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2118 Project Group 7 SEM 003


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  • 1. The United Kingdom
    Group 7
  • 2. The Introduction
    made up of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland
    one of the 27 member states of the European Union (EU)
    Capital cities
    London – England
    Edinburgh – Scotland
    Cardiff – Wales
    Belfast – Northern Ireland
  • 3. Geography of Britain
    Island state
    Land and water: 152,033 square miles
    approximately 60.6 million England 50,714,000
    Wales 2,977,000
    Scotland 5,108,000
    Northern Ireland 1,733,000
  • 4. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Location of hotels
    population - relatively constant
    trend to live in the south of England
    large part of the hospitality industry is
    geographically concentrated in London,
    Southeast England
  • 5. Languages
    two official languages
    - English
    - Welsh
    English -most widely spoken 
    Scottish Gaelic -spoken in some parts of Scotland
  • 6. Currency
    Pound sterling
    The sign for the Great British Pound (GBP) is £.
  • 7. Differences among the four countries
    Each has its own flag, culture, writers, artists and sports team
    Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own regional political parties
    Scotland and Northern Ireland have legal and educational systems that are separated from those used in England and Wales
    Wales is officially bilingual
  • 8. Mixed Race Society
    majority of population - English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish
    extremely diverse nation
    invaded by Romans ,Saxons , Vikings and Normans armies in early history
    experienced a continuous immigration since the W WII
    Race Relations Act (1976)
    principle of ‘equal rights and opportunities’ adapted to migrants and its children
  • 9. Racial diversity
    Centuries of immigration
    8% of population belongs to ethnic minority, 4.6 million people
  • 10. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Multiculturalism in UK’s hospitality industry
    An important point of entry into the host country’s labour market for migrant workers
    In 2005,12.5 % of the UK’s working
    age population was born abroad,
    up from around 8 % in 1995.
    Now - 4.3 million adults
    of working age in the
    UK who were born abroad.
  • 11. Social class system
    Rise of upper
    middle class
    Upper Class
    people with inherited wealth
    oldest families, titled aristocrats
    Middle Class majority of the population
    industrialists, professionals, business people and shop owners
    Lower or Working Classagricultural, mine and factory workers
  • 12. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Employee retention problem in hospitality industry
    Rigid class system in past
    - serving --- low status job
    Do not like serving others
    - often foreign workers serve in hotels, restaurants, pubs in major city centers
    Lowest paid sector industry
    - Poor pay, unsocial hours, poor career opportunities
    High turnover rate in industry
    Low unionization
  • 13. Constitutional monarch
    Queen Elizabeth II
    Head of the state
    Head of the Armed Forces
    Head of the Church of England
    run by the government and led by the prime minister.
  • 14. Government type, party structure
    Parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy
    Multi-party system
    Fusion of executive and legislature
  • 15. Governmental Influence
    Working practice on labour market
    introduce national employment protection legislation and regulations
    Sex discrimination
    Equal pay
    Maternity and parental leave
  • 16. Governmental Influence
    UK Hotel Development Incentive scheme (1968- 1973)
    - provided direct grants
    - helped in building of 1300 new hotels or extension
    - provided funds or free land in exchange
    for equity participation
    E.g. contribute 5% of GDP
    Government becomes part
    of the owner
  • 17. Political system - Democracy
    “Government by the people”
    All people have a say
    Everyone have voting right
    all citizens :
    “equality and freedom” protected by a constitution
    being equal before the law
    having equal access to power
  • 18. Architecture
    Stuart architecture
    Victorian architecture
    early19th century
    romantic medieval gothic style
    symmetry of Palladianism
  • 19. Architecture
    Twentieth century architecture
    new form of design:
    • Use of arts and crafts informal
    • 20. non symmetrical form with mullioned or lattice windows
    • 21. multiple gables and tall chimneys
  • Religions
    Most people are Christian (71%)
    other religions:
    Buddhism, Judaism, Islam and Sikhism
    About 23% of Britain follow no particular religion
    Growing Muslim and Hindu minorities
    Trends: Growing diversity
  • 22. Music
    London -- world's major centre for classical music
    The 16th century:
    • Church & religious music
    affected by Reformation
    • Early period:
    mainly church music, folk music, classical music
    • Until the early 19 th century :
    classical music as an important element of British
  • 23. Music
    Pop music singers are
    more popular than classical
    composers and jazz musicians
    E.g., The Beatles,
    The Rolling Stones,
    Led Zeppelin
    Youths – punk, garage, rock,
    pop and R&B
    Development of Rock and Roll,
    punk music and heavy metal
  • 24. Influence on hospitality industry
    Classical music, folk music
    --- more formal and popular
    in older generation
    Pop music, jazz and R&B
  • 25. Literature - Shakespeare
    English poet & playwright
    England's national poet
    the "Bard of Avon”
    comedies, histories and tragedies and tragicomedies
  • 26. Shakespeare---opera
    made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature
    More than 40 theatres in London
    from Royal Opera House (world's leading opera houses) to London Palladium
  • 27. Sports
    association football
    rugby football
    Football – most popular
  • 28. Festivals and activities
    Sports events
    Horseracing festivals – Royal Ascot, The Grand National and The Epsom Derby
    The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships
    British Formula 1 Grand Prix
    Boat race between Oxford and Cambridge
  • 29. Festivals and activities
    English cultural and entertainment events
    West End musicals
    Opera and ballet
    Concerts & festivals
    Fashion shows
    Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition
    RHS flower shows at Chelsea
  • 30. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Increase the number of tourists
    generated > £135m
    providing a unique and
    special occasion to
    entertain top clients
    and to reward staff
  • 31. Key dates in British history
    • 1536-42 Union with Wales
    • 32. 1707 Union with Scotland
    • 33. 1801 Legislative union with
    • 1914-18 W W I
    • 34. 1918 Parliamentary Qualification
    of Women Act
    --Women over age 30
    can vote
    • 1928 Equal Franchise Act
    --All women can vote
    • 1939-45 WWII
  • History – Industrial Revolution
    “technological innovation”
    major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport
    1st started in Britain --spread throughout the world
    1800s, First Industrial Revolution began
    Mechanization, use of steam power, textiles , mining
    1850s onwards, Second Industrial Revolution
    electricity, chemicals, petroleum, steel industries, invention of telephone
  • 35. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Establishment of trade unions
    Industrial Revolution---cruel exploitation of labour
    world’s 1st trade union
    movement to protect the right of labour
  • 36. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Increase the scope of attractions and facilities to tourists
    E.g. Wales,
    Heavy industrial past – attractive to tourists
    Industrial museums
    Developed “Great Little Railways of Wales”
    Harbour such as Plas Menai transformed to offer wide range of water sports
    Gold mining area – Dolgellau : popular tourists attraction
    All these helped to increase the profits of hotels in Wales
  • 37. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Work ethic
    Not ‘devotion to duty’ or ‘hard work’
    Many national projects in that period was ‘lubricated’ with alcohol
    British love drinking—has more bars (public house/pub) than any countries in the world
  • 38. History – Labour shortage
    Post - 1970s,
    Baby- bust problem
    Demographic change – fall in birth rate
    Entry-level workers difficult to find
    Workers demanded more pay and improved working condition
  • 39. Changing structure of family
    small families
    delays having children
    Changing attitudes towards marriage - “partner”
    Increase rates of divorce
    Growing number of children born outside marriage
    No. of people living alone increase (longer life expectancy)
  • 40. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Working patterns and Contracts
    part-time and casual staff
    More female works part-time than males
    only 5 % of hotel and accommodation managers and 10% of restaurant managers work part-time
    lower than average working hours in the UK
    Flexibility of hours - no specified hours, overtime
    may be employed on highly flexible hours contracts, including zero hours contracts
  • 41. Colonization
    Since 1815, Britain already started overseas expansion over Africa and Asia
    “Expansion is everything”
    Influence -Location/Distribution of hotels
    strongly concentrated in Europe and some presence in Africa and the Caribbean
    - former colonial relationship
  • 42. Hospitality industry in the UK
    expanded in the past five years
    current shortage of skilled staff
    International (e.g. Hilton International, Holiday Inns, Forte PLC)
    Hotel ownership
    penetration of corporate activity
    chain-type operations
    independent operators
  • 43. Size of UK’s hospitality sector
    British Hospitality Association(2006) :
    Made up of about 127,000 businesses
    approximately 22,000 hotels and guest houses, 16,000 bed and breakfasts
    Workforce : 1.6 million people
    Restaurants employ 1/3 of workforce
    High proportions of female, young, part-time and unskilled labour
  • 44. Trends and development
    Branding > services’ level
    e.g. -HI Express,
    -Holiday Inn
    brand's expansion
    e.g. Accor –
    Southwark Rose in London
  • 45. Liberalism
    Individual freedom
    Liberty and freedom
    Improvement or progress
  • 46. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Hotel classification
    Totally voluntary procedure
    opt to be classified by different organization
    e.g. National Trust Board
    No direct national or local government involvement
    VS France - compulsory
  • 47. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Employment practices
    Informality of management practices
    Limited training
    ineffective personnel and human resource management
    Management : inexpert
    Informal rewards
    High rates of labour instability
  • 48. Moderately high-context culture
    messages depends on contextual cues like gender, age, balance of power
    not on physical written text
    focus on tradition and class ,is more conservative in than France and Italy
    more individualistic and less risk averse than the French and Italians
    there are things that are not said but are understood
  • 49. Individualism
    emphasize “independence” and “self-reliance”
    promote exercise of one's goals
    and desires
    oppose external interference upon one's choices
    oppose to collectivism
  • 50. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Discouragement of collective actions
    Employers - discourage unionism
    (membership marginal below 5%)
    Hospitality managers - believe in their own management style and power
    Collective representation – only when individual managers’ style fail
    Duty and responsibility – ‘look after’ their employees properly
  • 51. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Other ways
    Employees - non-interventionist stance
    rapid career progression
    opportunities for ambitious graduates
    self-employment for experienced managers
  • 52. Economic philosophy - Capitalism
    Free and competitive market
    government intervention
    Private production, distribution, exchange
    Mixed economy – ownership shared between state and private sector
  • 53. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    High profile ownership and management changes
    High level of expansion and takeover activities
    E.g. sale of Ritz by Trafalgar House to Barclay brothers in 1995
    Selling hotel assets freely at a profit
    Refurbishment developments
    E.g. Charing Cross hotel – 83 luxury twins
    and double rooms were created
  • 54. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Increased room occupancy and average room rates
    Business and conferences markets
    Low inflation
    Favourable low exchange rate
    - Cheaper holiday option for overseas visitors
  • 55. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Working Style in Hospitality
    Emphasize on efficiency and
    Quality of service
    European guests measure hotel
    quality in terms of :
    -availability of formal dining,beverage
    -general efficiency
    -round- the- clock room service
  • 56. Fear of communism
    Communism promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property
    Contradicts to capitalism
    Threat to western democracies
    Especially during the
    Cold War period
  • 57. Philosophy - Nationalism
    Common tradition and historical development
    Duty , loyalty to nation - overemphasize
    National superiority , glory
    Justify colonization and expansion
  • 58. Terrorism
    British Muslims ,2005 London bombing (home-grown)
    Attacks on British mainland (Corera 2006)
    Al-Qaeda( Britain vs. Pakistan )
  • 59. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Case study
    Hilton Hotel Taba terror attack in Oct 2004
    car bomb managed to drive straight into the lobby and explode without interruptions. 
    Hilton Hotel lacked any security measures
    Crisis management
    Safety measures
  • 60. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Registration procedure in the front desk
    all guests >16 - register their full name and nationality
    Record is kept and opened to police inspection (12 months)
    neither British nor Commonwealth citizens - give passport details
  • 61. Pub--- etiquette
    • 18 years old
    Family pubs welcome people with
    rough language
    Common to “buying a round
    of drinks”
    "have a drink on me”
    = pay for the drink that he chooses
  • 62. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Operations/Rules of the Pub in hotels
    Not common to receive a tip
    offered a drink on the house - the pub pays for it
    pub is not allowed to serve drinks after closing time
    must stop drinking 20 minutes after closing time
  • 63. Food in Britain
    Breakfast - between 7:00 and 9:00,
    Lunch - between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m.
    Dinner (Supper) - The main meal. between 6:30 and 8:00 p.m. (Evening meal)
    Breakfast - between 7:00 and 9:00,
    Dinner (The main meal) - between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m.
    Tea - anywhere from 5:30 at night to 6:30 p.m.
  • 64. Meals
    A Traditional English breakfast- full English/fry up
    Tea-break - 11:00a.m.
    Brunch – breakfastlunch
    Sunday roast -Lunch (main meal)
    Afternoon tea (not common these days)
    - most adults go out to work
    - tea rooms around England
    High tea(early evening)
    - often replaced with a supper or dinner
  • 65. Supper/Dinner
    Supper --- family meal
    Dinner party --- formal evening meal --guests have been invited
    Special effort made both in the food preparation and in table setting
    meat and two veg ---
    meat served together on the same plate with two types of vegetable
    common to eat a dessert
    cannot eat certain type of food or have some special needs, tell your host before
    Arrive on time
    Take a bottle of wine or some flowers or chocolates
  • 66. Eating Manner
    Drinking tea
    Do not pour the tea from a teapot as soon as it has been made; leave it for a minute or two.
    If the teapot contains loose tea, place the tea strainer onto the cup before pouring.
    Milk can be added to the cup either before or after pouring the tea.
    Once the teapot is half-empty, or if the tea is too strong for you, pour the hot water into the teapot.
  • 67. Influence on UK’s hospitality industry
    Type of food in hotel restaurant
    not normal life
    cooked breakfast every day if stay in a hotel or bed and breakfast
    Most British people only eat these foods occasionally
  • 68. Serious health problem – obesity
    24%adult (2004), only 2nd to US
    not enough exercise
    European diet
    - eat less fruit, vegetables, fishes
    tends to eat out and love fast-food
  • 69. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Menu of restaurants in hotels
    Food at a low price, and sufficient speed
    In 2009,
    introduce calorie information on their menus.
    Includes :
    workplace caterers, quick-service restaurants, theme parks and leisure attractions, pub restaurants, cafes ,etc
  • 70. Business manner
    a round of firm handshake
    Typical greeting
    ‘hello , nice to meet you’ or ‘how do you do’
    expect others to be punctual
    considered rude to arrive late
  • 71. Business manner
    First name
    Take the lead from your host regarding the use of first name
    Age difference – determinant
    Young people - more inclined to use first name
  • 72. Business manner
    Being friendly and real friendship
    British - very reserved and private
    Privacy - extremely important
    use of first name - not necessarily equate
    with friendship
    never mix business and pleasure
  • 73.  Superstitions - Good Luck
    meet a black cat.
    touch wood
    find a clover plant with four leaves
    White heather
    Horseshoes over the door - sign of good luck.
  • 74. Superstitions - Good Luck
    On the first day of the month it is lucky to say "white rabbits, white rabbits white rabbits," before uttering your first word of the day.
    Catch falling leaves in Autumn
    - Every leaf means a lucky month next year
    Cut hair when the moon is waxing
    Putting money in the pocket of new clothes
  • 75. Superstitions - Bad Luck
    walk underneath a ladder
    Seven years bad luck to break a mirror.
    see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc..
    spill salt
  • 76. Superstitions - Bad Luck
    open an umbrella in doors
    Friday the Thirteenth
    put new shoes on the table
    pass someone on the stairs
  • 77. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    Name of the Hotel
    The Horseshoe Inn
    - Symbolize lucky
  • 78. Influence on UK’s Hospitality Culture
    The omission of 13th Floor
    No. 13 = unlucky
    building owners will sometimes purposely omit a floor so numbered
    Hence, the 13th floor is given the No.14
  • 79. Conclusion
    Internal Influence
    History – laid down the foundation of
    development of hospitality
    Lifestyle (manner, dining) – affect the practices in
    the departments of hotels
    Philosophy – influence the personality, behavior and
    belief of British
    greatly affect the political development
    Demographic – determine the target customers and type
    of workers in UK’s hospitality
    formation of social norms and systems
    All these helped to shape Britain’s image as strong European power with unique culture for over 9 decades
  • 80. Conclusion
    External influence
    Terrorism – unprecedented threat
    main concern in crisis and safety
    Communism – long-term fear of British
    These are the underlying factors hindering the expansion of UK’s hospitality industry
  • 81. References
    Mccormick, J. (2007). Contemporary Britain 2nd edition. China: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Storry, M. & Childs, P. (2002). British Cultural Identities second edition. London and New York: Routledge.
    Horrall, A. (2001). Popular Culture in London 1890-1918 The transformation of entertainment. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
    Bdo Hospitality Consulting (1996). Trends in the UK industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 6-10.
  • 82. References
    Walker, J. R. (2009). Introduction to Hospitality,(5th edition). : Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Norbury, P. (2003). Culture Smart!Britain. : Kuperard.
    Brotherton, B. (2000). An introduction to the UK hospitality industry : a comparative approach. : Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann
    Gee.C.Y.(2000).International Hotel Management .The Educational Institute of the AH&MA, East Lansing, MI.
  • 83. References
  • 84. References
  • 85. Thank You !