Community Based Adaptation to  Climate Change
On the frontline <ul><li>Climate change is a reality for rural African communities </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with unpredict...
Communities in Action <ul><li>Adapting to change </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing kno...
Understanding vulnerabiliy <ul><li>Differential and dynamic vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between biophysi...
CBA- whats new? <ul><li>Local understanding of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Local-level vulnerability assessments link...
Sustainable Agriculture <ul><li>Productive Soils  increasing  organic matter is key to water retention </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Crop diversification & improved seeds <ul><li>Different crops </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant/early maturing varieties ...
Using water wisely <ul><li>Sustainable catchment management  </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale irrigation  </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Livelihood diversification <ul><li>Beekeeping, livestock, aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Agri-business – processing, market...
Carbon  Sequestration
Working together <ul><li>Farmer knowledge sharing and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Building local capacity – structures/or...
Gender & climate change <ul><li>.  </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding differences in vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Appropri...
Scaling up <ul><li>Linking to district/regional planning </li></ul><ul><li>Research and knowledge banks </li></ul><ul><li>...
Florence shares crop trial experiences on national TV
 
International level: learn, share, connect <ul><li>International information sharing:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa adapt ...
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Jenny Rafanomezana - Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change

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A presentation by Jenny Rafanomezana, policy co-ordinator with Self Help Africa, to the conference "Food Security & Climate Change in Africa", that was organised by Self Help Africa and hosted by the School of Agriculture and Food Sciences at University College, Dublin, as part of the programme of activities to mark 'Africa Day', in May 2010.

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  • Going to talk about CBA Evaluate the present – using examples from SHA’s work with partners across 9 countries in Africa Look to the future – where need to go further, what opportunities must make most of and most significant challenges
  • For the African communities we work with climate change is a reality – they are on the frontline. Across SSA smallholder farmers are dependant on the weather – in particular on rains coming at ‘right’ time and lasting long enough to enable them to secure their livelihoods; for many years SHA and others working with rural families to cope with this challenge. With increase in GHG increased frequency and intensity of climatic events; greater unpredictability; bigger challenges. Poor resource management locally accelerates and accentuates the changes. Eg in West Africa last year – mix of late rains and intense short periods of rain caused difficulties for farmers – low yields and losses from flooding as well as wider damage. In East Africa unpredictable rains and prolonged drought results in crop failure – images from Kenya, also Ethiopia and Eritrea Outside of the headlines communities have been coping with supporting families in difficult environments for decades. This has to be starting point for CBA. SHA and other orgs working with communities to effectively implement strategies in order to adapt to the changing conditions. Key is shift from coping strategies to adaptive ones – move from helping communities to ‘survive’ a bad year to be able to ‘thrive’ if those bad years become the norm. African Gov’ts and communities don’t want to depend on emergency aid; development org we must climate proof all our activities. Build awareness and local debate re climate change and what community can do – encourage long-term thinking Some of ways work with communities in own adaptation processes is what going to try and share in this presentation.
  • Main areas focus on adapting but also look at how communities can contribute to and benefit from climate change mitigation How we can tackle the challenge through developing the linkages between different actors in a particular place and from grassroots to international arena
  •   Recognising differential vulnerability is important when Increasing pressures – inequalities likely to be exacerbated It is important to explicitly engage women in developing adaptation strategies   An assessment of vulnerability to climate change should be contextualised within other development challenges that are faced at the local level.  Imp to understand the interactions  between a number of biophysical, economic and socio-cultural stressors that people face It is critical that vulnerability to climate change is assessed at a scale that is relevant to the programme or project, rather than assuming everyone is equally vulnerable i.e. national vulnerability assessments may help to identify key areas to target, but effective responses will need to be based on a more nuanced understanding of intra-community and even intra-household vulnerabilities.  Principle of subsidiarity – making decisions/implementing response measures at most appropriate level
  • Many of the activities part of good development practice in sustainable agricultural livelihoods CBA – new area – one that could rapidly expand with everyone claiming that it is what they are doing to capture new funding opportunities Need clear re key features – what is good practice Spoke to official from UNDP– define good CBA project if when asked beneficiaries could tell him what climate change was
  • Soil Regeneration has to be central to adapting to CC. It is essential to increase soil productivity through improving fertility and in particular increasing the soil capacity to retain water (through minimising compaction and maintaining or repairing porosity). This can be achieved through: Land preparation – zero tillage; stone/vegetative contour bunds; pit beds, zai and demi-lune. Minimum land preparation reduces soil disturbance, leading to stabilisation of soil structure. Physical/vegetative structures trap soil reducing erosion and slow water flow increasing infiltration. Pits hold water increasing soil moisture content, enabling crops to survive dry spells Composting – Using different materials, production methods and applications e.g . heaps, pits, fosse fumière, bokash, liquid manure and pellets (a farmer innovation from Malawi). Compost adds organic matter which feeds the soil microbes slowly releasing nutrients into the soil and increases the water infiltration and retention capacity of the soil. Land/Crop Management – through planting cover crops e.g . Pigeon pea, Leucaena; residue management; improved planting practices like intercropping and crop rotation; agroforestry; which all help to regenerate land and increase intensity of production. Maintaining cover over the soil surface protects against erosive rains and wide temperature fluctuations, as well as providing a source of organic matter. Rainfall is captured, increasing soil moisture
  • Diversification of crop and varietal production Growing a greater number of different crops improves chances that enough food is produced when rains are poor. Many more traditional crops e.g . sorghum, millet are more drought tolerant; others e.g. Cassava aren’t great nutritionally but can play an important role in helping families through the hungry season. Climate change is reducing the growing period and early maturing crops are vital to help farmers adjust; they minimise risk – not in ground so long. Critical to increase community access to a range of indigenous as well as new varieties of high yielding staples Local seed producers …seed growers associations…Unions Farmers produce certified seed for a local market. PPB For successful CBA need access to good quality seed, locally adapted to changed growing conditions at right time, right price
  • Better water management is essential for greater and more reliable agricultural production. Esp in face of increasing unpredictability of rainfall due to CC. Activities include: Sustainable catchment management Community land-use planning defines areas for different activities using A functional landscape approach , builds both technical and institutional capacity to ensure most effective and sustainable use of water resources building capacity for local regulation Tree nurseries and planting of diverse tree species for fuel wood, fodder, fruit and reforestation - at commune, village or household level. Small-scale irrigation – including drip irrigation, simple furrows and channels, treadle pumps Extends crop production period and reduces dependency on rainfall. Cost effective – appropriate technologies are promoted that make effective use of water resources, minimising evapotranspiration and ensuring a water source not overused. Water harvesting and storage – construction of water storage tanks to capture run-off from buildings and store Enabling farms to manage their water own resources. Retaining water from heavy rains to use later.
  • Increasing incomes through improved rural enterprise, reducing dependence on rain-fed agriculture Value chains - adding value Marketing linkages Access to credit
  • MITIGATING ACTIONS Looking C sequestration - how communities can contribute to this but most importantly how they can benefit from the opportunities it should provide in terms of financing. Rather than depend on the consciences of developed countries and the contributions they might make to an adaptation we want to make sure that rural african farmers are in a position to be able to benefit from the carbon markets. Many of the actions they need to take to adapt e.g. Increasing soil OM is also locking carbon in the soil. Soil as a sink – sustainable land management Trees – agro-forestry, village forest reserves Fuel efficient stoves
  • Scale of challenge – need to work together developing the linkages between different actors Sharing – community learning circles – share good practice Innovation – e.g. Pellet manure
  • Increasing pressures – inequalities likely to be exacerbated It is important to explicitly engage women in developing adaptation strategies 
  • Move from case studies – capture anecdotal experiences to more research – effectiveness of CBA practices that most promising. An example in Malawi – working with gov’t research station and farmers on crop trials – effect of different sust ag practices on maize yields – different maize varieties – hybrid OPV and local with different treatments – manure only, manure and fertilise, fertiliser only; manure in pit beds. Valuable for local learning, people seeing for themselves, enable them to make decisions Informing advocacy and policy e.g. Stick with Malawi – fertiliser subsidy SHA and partners at International conference on CBA – share with others Exploring potential to incorporate CBA local vulnerability assessments into LAPAs that can link to NAPAs – linking local level planning with national level delivery frameworks
  • Television Malawi Team. They captured all the demonstrations and were aired on our local television station.   In summary, Florence is used to disseminate our good technologies up to Nation wide now
  • This report – that SHA produced with 4 other organisations allowed voices of men and women in vulnerable African communities to be heard directly – in run up to UNCC Conference in Copenhagen – end of last year.
  • Community Based Adaptation Exchange Global Initiative for Community Based Adaptation – coordinate internationally – conferences, working groups, knowledge mgt, links to UNagencies Global Partnership on CBA – initiated by Small Grants programme of UNDP
  • Jenny Rafanomezana - Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change

    1. 1. Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change
    2. 2. On the frontline <ul><li>Climate change is a reality for rural African communities </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with unpredictable rains </li></ul><ul><li>From coping to adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Build resilience; reduce vulnerability </li></ul>
    3. 3. Communities in Action <ul><li>Adapting to change </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge; working together </li></ul>
    4. 4. Understanding vulnerabiliy <ul><li>Differential and dynamic vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between biophysical, economic and socio-cultural stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualise within other development challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Developing adaptation strategies; </li></ul><ul><li>prioritise & target adaptation responses </li></ul><ul><li>plan & deliver across range of scales </li></ul>
    5. 5. CBA- whats new? <ul><li>Local understanding of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Local-level vulnerability assessments linked to long-term planning </li></ul><ul><li>Community capacity to respond to dynamic change </li></ul><ul><li>CBA and DRR </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sustainable Agriculture <ul><li>Productive Soils increasing organic matter is key to water retention </li></ul><ul><li>Land preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Composting </li></ul><ul><li>Land/Crop Management </li></ul>
    7. 7. Crop diversification & improved seeds <ul><li>Different crops </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant/early maturing varieties </li></ul>
    8. 8. Using water wisely <ul><li>Sustainable catchment management </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Water harvesting and storage </li></ul>
    9. 9. Livelihood diversification <ul><li>Beekeeping, livestock, aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Agri-business – processing, marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Out of agriculture </li></ul>
    10. 10. Carbon Sequestration
    11. 11. Working together <ul><li>Farmer knowledge sharing and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Building local capacity – structures/organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships – gov’t, research, NGOs, CBOs </li></ul>
    12. 12. Gender & climate change <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding differences in vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate practices </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership roles in CBA planning, farmer extension, groups </li></ul><ul><li>Access and control issues </li></ul>
    13. 13. Scaling up <ul><li>Linking to district/regional planning </li></ul><ul><li>Research and knowledge banks </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminating experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging in policy debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local, national, international </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link to NAPAs </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Florence shares crop trial experiences on national TV
    15. 16. International level: learn, share, connect <ul><li>International information sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa adapt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we adapt – google earth layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CBA-X (Eldis ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GICBA </li></ul><ul><li>GPCBA </li></ul>

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