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Panaroma Report- Media Technologies Course FHV 2011 SS
 

Panaroma Report- Media Technologies Course FHV 2011 SS

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    Panaroma Report- Media Technologies Course FHV 2011 SS Panaroma Report- Media Technologies Course FHV 2011 SS Document Transcript

    • INDEX1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............First Panoramas2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………........PANORAMA: “Field of view”3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................Shooting 3.1 The Challenge of Shooting Panoramas 3.2 Necessary Equipments for Shooting Panorama 3.3 Theorical Models 3.4 Preparation for Shooting4. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….VR PANORAMIC TRIPOD HEADS5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..............CHOOSING LENS6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..........CAMERA SETTINGS7. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..STITCHING8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….OUPUT 8.1 Internet or Printed Panorama?.............................................................................................. 8.2 Projections Types.………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8.3 Virtual Diversity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9. Software
    • 1. FIRST PANORAMASOne of the first recorded patents for a panoramic camera was submitted by Joseph Puchberger inAustria in 1843 for a hand-cranked, 150° field of view, 8-inch focal length camera that exposed arelatively large Daguerreotype, up to 24 inches (610 mm) long. A more successful and technicallysuperior panoramic camera was assembled the next year by Friedrich von Martens in Germany in1844. As a result, the camera properly exposed the photographic plate, avoiding unsteady speedsthat can create unevenness in exposure, called banding. Martens was employed by Lerebours, aphotographer/publisher.Because of the high cost of materials and the technical difficulty of properly exposing the plates,Daguerreotype panoramas, especially those pieced together from several plates are rare.Following the invention of flexible film in 1888, panoramic photography was revolutionized. Dozensof cameras were marketed, many with brand names heavily indicative of their time. Cameras suchas;  Cylindrograph,  Wonder Panoramic,  Pantascopic and Cyclo-Pan, are some examples of panoramic cameras. 1851 panoramic showing San Francisco from Rincon Hill Center City Philadelphia panorama, from 1913.
    • View from the top of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, Albumen prints, February, 1864 2. PANORAMA : “Field of View”Panoramic photography is a technique of photography, using specialized equipment or software, thatcaptures images with elongated fields of view. It is sometimes known as wide format photography.The term has also been applied to a photograph that is cropped to a relatively wide aspect ratio.While there is no formal division between "wide-angle" and "panoramic" photography, "wide angle"normally refers to a type of lens, but using this lens type does not necessarily make an image apanorama.The most important characteristic of a panorama is the large of view Wide angle of view areproduced in the digital photographic world using special cameras or special cameras or specificshooting and image merging techniques.Panoramic angles of view are typically much wider than the normal angle of view of the human eye.In real world a viewer can only observe 360’ angle of view by physically turning around his/her ownaxis.3.1 The Challenge of Shooting PanoramasMajor aim, and simultaneously the greatest challenge, for every panorama photographer is capturinga wide field of view.The easiest way to understand how panoramas are made is use three theorical models 1. Sheet of Glass: The limit to conventional viewing lie at around 120’. This limit also generally applies to conventional photographic techniques. 2. Glass Cylinder: Position of yourself in the center of glass cylinder. This type of image is described as 360’. Note: Problem; You cannot capture any objects positioned either above or below you. 3. A Glass Sphere: Position of yourself in the center of glass sphere. You can cover a horizontal angle of 180’. This is the ultimate panorama and the resulting image is described spherical.
    • 3.2 NECESSARY EQUİPMENTS FOR SHOOTING PANORAMA  Camera  Wide lens – Fish eye lens  Tripod  VR Panoramic tripod head  Spirit level  Computer  Stitching Software
    • 3. SHOOTINGParallax, focus, brightness and Color Balance these are the most important points that you shouldpay attention.How can we locate parallax point you must simply locate the no parallax point your particularcamera/lens combination yourself by using trial and error approach.Adjust your cameras position by using the adjustment plates on your VR Head until no more parallaxerror occur.Preparation  Mount the camera on the VR head and adjust the right/left lens position until it is exactly above the tripod’s central axis of rotation.  Shift the camera along the forward/backward axis until the middle of the lens is located roughly above the tripod’s axis of rotation. This is starting point fort the fine- tunning that follows  Find a scene that includes two clear vertical edges at differing distance from the camera  Set up your camera so that both objects appear to be lined up behind one another in the viewfinder.  Select your desired aperture and set the focal distance. Remember, the no parallax point will change position according to selected focal distance.  Check that you camera is perfectly horizontal using spirit level. Calibrate the camera position;  Observe the relative positions of the two objects in the viewfinder while rotating the camera slowly to the left. If the more distant object appears to move to the left, the no parallax point is further towards the rear of your lens the camera needs to be moved forward. If the more distant object appears to shift to the right, the camera is already too far forward and needs to be shifted backward.  Keep trying until the two objects no longer shift in relation to each other when the camera is rotated. You have now successfully located the no parallax point for your camera/lens combination.
    • 4. VR PANORAMIC TRIPOD HEADSA good VR panoramic tripod head enables you to rotate your camera precisely around its noparallax point and also allows the camera to be tilted backward and forward to enable you toshoot fully spherical 360’x180’ panoramas.There are various different types of VR heads;The 360’ Precion AbsoluteThe Dinaour Manfrotto 302Head Modifications Manfrotto LiteHommade Aluminium L-plate5. CHOOSING LENSThe choice of lens (fish eye or Wide Angle) depends on the use for the finished panorama. Lowresolution is often sufficient for panoramas shot for interactive display on a computer monitor,whereas large format high en printed output usually requires the additional image data reservesinherent in a more complex shoot.For example: 16 shots with 12mm lens are required to produce the same result as six shots with10.5mm fish eye lens.Fish eye lensesThey are well suited to panorama photography, as they cover very wide angles of view and allowyou to shot complete 360’ panoramas using a small number of shots. A modern DSLR equippedwith a high quality fish eye lens can usually cover a 360’ field of view with four, five or six shots.
    • Choosing the Best VR Head for the Job  VersatilityWill you be shooting single row or multi-row image sequences?  HandlingWill you be changing cameras on the road?  PrecisionWhat subject are to be captured (architecture or landscape)?  PortabilityWhere will you be shooting?
    • 6. CAMERA SETTINGSA number of well exposed single images do not necessarily make a good panorama when they arestitched together. A panorama must make a coherent overall impression and the automatic camerafunctions that are such a great help when shooting single images are a problem.A photo with a sharpbackground but a blurred foreground can not be stitched together with aneighboring shot in which the camera focused an the foreground.You should switch off autofocus while shooting panoramas in order to ensure that the focak distanceremains consistent if the focal characteristic of each shot are tos tay the same. This is the bestachieved by manually setting your lens to its hyberfocal distance.Hyperfocal distance scales are very rare in modern autofocus lenses and they would be very usefuladdition for every panorama photographer.
    • 7. STITCHING Two neighbor images can not simply be pasted on top of each other due to the perspective it changes from image to image. Solution is; using specialized panorama software. When we use panorama (stitching) software to merge images into a panorama, the perspective of the individual images and their position in relation to each other are altered so that the resulting panorama image appears seamless to the viewer. Being a Tailor This process is like one performed by a tailor who chooses his materials carefully so that they match and uses a pattern to cut , pin, and stitch complete item of clothing. This will help to stitch our individual source images together to form the complete panorama. “Our aim is make wearer invisible” Just as individual steps a tailor makes are invisible tor he wearer, the basic processes involved in stitching digital images are invisible to the software user. What Does Stitching Software do?  Firstly we should check the quality of each piece of material before using it.  For satisfactory results; same thing should be true for panorama source images  Each image must be taken from the same view point without parallax error.  Also the focus gradient (influced by focal distance and aperture) must remain constant and brightness and color temperature (white balance) should be the same throughout the sequence.  Even if these conditions are fulfilled, it is still virtually impossible to shoot a perfect source image. The necessary connection are either made by stitching itself or by other, specialized software designed to correct optical anomalies.
    • PerspectivePanorama makers used an indirect route to reach their goal making multiple “normal”images and distorting them appropriately so that they fit together with in the cylindricalform. This is exactly method stitching software uses to merge multiple images into single,digital panorama.  Nikon users; The Nikon RAW converter, Nikon Capture Nx automatically corrects chromatic aberrations when processing Nikon RAW image data.Flat images distorted as if they were to be paste on the inside of cylinder or sphere.This process determines not only the field of view but also the general looks of thepanorama.(Add pictures for presentation)Our pins: “Control Points”This step will be performed fort he whole image sequence until all of source images aresequence until all of source images “pinned” together. So, 360’ panorama until the two endsof the cylindrical image meet.Optimizer software compares all of the selected control points mathematically andsastiscally, calculating the optimum position for all of the source images in relation to oneanother. Most stitching programmes have blending, algorithms built in.Post ProcessingWell created panorama depends on success of merging. You can often witness that arewhere straight lines or edges are not reproduced smoothly .These are usually due to wrongalignment, imperfect corrections of optical anomalies or objects within the frame thatmoved while being shot. (Like; people walking and clouds)
    • 8. OUTPUT 8.1 Internet or Printed Panorama?We can use interactive QuickTime panorama format if we want to see our result on a computermonitor. This way offersuch multifarious possibility for linking panoramas, text, and maps to formvirtual tours. It is really large subject but I will try to summarize important points here.8.1. A - Viewing on MonitorSuitable for viewing on a monitor is simplest form of panorama output; the scaled-down image filefor internet viewing of for sending as a e-mail attachment.8.1. B - PrintingDisplaying a panorama in printed form is the most complex and of course expensive form ofpanorama output but also often the most visually appealing. 8.2 ProjectionsThe projection type is important when you consider exactly how you would like to present yourpanorama. The projection type determines what will be reproduced and how it will look like. Thegeneral visual appearance and with the effect of the panorama on the viewer differs substantiallyfrom projection type.Panorama projection types are closely related to cartographic projection types. The major differencebetween them lies in the fact that a panorama is used to depict the photographers immediateenvironment not the entire world.
    • Comparison of the 3 Main Projection TypesAdvantages: 1. Flat Projection:Perfect for reproducing fields of view up to 90’x90’.Well suited to architectural photography. Straight lines reproduced in a rectilinear way familiar to thehuman eye. 2. Cylindrical Projection:For angles of view of up to 360’ horizontally, and 90’ vertically.The curving of straight lines is unusual but interesting.The greater the vertical angle of view, the more stretched is the final image. 3. Spherical Projection:For angles of view of up to 360’ horizontally and 180’ vertically.The curving of straight lines is unusual but interesting.Default projection type for flexible multi-format reproduction/display.Good basis for output as interactive panorama.Disadvantages: 1. Flat Projection:Distortion that appears for field of view greater than 120’x120’ is generally too severe.
    • 2. Cylindrical Projection:The distortion produced by vertical angles of view greater than 120’ are no longer acceptable.The curvilinear appearance of straight lines can appear unaesthetic. 3. Spherical Projection:Extreme distortion towards the poles.The curvilinear appearance of straight lines can appear unaesthetic.Panorama can appear compressed in the middle latitudes. 8.3 Virtual DiversityThe projection type can, however still be altered after a panorama has been rendered. For example,a spherical panorama can be converted to a flat or cylindrical panorama using tools.Theoretically, transforming one projection type into another is a loss-free process-at least in thecartographic world where reproduction is based on vector data. However transforming projectionsalways leads to a loss of the rasterized pixel data that makes up a digital image. Also it is possiblepreserve more image quality if you select your desired projection type before you render yourpanorama.
    • 9. SOFTWARESome background knowledge helps us to avoid making basic mistakes from the outset or at leastallows correcting mistakes effectively during stitching process.Stitching software is available in many forms free, highly specialized open source algorithms right upto complex software suites that offer functionality way beyond the stitching process.Most programs offer free downloadable test versions and most are supported by internet forums.These days there are a multitude of stitching and viewing programs available.-Panorama Tools, is basically a loose collection of software tools designed to distort, correct, alignand transform digital images for the specific purpose of creating digital panorama with best results.Problem is tools themselves are not easy to operate don’t have user graphical interface. Before startyou need background knowledge.-PT Gui (Panaroma Tools Graphical User Interface introduced in 2000) and PTMac (Panaroma Toolsfor Apple Macinosh-2002) are both based entrirely on Panorama Tools and are stiil clearly related tothe original program.-Realviz Stitcheer (called Auto Desk now) probably was first available modern spherical panoramastitching program with user friendly GUI.They demanded perfect parallax correction and exposure as well as good composition on the part ofphotographer in order to produce error-free panoramas.All modern programs can easily handle simple situations in which a panorama tripod head and a longlens with no distortion are used to shoot a subject with obvious , easily-overlapped features. Thesituation becomes more complex when the photographer user extreme wide angle or fish eyelenses, or when the frame includes objects at close distances or if the sequence is shot with little orno regard for the no parallax point.Every photographer shoots different subejts under different conditions and the results must bejudged in context. If you are shooting in studio, moving vehicles people or clouds are not a problem,where as object at multiple distances can be troublesome. On the other hand , if you are shooting abroad landscape, you probably have no parallax problems, but are more likely to encounterdifferences in the color of the sky between shots, or to have problems with moving clouds or trees.
    • Up till now : Pros and ConsAbout Shooting Process  It is mostly impossible that shooting without special panoramic tripod head to see seamless results.  If you planning to work outside, you must consider weather conditions.  There mustn’t be any moving objects (cars, people, clouds, birds…)  Nearest object should be at least 5mt far away from camera. (Otherwise it will caused perspective problems)About Equipments  Nodal Ninja the special head for panoramic tripod head has a lot of advantages. One of them is ; plates which provides you by difference shooting choice. Owing to these little plates you can decide how many image you take.  Camera settings are also most important point to have best result. That’s why you must check it before each shot if you use it in manual mood.
    • SOURCES:Tools: http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials.htmOutput: http://www.hdrsoft.com/Mastering Digital Panoramic Photography, WOESTE Hararld.Panoramic Heads : http://www.chem.uky.edu/xray/people/Parkin/panohead/panohead.htmlHistory of Panoramic Photography : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panoramic_photography
    • SELEN GÜRÜNRECEP EMRE KOCAMedia Technology - Media Distribution /FHV /2011