Prof. Mike Gibney- Self Help Africa Conference

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A presentation by Prof. Mike Gibney, leading Irish expert on human nutrition to the conference "Food Security & Climate Change in Africa", that was organised by Self Help Africa and hosted by the School of Agriculture and Food Sciences at University College, Dublin, as part of the programme of activities to mark 'Africa Day', in May 2010.

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Prof. Mike Gibney- Self Help Africa Conference

  1. 1.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Hunger is an emotive term Malnutrition is a medical term
  2. 2.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnutrition Hunger Acute Chronic
  3. 3.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnutrition Hunger Acute Chronic Recovery
  4. 4.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnutrition Hunger Acute Chronic Recovery Persists Premature death Permanent disability Cognitive & physical disability
  5. 5.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Chronic malnutrition Hunger: Inadequate food (energy) intakes: Wasting: Inadequate weight for height Stunting: Inadequate height for age
  6. 6.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Chronic malnutrition Hunger: Inadequate food (energy) intakes: Wasting: Inadequate weight for height Stunting: Inadequate height for age Hidden Hunger = Inadequate micronutrient intakes: Iron: Anaemia (40% pre-school kids) Vitamin A: Blindness (250m pre-school kids) Iodine: Goiter (54 countries endemic deficiency)
  7. 7.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnutrition – infection cycle Malnutrition Impaired immune system Infection Increased nutrient requirements Increased nutrient losses
  8. 8.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnutrition – infection cycle Malnutrition Impaired immune system Infection Increased nutrient requirements Increased nutrient losses
  9. 9.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  10. 10.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Global Hunger Index % of population undernourished + % of children < 5 years low weight + % of childhood mortality <5 years 3
  11. 11.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Global Hunger Index
  12. 12.  UCD Institute of Food and Health None Low Moderate Serious Alarming Extremely alarming
  13. 13.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  14. 14.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  15. 15.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  16. 16.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development
  17. 17.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development -9 to 24 The critical period of nutrient sensitive growth Brain Musculo-skeletal systems
  18. 18.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Age % of daily energy consumed by the brain Adult 23
  19. 19.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Age % of daily energy consumed by the brain Adult 23 5-6 years 44
  20. 20.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Age % of daily energy consumed by the brain Adult 23 5-6 years 44 4- 5 months 64
  21. 21.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Age % of daily energy consumed by the brain Adult 23 5-6 years 44 4- 5 months 64 Neonate 74
  22. 22.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Connemara Foals Mongolian
  23. 23.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Connemara Foals Mongolian Babies
  24. 24.  UCD Institute of Food and Health 48 divisions in utero Neonate @ 3.5 kg 2 Years @ 15 kg 2 divisions
  25. 25.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  26. 26.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Healthy post natal trajectory Critical period
  27. 27.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Healthy post natal trajectory Critical period
  28. 28.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Two intervention supplementary foods Atole (A gruel high in energy, protein, micronutrients) Fresco (A drink, low in energy and micronutrients and zero protein) Three intervention periods 0 - 24 months, 0 - 36 months & 36 - 72 months Followed up aged 26-42 years of age (mean 32)
  29. 29.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Mean hourly income at mean age 32 years according to period of intervention (Atole versus Fresca)
  30. 30.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Ten global challenges and the top value solutions Top 4 in value for money
  31. 31.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Ten global challenges and the top value solutions Top 4 in value for money Challenge Opportunity Diseases Control of HIV/AIDS Malnutrition Micronutrient fortification Subsidies & trade Liberalising trade Diseases Control of malaria
  32. 32.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  33. 33.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  34. 34.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  35. 35.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Severe acute malnutrition <ul><li>Traditional model involved the </li></ul><ul><li>establishment of therapeutic feeding centres </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to establish </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Limited coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Undermined normal rural life </li></ul>
  36. 36.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Community Therapeutic Care <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread access & coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Uses ready-to-use-foods </li></ul><ul><li>Community based </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents escalation of SAM </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative </li></ul>
  37. 37.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  38. 38.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  39. 39.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  40. 40.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  41. 41.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Imagine John Lennon 3.02 minutes 23 children dead from hunger
  42. 42. From 6.5 to 9.5 billion by 2050 The water crisis will happen first Rising economies = rising food prices A 20% fall in food output is likely UCD Institute of Food and Health
  43. 43.  UCD Institute of Food and Health
  44. 44.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Per capita calorie availability in 2050 Region 2050 Year 2,000 No Climate Change With Climate change Developed countries 3,450 3,650 3,200 Developing countries 2,700 2,900 2,400 Sub-Sahara Africa 2,300 2,450 1,900 South Asia 2,400 2,650 2,250
  45. 45.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Per capita calorie availability in 2050 Region 2050 Year 2,000 No Climate Change With Climate change Developed countries 3,450 3,650 3,200 Developing countries 2,700 2,900 2,400 2,800 Sub-Sahara Africa 2,300 2,450 1,900 2,350 South Asia 2,400 2,650 2,250 2,550
  46. 46.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Malnourished <5 year olds (millions) in 2050 Region 2050 Year 2,000 No Climate Change With Climate change With Climate change & adaptation Developing countries 148 113 138 119 Sub-Sahara Africa 33 42 52 44 South Asia 76 52 59 54
  47. 47.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Developing country agricultural productivity investments needed to reduce childhood mortality to no climate change levels
  48. 48.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Developing country agricultural productivity investments needed to reduce childhood mortality to no climate change levels <ul><li>60% increase in all crop yields </li></ul><ul><li>30% rise in animal numbers </li></ul><ul><li>40% rise in oilseed output </li></ul><ul><li>25% rise in irrigated area </li></ul><ul><li>15% fall in reliance on rain-fed growth </li></ul><ul><li>15% rise in basin water efficiency </li></ul>
  49. 49.  UCD Institute of Food and Health Thank you

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