Intellectual Property for Entrepreneurs
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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • If one is going to play the 'game of patents', one should play to win. While there are rules and deadlines which have to be met, one can still choose the 'game' they are playing: Cops & RObbers; MOnopoly, RIsk; Stratego; Dice; Jacks or Rubiks Cube. But remember, just because you are in the 'game', does not mean your competition will be playing the same game you are playing...
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  • Eric - very nice presentation (although maybe you can reduce the 175 slides?) Basic question I ask companies that are serious about their IP - who is managing and overseeing the IP? R&D - too busy, they have deadlines to meet; Marketing - not technical enough; Legal Team - tey don't care about your marketing plans or business strategy... and even if they did its an ineffective use of your resources as well and theirs (they get paid to draft and litigate patents). This is why it is important to establish IP Development teams (focused on IP strategy and Business Development).
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  • Great point ehrp!
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  • Congratulations. For what I’ve seen, so far so enlightening, but I’ll have to look into it later on.
    One thing I can share by experience is that the Examiners should be enlightened experts within each field.
    The comments to my latest PCT application are so weak technically, but mandatory because it comes from a PCT Examiner. !!!UUAAOO!!!
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  • I'll have to fix these issues when i get home from travel. Cheers!
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Intellectual Property for Entrepreneurs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MY DIRTY LITTLE START-UP INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FOR LEGAL-O-PHOBES SECRET http://www.flickr.com/photos/wetfoto/
  • 2. PART 1…..…………….The Roots of Intellectual Property PART 2….……….……………Intellectual Property Law 101 PART 3.......Making Money from Intellectual Property PART 4……..………………….Beyond Intellectual Property PART 5………..………………………………………..IP Resources
  • 3. PART 1 The Roots of Intellectual Property
  • 4. Intellectual Property (IP) is a tactical management tool
  • 5. and nothing more
  • 6. This is key because the most common mistake entrepreneurs make is to be awed, emotional, or self-righteous about IP, when they should be Machiavellian
  • 7. Intellectual Property is not one of your fundamental, natural rights
  • 8. As it so happens, it is a public policy that was crafted in 17th century Europe
  • 9. For kings, merchants, and clerics to divvy up the benefits of (and control) the newly invented printing press
  • 10. Before that
  • 11. For tens of thousands of years of human history
  • 12. Patents Copyrights Trade Marks
  • 13. did not exist (*) (*) OK, super IP geeks, give me a break on this one. I’s more exciting if I state it this way, and, despite Ancient China and Senor Brunelleschi and all, it is true in the spirit of the argument
  • 14. Today, IP policy has evolved from its mercantile roots into a mechanism to accelerate innovation (patents and copyrights) and quality (trademarks)
  • 15. Here’s the basic Econ 101 party line
  • 16. If an inventor cannot reap the financial rewards from inventing, because someone else steals the ideas, the inventor will not spend the blood, sweat, and tears required to invent in the first place, and the whole growth machine grinds to a halt (patents & copyrights)
  • 17. If a pirate can pass themselves off as a quality brand, while producing cheaply, then there will be no incentive for the quality brand to invest in a quality product in the first place (trademark)
  • 18. So, to fend off future stagnation, governments strike a societal balance between the evils of monopoly and the benefits of innovation & quality
  • 19. At it’s core, modern IP is a legal framework that grants inventors a limited window of monopoly during which they can enjoy economic benefit
  • 20. Or in the words of the big dogs… “The Congress shall have the power to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries” -Article I, Section 8 US Constitution
  • 21. So, simply put
  • 22. Patents protect inventions
  • 23. Copyrights protect (artistic) expression of ideas
  • 24. Trademarks protect quality brands / market reputation
  • 25. But… To reiterate, ideas and inventions are not fundamental rights
  • 26. They are temporary grants, given for a specific societal benefit incentivization
  • 27. The ideas are not “yours”
  • 28. and you shouldn’t get attached to them
  • 29. and… if there are more effective ways to achieve the societal aims of incentivizing inventors, then we all shouldn’t get so hung up on IP
  • 30. But, one last word before we stop with all this philosophy crap
  • 31. There are also serious, potentially unresolvable problems with IP in today’s world
  • 32. Think of these as unwanted drug side-effects
  • 33. 1. Humanity was plenty inventive before 1600AD. The very assumption that inventors won’t invent without cash may be wrong from inception 2. The accelerated speed of invention prompted by the IP system may be dangerous for society in a larger sense 3. It may not be fair that ideas built on thousands of years of public domain are individually owned 4. IP enforcement is getting so hard that IP may be an unenforceable right (e.g.: digital piracy, different legal regimes from country to country, etc) 5. Given creativity & technology complexity and options, IP is increasingly easy to innovate around 6. What about squeegie topics like patenting your genes 7. IP is easily abused by the powerful (e.g.: bio piracy, First World wants versus Third World needs, etc…)
  • 34. But let’s leave it at that for now
  • 35. If you’re keen, you can join the rich discussions online about why IP is evil on your own
  • 36. For now, let’s make sure that we understand the IP regime, so that we can legally manipulate it to our maximum financial advantage as entrepreneurs
  • 37. as entrepreneurs are meant to do with all public policy
  • 38. mwahahahahahahahaha
  • 39. PART 2 Intellectual Property Law 101
  • 40. But wait, isn't IP law something to leave to the lawyers?
  • 41. NOOOOOOOOOO!
  • 42. Did you know • By 1999, 75% of Fortune 100 total market cap was represented in intangible assets • Massive firm investments are required for IP creation and protection • We are living in a globalized knowledge economy • IP rights are key strategic and tactical levers in Competitive Strategy that can make or break firms
  • 43. IP is NOT something for your lawyers
  • 44. It is something for you
  • 45. How you manage IP is a critical part of corporate strategy and one of every manager's responsibilities
  • 46. Lawyers can help you proof read your legal documents
  • 47. and, if your lawyers are truly bad ass… they can even ask you tough, clarifying questions, or give you ideas from what they've learned in other cases
  • 48. but the terms of the deals are for you, the business, to define
  • 49. based on your strategic objectives
  • 50. OK, so what do you need to know about IP in order to do your job?
  • 51. At it's core, IP strategy (which is really just corporate strategy) defines how you manage 4 assets
  • 52. 1. Patents 2. Copyrights 3. Trademarks 4. Trade Secrets
  • 53. Each of these assets wraps a specific form of intangible value (like ideas or brand image) into a legal form that can be manipulated as any traditional, physical form of property
  • 54. In other words, IP turns the fluffy, intangible value into a tangible economic asset, that can be bought, sold, transferred, administrated, & adjudicated in a market place
  • 55. Each of these 4 types of IP asset can be understood in terms of 6 characteristics
  • 56. 1. What can be protected 2. How long do you get the protection for 3. What constitutes infringement 4. How do you enforce your rights 5. How do you punish infringers 6. What is the process required to obtain the asset, how long does it take, & how much does it cost
  • 57. Here's an example of what I mean
  • 58. PATENT COPYRIGHT TRADEMARK TRADE SECRET Scope Product of process Inventions that do something new FYI: Utility, Design, and Plant Patents cover a smaller scope Expression of an original idea (not the idea itself), whether in words or an "artistic" endeavor, 2-D or 3-D, static or performance Word, phrase, symbol or design, or a combination thereof, that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others. • not generally known to the public • confers some sort of economic benefit on its holder (benefit must derive specifically from its not being publically known, not just from the value of the info) • is the subject of reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy Duration (before asset moves to public domain) 20 years from filing FYI: Various rules about the period between filing & securing a patent 70 years after the death of the author (work-for-hire up to 120 years) 10 years In the words of Bono, "a secret is something you tell one other person" Infringement Others may not make, use, sell, or import your invention Others may not reproduce, prepare derivatives, distribute, perform or display in public (fair use claim possible) Others may not use your trade mark (pretend to be you in the course of trade with customers to your detriment) Others may not use what they have learned unless as above for scope Enforcement Patent Infringement Action Civil suit or criminal misdemeanour / felony Lawsuit You may sue for Misappropriation Remedies Varies Usually injunction to stop infringing + damages + forfeit of remaining duplicates Usually injunction to stop infringing + damages Varies Process / Cost (see the last slide of this deck) Quite complex and potentially very expensive Easy and cheap You don't even need to register, though you can. None
  • 59. Of course, this is just an example
  • 60. despite international agreements like PCT, TRIPs, the Berne Convention, etc., all 6 characteristics will vary from country to country
  • 61. lawyers can help you answer questions about which laws apply where
  • 62. but for the lawyer to do much more, you’ll need to answer some fundamental questions
  • 63. 1. Where (in which countries) should I register, given my short, mid and long-term business/marketing plan 2. What is the right mix of protections to invest in, given expected market responses 3. How much should I (can I afford to) spend on IP registration, protection, & management given forecasted ROI and risk
  • 64. That’s the stuff the lawyer will have no idea about
  • 65. but it’s the stuff that really matters
  • 66. PART 3 Making Money from Intellectual Property
  • 67. with all that said, at the end of the day, the good entrepreneur has only one question
  • 68. how do I make money from all this?
  • 69. there are 6 ways (that I can think of) to squeeze value from IP
  • 70. 1. License Agreements 2. Valuation 3. Competitive Tactics 4. Branding 5. Internal Incentives 6. Litigation
  • 71. The most practical use for IP is to legally/formally establish an underlying asset that can be sold, borrowed, traded, or used as the basis for some economic transaction Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 72. And the legal mechanism that underlies the economic transaction involving IP is called a License Agreement Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 73. A License Agreement is a contract between an IP owner and an IP user Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 74. It defines the terms of the transaction Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 75. • What can the buyer do (or explicitly not do) with the asset • How much will the buyer pay for the asset and what are the terms of that payment • What other services come with the transaction (like support) • How long will the buyer enjoy these rights before they need to re-sign? • In which territories will the rights apply? • Etc… Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 76. For example, "for the agreed upon consideration (let's say 59.99), the user may download the software onto a single PC and use it for 3 years. She may also enjoy up to 3 support requests during the license term" Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 77. you know. when you get that Microsoft pop-up dialog with that long stream of blah-blah-blah text that you ignore and then quickly click "I agree" Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 78. That's a License Agreement Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 79. And you've just signed away your first-born child by clicking, "I accept" Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 80. Finally, note that the terms of a License Agreement can be as varied as the imaginations of the buyer and seller Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 81. Don't feel restricted to any template Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 82. The License terms are just your business model masquerading as a legal document Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 83. That's why License Innovation can be as profound as Product Innovation Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 84. Consider the earthquakes caused in the Software Industry by the innovation of the GNU General Public License – which was not technology (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 85. IP can also form the underlying asset used to increase a company's valuation Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 86. Sometimes we refer to a company's, "goodwill value" Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 87. This "goodwill value" is the hypothetical value of a company's intangible assets including reputation, brand, Intellectual Property, etc Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 88. when valuing a company (in the case of acquisition for example), the goodwill value is added to the hard value of physical assets like buildings or inventories and the hard-ish value of financial forecasts Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 89. The goodwill value can be significant Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 90. We already mentioned the Fortune 500 stat earlier! Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 91. Since IP is one of a company's intangible assets, formalizing that IP through patents, copyrights, or trade marks can be helpful when arguing for goodwill value when your company is being valued Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 92. But…. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 93. Just having a patent does not immediately raise your valuation, as start-up folklore might suggest Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 94. At the end of the day, you still need to explain what you are going to do with your IP….how you will convert the intangible value into cold, hard cash Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 95. There are also lots of fun, wonderfully-evil, Machievellian / Sun Tzu types of tactical games that companies play with IP for profit Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 96. Though, to be frank, these are more interesting for big companies rather than start-ups Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 97. The most basic IP tactic is the Pre-emptive strike Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 98. Which is basically… Patent before someone else does. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 99. The thing is…. Even if you legitimately have the IP first, you don't want to get bogged down in a bunch of annoying lawsuits because some joker files and then starts causing trouble Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 100. Once you have the patent, you proactively fend off potential annoyance – like a bug spray Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 101. By proactively patenting, you'll also go through the Patent Search process Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 102. This helps ensure that there are no Submarine Patents or other bugs lurking out there that could come back to bite you when you are rolling in the dough Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 103. And these bugs can be VERY annoying Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 104. Consider Patent Trolls (non-practicing entity) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 105. A Patent Troll is an aggressive, opportunist person /company that claims patents, often with no intention to manufacture or market the product AKA an A$$hole Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 106. The Patent Troll takes advantage of the fact that the cost of defending against a patent infringement suit, as of 2004, is typically $1 million or more before trial, and $2.5 million for a complete defence, even if successful https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent_troll Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 107. And worse yet, you never know what might happen when a jury is involved! Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 108. Trolls know that high costs & risks mean that defendants may settle even frivolous suits (for hundreds of thousands), just to swat the mosquito Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 109. By the way, there is no obligation to defend an unused patent immediately Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 110. So the Patent Troll's target may produce the patented product for years before the Troll sues them (Submarine Patent) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 111. But aren't the costs of a pre-emptive approach too high? Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 112. You’ll have the legal costs of course: • Application support • Search • Registration Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 113. But you’ll also have the internal costs Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 114. For example, you’ll be taking your best engineers and sticking them in front of a Word document composing product specifications (which they hate doing) when they could be out inventing the next product! Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 115. That's where Collective Defensive Patent Aggregation (DPA) comes into play Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 116. With Collective DPA, companies agree to share the insurance cost of pre-emption by forming a joint Patent Pool where they co-purchase patents as a joint defence Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 117. This has a sneaky anti-competition side effect as an entry barrier to future legitimate market actors Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 118. If 3-5 big players share the pool of patents required to execute a certain technology, they can ensure that no future competitors enter the market because the licensing costs will be too high Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 119. Not naming any names, but this works very well if you can make it look like you are playing nicely and helping to define an industry standard (e.g.: IEEE) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 120. Sometimes we call the resulting pool a patent fence or thicket (which can be created by a single, rich firm as easily as it can by a group) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 121. A Patent Fence is, as wikipedia says, “a dense web of overlapping or dependent intellectual property rights that a competitor must hack its way through in order to actually commercialize new technology.“ Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 122. Alternatively an IP holder can build a fence by patenting all mechanisms to achieve the result – even if they only actually use one of them in practice Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 123. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation Patent YOU US YOU YOU Patent Patent X X X
  • 124. This is all great for the big boys Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 125. But crap for you and me Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 126. So what are the little guys, on little budgets, to do? Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 127. Ultimately, if you are going to play the IP game, you need to find a hole in the patent fence and innovate around patents Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 128. Here is how it might work in simple terms Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 129. Let’s say that the original innovator patents a product such as square, connected to triangle, connected to circle Then they patent this Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 130. Of course, despite the engineering, the customer experiences the product as the red outline Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 131. So the smart competitor delivers the customer experience with a slightly different design of 2 rectangles and 2 semi-circles And patents the new solution Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 132. This can be achieved via reverse engineering, or simply creative, cheeky design Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 133. Of course, big companies with valuable/complex IP portfolios, or in industries where IP has a profound impact, closely monitor new patents & patent applications (here come the lawyers again) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 134. These firms will maintain a patent map/landscape, which is a graphical model of patent visualisation and will constantly scan all new patent applications in their area Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 135. In the process, they can play fun games like misdirection or vapourware Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 136. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation US Misdirection File pending patents that you don't intend to use to trick competitor into moving into undesirable market space
  • 137. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation Vapourware Fake the process, but don't suffer the spend so that your competitor goes into another market space to avoid the fight Patent Patent
  • 138. A smart IP Holder can also send threatening letters (regardless of the legitimacy of their claim) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 139. For example, I’m an investor in a company that was called Racerbook Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 140. Some months ago, Facebook sent us a threatening letter claiming Trademark violation Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 141. Despite the fact that we all felt Facebook had no legal claim as the businesses were very different… Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 142. We backed down and renamed the company Racerlink Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 143. After all, who wants to fight Facebook’s giant financial warchest and their army of lawyers on staff, who get paid salary no matter what they do?!?!?!?! Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 144. But big companies will not only fence off their playing field with product (engineering) patents. They will also patent manufacturing process or delivery mechanisms (especially for drugs) Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 145. Further, companies may often buy patents up & down the value chain so that they cannot be held hostage by suppliers who may use IP to extract too much margin Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 146. Consider the effects of Nokia’s patents on loudspeakers documented on Wikipedia Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 147. Even though the company does not engage in the production of cell-phone components, it keeps a handle on its suppliers by maintaining control of key IP rights in different segments of the value chain Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 148. Nokia has such patents not in order to squeeze suppliers but to forearm against price increases in an upstream segment where competition is not too high as there is only a handful of suppliers Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation
  • 149. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation IP strategy can also impact manufacturing
  • 150. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation Many companies break up the process of manufacturing across several manufacturing firms, each one producing only part of the whole product
  • 151. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation This helps prevent manufacturers (especially in weak IP enforcement zones like China) from learning/replicating all the key secrets
  • 152. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation IP can also be used as a branding tool
  • 153. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation If you show your customers and analysts a vast IP portfolio, they will assume that you are a cutting-edge firm made up of really, freaking smart people and that will bolster your brand value
  • 154. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation And don’t forget HR policies Companies like Google use the patenting process to lock-in their best and brightest by allowing them to co-patent inventions
  • 155. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation This locks scientists in for the duration and can be seen as an incentive to the super geeks who forgot they left university
  • 156. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation Last but not least, you can potentially earn quite a bit of money in Civil cases
  • 157. Licensing Valuation Tactics Branding Incentives Litigation And even if you don’t sue anyone, you can get quite a bit of press by leading high-profile raids!
  • 158. PART 4 Beyond Intellectual Property
  • 159. So, with all that said, there is also a case that you shouldn’t waste your time, efforts, and money on IP
  • 160. For one, IP, especially patents, is incredibly expensive to obtain, maintain, monitor & enforce
  • 161. But, even after all that expense, the protection may only offer weak, unenforceable protection Especially if you are a little guy
  • 162. In addition, once you leave the cosy confines of Trade Secret, your IP will only have a limited lifespan as registering it means eventually giving it up to the public domain
  • 163. Plus your competitors can start working on the workaround the minute your invention is published for the patent application
  • 164. Further, depending on your industry’s speed of innovation, by the time you prepare for, and obtain, protection, the market moment may be passed
  • 165. and one more thing…
  • 166. if I may take my tie and cufflinks off for a moment
  • 167. IP is ethically immoral
  • 168. But far more importantly, given enforceability, the fact that IP must flow into the public domain if it is to be registered, and the exorbitant costs associated with IP management, many firms other than the big guys, may look at the ROI and say….nah!
  • 169. so what else will work?
  • 170. CLIFF HANGER ALERT!!!
  • 171. Wanna find out about Better Barriers to Entry? Follow me on Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/selenasol/p resentations The next deck is coming…..
  • 172. PART 5 IP Resources
  • 173. Selling Wine without Bottles https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/EconomyOfIdeas.h tml What is the process for filing a patent in the US? http://www.uspto.gov/patents/process/ppo_texton ly.jsp What is the process for filing a patent in Singapore? http://www.ipos.gov.sg/AboutIP/TypesofIPWhatisIn tellectualProperty/Whatisapatent/Applyingforapate nt/ApplyingforapatentinSingapore.aspx What do you do if someone infringes your copyright? http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-infringement. html What do you do if someone infringes your patent? http://www.beemlaw.com/video-gallery/what-if-someone- is-infringing-your-patent What do you do if someone infringes your trademark? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trademark_infringeme nt
  • 174. SHARE THIS DECK & FOLLOW ME (please-oh-please-oh-please-oh-please) stay up to date with my future slideshare posts http://www.slideshare.net/selenasol/presentations https://twitter.com/eric_tachibana http://www.linkedin.com/pub/eric-tachibana/0/33/b53 Please note that all content & opinions expressed in this deck are my own and don’t necessarily represent the position of my current, or any previous,
  • 175. CLICK HERE FOR MORE!!!!