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Training materials for students final r1-uf-ro

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Training materials for students final r1-uf-ro. ULTRAFILTRATIONDURATION , REVERSE OSMOSIS

Training materials for students final r1-uf-ro. ULTRAFILTRATIONDURATION , REVERSE OSMOSIS

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  • 1. Sembcorp Water Technology Prize (SWTP) 2013 COMPETITION MANUAL FOR ULTRAFILTRATION + BACKWASHING + REVERSE OSMOSIS ULTRAFILTRATIONDURATION: 1 HOUR 100The objective for using the UF-RO filtration system for this competition is to collect asmuch drinking water using the Reverse Osmosis filter. The water quality (TDS)should also be below 100.Equipment List (for each group)a. 2 x 120 L water tank shared by 4 groupsb. 2 Pedrollo liquid pumpsc. Valves , fittings, M8 and M12 tubingsd. 1 UF-RO Setup ( w pressure gauges, hollow fibre UF housing, and RO membrane housing)e. 1 Submersible pumpf. 1 RO permeate tankg. 1 UF permeate tankh. 1 To-drain paili. UF and RO membranes 5 4 1 3 6 7 2 8 91.1. MethodologyA tank of dirty feed and a setup is supplied to each group of contestants. Contestants arerequired to pump the dirty feed into the UF systems of the setup to obtain UF permeate,before pumping it into the following RO systems to obtain clean RO permeates. 1
  • 2. UF membranes will be fouled by the particles during ultrafiltration process and thus UF permeate produced will decrease over time. Backwashing the membranes with UF permeate are able to recover the membrane performances. However, backwashing process compromises the amount of UF permeates collected, which is used to produce RO permeates later. Therefore, contestants have to decide their backwashing time in order to maximize the recovery of the membrane performance with minimum amount of UF permeate so to make sure that they can maximize the production of RO permeate (Please refer to the attached Appendix A and Appendix B for detailed operating procedures). Appendix A Objectives of running Ultrafiltration 1) To understand and operate the filtration process 2) To understand and operate the backwash process 3) To understand the effect of the timing of filtration and backwash process Experimental Procedure for Filtration and Backwashing [NOTE: Please use either your handphone or wrist watch for 2 stopwatches per group.] PART I – Filtration and Backwashing Filtration process Refer to Appendix B Figure 3 for the schematic process. 1) Ensure the following are in “Off” position: a. Feed Valve (connected to Feed Tank), Permeate Valve and RO Value (connected to Permeate Tank). b. UF Pump & RO Pump c. V1 & V2, V3 & V4, V5 & V6 on the UR-RO System Module 2) Time for running UF process is 7 minutes. 3) Open Feed Valve and V-1 & V-2. 4) Switch on UF Pump to allow feed to be pumped through UF system. 5) Check to make sure UF Pressure Gauge is in the range of 1.8 bar to 2 bar by tuning V-1. 6) Check constantly to ensure P1 is in the range of 1.8 bar to 2 bar by tuning V-1. 7) Switch off the UF Pump when the running time has ended. 8) Turn off the Feed Valve, V1 & V2. Backwashing process (NOTE: Handle the UF module with care. Do not twist and squeeze the fibers.) Refer to Appendix B Figure 2 for the schematic process. 9) Time for running backwashing process is 2 minutes.10) Open Permeate Valve and V-3 & V-4. 2
  • 3. 11) Switch on UF Pump to allow permeate to be forced through UF system in opposite direction to backwash the hollow fibres. 12) Stop the pump when the backwashing time has ended. 13) Empty the To-Drain Pail.NOTE: YOU NOW HAVE SUFFICIENT UF PERMEATE STOCK TO START PRODUCING ROPERMEATE.Objective of Running Reverse Osmosis1) To maximize the amount of RO permeate collected within a certain period by varying the filtration and backwashing time and2) To determine the best filtration and backwashing timing for maximum permeate collectedEnsure that the permeate collected is clear (Clarity of the permeate will be taken intoconsideration)REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) EXPERIMENTObjective of the Reverse Osmosis Experiment1) To understand and operate the RO system to produce drinking water2) To calculate the total dissolved solids (TDS) removal percentage after the RO systemExperimental Procedure for Reverse Osmosis[NOTE: Place only the Tip of the TDS meter into the waterfor accurate results]PART 11 – REVERSED OSMOSISReverse osmosis processRefer to Appendix B Figure 4 for the schematic process.1) Ensure the following are in “Off” position:a. Feed Valve (connected to Feed Tank), Permeate Valve and RO Value (connected to Permeate Tank).b. UF Pump & RO Pumpc. V1 & V2, V3 & V4, V5 & V6 on the UR-RO System Module2) You have to watch the UF permeate tank level to ensure there is sufficient volume to run the ROS system.3) Check and record the conductivity of UF permeate by using the TDS meter provided.4) Open RO Valve and V5 & V6.5) Disconnect the inlet of RO system and switch on RO Pump to allow UF permeate to purge the tubing until clear flow is seen through the tubing. Switch off RO Pump and reconnect the inlet of RO system. 3
  • 4. 6) Switch on RO Pump to allow UF permeate to be pumped through RO system. 7) Constantly tune V-6 to make sure RO-P1 is at 3.8 bar. 8) Manually measure and record the RO permeate TDS with the tester. [Note your water quality reading must be less than 100 to meet] 9) Switch off the RO Pump at your own time or when the UF Permeate Tank is depleted. 10) Repeat the ultrafiltration and backwashing processes described under PART I above and reversed osmosis process here as many times as you wish until the 1 hours is up. 11) Our volunteer will come around and record the volume of RO permeate produced at the end of 1 hour whose TDS reading MUST NOT EXCEED 100.Appendix BHow ultrafiltration systems are maintained?When hollow fibers are fouled, with foulant cake deposits on the surface, flux of permeatedrops as pressure of operation remained constant. The formula for the calculation of flux is asfollowed: ܲ݁‫ ݁ݐܽݎݓ݋݈ܨ ݁ݐܽ݁݉ݎ‬ሺ‫/ܮ‬ℎ‫ݎ‬ሻ ‫ ܬ ,ݔݑ݈ܨ‬ሺ‫݉/ܮ‬ଶ /ℎ‫ݎ‬ሻ = − − − ‫݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ሺ݅ሻ ‫ܽ݁ݎܣ ݁݊ܽݎܾ݉݁ܯ‬Maintenance has to be done to recover the performance of the fibers, in order to maintainedthe permeate flux and to extend the operation life. Backwashing is one of the easy andefficient ways to restore the permeability of the fibers. It is done by pushing clean water,usually the permeate produced, through the hollow fibers in an opposite direction of thenormal operation, forcing the particulates out of the membrane pores and away from thesurface of the membranes. Normal operation of ultrafiltration Backwash Starting flux ends Flux, J Backwash starts Ending flux Time, t Figure 1 Flux recovery by backwashesOperating a pilot UF systemFor Sembcorp Water Technology Prize; a pilot UF-RO plant is built to treat model feed water.The project is separated and carried out in two stages. The first stage comprises of a UFsystem while the second stage consists of the UF-RO system.Specifications: 4
  • 5. Ultrafiltration membrane : 9 ft2 (0.836 m2) hollow fibers cartridgeConfiguration of UF system : “outside-in” filtrationModel feed water : 1g/L of Bentonite in UF waterFigure 2 and 3 shows the schematics of the filtration and backwash process. Figure 4 showsthe combined mode of operations.Reverse OsmosisOsmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membraneinto a region of higher solute ceoncentration, with the aim of equalizing the soluteconcentrations on both sides (Refer to Figure 2(a). The solvent molecules passes throughthe semi-permeable membrane from the filtered water to the unfiltered water due to thedifference in the osmostic pressure on both sides. The osmostic pressure is defined to be thepressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent.Reverse osmosis, on the other hand, force the solvent molecules from the unfiltered water tomove into the filtered water (Refer to Figure 2(b). Figure 2(a) Osmosis Figure 2(b) Reverse OsmosisReverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane-technology that removes large molecules and ions fromsolution by applying pressure to the solution on the unfiltered water side of the selectivemembrane. The solute will then be retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and thepure solvent is allowed to pass through to the filtered water. The selective semipermeablemembrane allows only small molecules (such as solvent) to pass through while rejecting largemolecules and ions through the pores. 5
  • 6. Figure 3 Combined filtration and backwash model for UF system setup 6
  • 7. Figure 4 Combined filtration and backwash model for UF and RO system setup 7