing. For this reason, it is important for the teacher to introduce the concept to the class.
    • Stage 3: Specification of Portfolio Content Specify what and how much have to be included in the portfolio –both core and options. Specify for each entry how it will be assessed. The students should be acquainted with the scoring guides/rating scales that will be used before performing task.
    • Stage 4: Giving clear and detailed guidelines for presentation There is a tendency for students to present as many evidence of learning as they can when left on their own. The teacher must therefore set clear guidelines and detailed information on how the portfolios will be presented. Explain the need for clear and attractive presentation, dated drafts, attached reflections or comment cards
    • Stage 5: Informing Key officials and other
    • Stage 6: Development of the Portfolio It is necessary to stress the importance of reflection and self-assessment while preparing the portfolio itself since these are essentially new skills for the students. Guide for Self-reflections and Self-assessment: • What did I learn from that activity? • Which is my best piece? • How can I improve this? This can be done by class brainstorming (what are some possible reasons for including an item in your portfolio?) or in pairs- “portfolio partners”- who help each other work from a peer can also be included in the portfolio).
    • Types of Portfolio
    • 1. Documentation Portfolio: ( growth or working portfolio) This approach involves a collection of work over time showing growth improvement reflecting students’ learning of identified outcomes. The documentation portfolio can include everything from brainstorming activities to drafts to finished products. The collection becomes meaningful when specific items are selected out to focus on particular educational experiences or goals. It can include the bet and weakest of student work.
    • 3. Showcase portfolio - it shows the best of the students outputs and products.
    • AssessingAssessing andand EvaluatingEvaluating
    • According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer, (1991, p. 63): "Portfolios offer a way of assessing student learning that is different than traditional methods. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks, developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments about their own
    • Student- Teacher Conferences
    • The main philosophy embedded in portfolio assessment is “shared and active assessment”.To this end, the teacher should have short individual meetings with each pupil, in which progress is discussed and goals are set for a
    • Conferencing typically takes several forms
    • Teacher/student -- sometimes teachers are able to informally meet with a few students, one at a time, as the other students work on some task in class. Other times, teachers use class time to schedule one-on-one conferences during "conference days." Some teachers are able to schedule conferences outside of class time. Typically such conferences take only a few minutes, but they give the teacher and the student time to recap progress, ask questions, and consider suggestions or strategies for improvement.
    • Teacher/small group -- other teachers, often in composition classes, meet with a few students at a time to discuss issues and questions that are raised, sharing common problems and reflections
    • Student/student -- to conserve time as well as to give students the opportunity to learn how to provide feedback along with receiving it, teachers sometimes structure peer-to-peer conferencing. The focus might be teacher-directed (e.g., "share with each other a sample of work you recently selected for your portfolio") or student- directed (e.g., students use the time to get feedback on some work for a purpose they determine).