1. Introduction to The Holocaust
Steps to Genocide
1933 to 1945
2. holocaust (noun):
Greek word meaning “sacrifice by fire”
The Holocaust (proper noun):
The Holocaust was the systematic,
persecution and murder of
approximately six million Jews by the
Nazi regime and its collaborators.
3. genocide (noun):
The crime of destroying a group of people
because of their ethnic, national, racial, or
Nazi target groups:
Jews & Gypsies (Roma),
Slavs (Poles & Russians)
the mentally & physically disabled
communists & socialists
Jehovah Witnesses & Jews
Anybody else who opposed the Nazis
4. Genocide was NOT the first step!
Upon their ascent to power on January 30,
1933, the Nazis established concentration
camps for the imprisonment of all “enemies”
of their regime. Sentences could be a few
months or a few years.
5. They came for the Communists,
and I didn't object
- For I wasn't a Communist;
They came for the Socialists,
and I didn't object
- For I wasn't a Socialist;
They came for the labour leaders,
and I didn't object
- For I wasn't a labour leader;
They came for the Jews,
and I didn't object
- For I wasn't a Jew;
Then they came for me
-And there was no one left
Martin Niemoller, (1892-1984 )
German Protestant Pastor,
& Nazi Political Prisoner from 1937
6. Concentration camp prisoners wearing triangles and inmate numbers.
Essential to Nazi’s
and eventual mass
murder of enemies of
Slave labor moved
them towards their
ultimate goal“annihilation by work”
What was taken from
Jews was used to
provide goods for the
You cannot live
among us as
You cannot live
You cannot live.
Burning of Jewish books,
including the Torah, 1934
Institutionalized, government sponsored
11. You cannot live among us as Jews.
hostility toward or
against Jews as a
or racial group
Jewish caricature for anti-semitic
Viennese magazine, Kikeriki, 1900 –
The Jews try to conquer the world
through a black market in grain.
12. Hitler’s minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels, links
love of Germany with hatred of the Jews
13. You cannot live among us as Jews.
Based loosely on early 20th century
understanding of the science of genetics,
eugenicists believed that people should be
bred as farmers breed animals: deliberately
weeding out “inferior” traits through genetic
selection. The Nazis believed that they could
create a “a master race”.
14. You cannot live among us as Jews.
The Nazis believed that people of Northern
European ancestry – especially those with blue
eyes and blonde hair – were superior to all other
people, including people of African, Asian, and
In 1933, there were few people of African or Asian
ancestry living in Germany.
however, 500,000 Jews who seemed to threaten
15. You cannot live among us as Jews.
16. The Power of Words…
• “The great masses of the people will more easily
fall victim to a big lie than a small one”
• “How fortunate for leaders that men do not think”
• The victor will never be asked if he told the truth”
• “ I believe today I am acting in the sense of the
Almighty Creator. By warding off the Jews I am
doing the Lord’s work”
• What do all these quotations have in common?
17. All were said by Adolf Hitler…
18. You cannot live among us as Jews.
Above: “Juden Rause” (“Jews Get
Out”), Nazi children’s board game
A group at exit 2 are “off to Palestine”
19. How did they know who was Jewish?
• November 1935 German
churches begin to
collaborate with Nazis by
supplying records indicating
who is Christian
• State of the art data
processing was used to
take a census in all German
territory. Early on the Nazis
included questions on
German Hollenith Machine
• The machine allowed Nazi – a subsidiary of IBM
officials to tabulate huge
amounts of data very
20. You cannot live among us as Jews.
In 1934, Nazi scientists
This kit, which contained 29
samples of human hair. The
samples were used by
and doctors to determine
ancestry. Hair colour also
became a means to prove
the supposed superiority of
Aryans and the inferiority of
Jews, Gypsies, and those of
21. You cannot live among us as Jews.
“The Eternal Jew” – a degenerate-art exhibition
in Munich opened on November, 1937. The
largest prewar anti-semitic exhibit produced
by the Nazis, it depicted Jews as vile,
subhuman creatures. The exhibit featured
photographs pointing out the typically
“Jewish” traits. The Jew was stereotyped as
having a large hooked nose, enormous lips
and sloping forehead.
22. You cannot live among us as Jews.
23. You cannot live among us as Jews.
24. You cannot live among us as Jews.
Germans were suspicious of Jews who were seen as conspiring
(with the help of communists) to take over the world.
25. You cannot live among us as Jews.
On April 1, 1933,
Hitler declared a
of Jewish shops
26. You cannot live among us as Jews.
27. You cannot live among us as Jews.
Below: Aerial view of Nuremberg,
“The Nuremberg Laws”
turned prejudice &
Newspapers could no
longer be sold
•1936: Jews lost the
right to vote
•1938: Jews had to
licences & car
28. You cannot live among us as Jews.
•The Nuremberg Laws also
classified “degrees “ of
•One use for this
classification was to
permit or to deny couples
the right to marry (and
thus to reproduce)
•One proposed “solution”
to the Jewish problem was
29. You cannot live among us as Jews.
•By 1938, all
marked with a
30. You cannot live among us as Jews.
31. You cannot live among us.
Canada & the
Left: In 1939, 850
attempt to enter
32. You cannot live among us.
arrested the 850
interned them in a
•Similarly, in 1939
refugee ship St.
Louis attempted to
find safe harbour
for its Jewish
Cuba & the US.
Most end up back
in Belgium & the
33. You cannot live among us.
Evacuating the Jews from Germany, the Nazis created
compulsory “Jewish Quarters” in most Polish cities and towns.
The ghetto was a section of a city where all Jews from the
surrounding areas were forced to reside, surrounded by
barbed wire or walls
Left: Jewish labourers are forced to
build a wall around the Warsaw
34. Nazi ghettos were a preliminary step in the annihilation of the
Jews. Ghettos became transition areas, used as collection points for
deportation to concentration & death camps
35. You cannot live among us.
By spring of 1941, conditions inside Poland’s Warsaw Ghetto
were hellish: Food was scarce, clothing consisted many of
old rags, and medical supplies were virtually non-existent.
Child mortality rates skyrocketed
Left: Orphan sleeping in
Warsaw ghetto, 1941
36. You cannot live among us.
37. You cannot live among us.
38. You cannot live among us.
In 1941, German Jews were taken into “protective
custody” and deported to concentration camps, build in
eastern Germany & Poland.
Left: Jews being
deported from German
city of Baden-Baden
39. You cannot live among us.
In response to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Nazis
destroyed the ghetto and moved the residents farther east “to
40. You cannot live among us.
Jews carried their few remaining possessions to train stations. They were
then transported in freight and cattle cars. Not only were there no chairs,
but the trains also lacked sanitation, food, water, and air.
• Camps were built
on railroad lines for
• On arrival, all are
given numberssome have this
tattooed on their
42. You cannot live among us
In 1941, Romania also began to deport its Jews. The 2500 occupants of the
lasi train were allowed to disembark for a few minutes. Burning and
dehydrated, they immediately sought refuge in the cool mud before returning
to the torture of the sealed railcars.
43. Step 3: You Cannot Live
Law for the Protection of Hereditary
• Idea was to improve the quality
of the German race
• Nazi policy to eliminate those
“unworthy of life” (mentally or
physically challenged) to
promote Aryan “racial integrity”
• Policy halted in 1941 due to
outcry within Germany
• (mobile killing units) had began
killing operations aimed at entire
Jewish communities in the
• Thought to have killed as many
as 1 million people in six months
• Vigorous participation of local
police helped facilitate the killing
44. You cannot live
Fewer than half the 2500 Romanian Jews on the lasi death train
survived the eight day train journey.
Death due to exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and suffocation
was common on the train transports.
45. You cannot live.
1941 kamenets-podolski ukraine, members of Einsatzkommandos and local
Ukrainian nationalists murdered 25 000 Jews in huge open pits. Mass shoots
and graves in Estonia and Poland were inefficient and demoralized German
soldiers. The Germans began to seek a more permanent solution to the Jewish
46. You cannot live
The code name for the plan to destroy the
Jews of Europe. In December, 1941,
Jews were rounded up -- under the
excuse of a “resettlement” program -and sent to death camps in the East.
47. You cannot live.
•On July 31, 1941, SS Major General Reinhard
Heydrich (1904 – 1942), was empowered to
prepare “a total solution of the Jewish question
in the German sphere of influence in Europe”.
This document did not specify what the
“solution” would be, but it did permit him to
handle “the Jewish question” in ways that went
beyond “emigration and evacuation”.
•Blond and blue-eyed Heydrich fit the “Aryan”
•On January 20, 1942 Heydrich convened the
Wannsee Conference, a meeting with top Nazi
officials, in which the plans to coordinated the
“final solution” were outlined.
•Ambushed by Czech Resistance fighters near
Prague, Heydrich died on June 4, 1942.
•The Germans took revenge by razing the Czech
village of Lidice and killing all of its male
48. You cannot live.
•At the Wannsee Conference, SS Officer Adolf
Eichmann (1906 - 1962) was given the task of
implementing the “Final Solution”.
•An extremely efficient bureaucrat, Eichmann
organized the round-ups and the train
convoys to the extermination camps
•Eichmann observed that poison gas was
already being used to exterminate the
mentally handicapped. He devised the
gassing procedures and set the death quotas
in the extermination camps.
•Eichmann fled Germany for Buenos Aires
after the war.
•In the 1960, the Isreali government found
him, kidnapped him, tried him in Isreal, and
49. You cannot live.
Taking place at the beautiful Wannsee estate, the 1942 conference was
attended by fifteen men, eight of whom had advanced university degrees
ranging from law to philosophy and theology. Nearly all knew about the
deportations and killings already in progress.
Ten days after the
meeting, on January
30, 1942, Hitler
proclaimed that “the
results of this war
will be the total
annihilation of the
50. You cannot live.
Leader of the SS and head of all
police forces – including the Gestapo
--, Heinrich Himmler (1900 – 1945)
spent much of 1943 implementing
the “final Solution” by using his
control over the courts and civil
service to advance the racial
reordering of Europe.
Himmler paid particular attention to
the fate of the 600,000 Jews of
When trying to pass a British
checkpoint in May 1945, the
fugative was recognised & arrested;
he bit a cyanide pill, dying in
51. You cannot live.
The SS were put in charge of the day-to-day operations of the death camps.
52. You cannot live.
Many SS guards claimed
after the war that they
had just “been following
Commander at Auschwitz
said, “We were all so
trained to obey orders
without even thinking....”
Left: SS guards at Sobibor
Death Camp, 1942
53. You cannot live
The sign over the entrance to Auschwitz said “Work makes one free.”
However, Auschwitz was NOT a labour camp. It was actually the largest
of the death camps.
54. You cannot live
55. You cannot live
This pile of clothes
prisoners of the
Most of it would
be resold to
56. You cannot live
were going to
57. You cannot live
58. You cannot live
to this one
inmates of a
Many who were
taken to the gas
more slowly from
59. Once selected, you began the
process of extermination
Your luggage would be left for collection later
60. First you removed your valuables
61. Then you removed your shoes and clothes
Confiscated property from prisoners was kept in
storerooms nicknamed “Kanada”. The sheer
amount of loot stored there was associated with
the riches of Canada
63. Then they removed your hair
Prisoners were sent to gas
chambers disguised as showers
Zyklon B gas used to gas people
in 3 – 15 minutes
Up to 8000 people were gassed
per day at Auschwitz-Birkenau,
the largest death camp with 4
operating gas chambers
Gold fillings from victims teeth
were melted down to make gold
Prisoners moved dead bodies to
65. You cannot live among us
The gas chambers, disguised as showers, mainly used carbon
monoxide and Xylon-B. To meet the daily death quota, the SS
guards gassed men, & women; the elderly & children.
66. You cannot live among us
ovens were used to
the ovens under SS
68. Nearing the End of the War
1945, the Nazis’ began to destroy crematoriums and camps as Allied
troops closed in
Marches (Todesmarsche): Between 1944-1945, Nazis ordered
marches over long distances. Approximately 250 000 – 375 000 prisoners
perished in Death Marches
On January 27,
1945, the Soviet
camp) and liberated
more than 7,000
who were mostly ill
69. You cannot live among us
1945 - Corpse-laden-cart
Allied soldiers liberating the camps often had to dig
70. You cannot live among us
“Inspite of everything I
still believe that
people are really good
- Diary of Anne Frank
In March 1945,
Frank died at BergenBelsen of typhus
71. You cannot live among us
When the British liberated Bergen-Belsen April 15, 1945,
they discovered tens of thousands of unburied bodies.
At 4:00 am on April 29,
1945, the last day of his
life, Adolph Hitler made
one last address to the
“Above all I charge the
leaders of the nation
and those under them
observance of the laws
of race and to merciless
opposition to the
universal poisoner of all
72. You cannot live among us
Even after liberation,
continued to die. 14 000
prisoners died from April 15
to June 20, 1945.
73. You cannot live among us
Buchenwald, 1945: The
human remains on this
table included two
shrunken heads and a
made from human skin.
The commandant’s wife,
Ilse Koch, kept a
collection of tattooed
74. You cannot live among us
Nazi doctors did high pressure experiments
(left) and radiation experiments (below).
75. You cannot live among us
1945, Soviet troops liberated Auschwitz. Rudolf Hoess, Commander of
Auschwitz, was asked if the Jews whom he had murdered had in any way
deserved their fate. He answered, “Don’t you see, we SS men were not
supposed to think about these things ... Besides, it was something already
taken for granted that the Jews were to blame for everything.”
76. European Jewish Population in
1933 was 9,508,340
77. Estimated Jewish Survivors of
78. There were some revolts.
• In October 1942, the
Sobibor armed revolt
and escape attempt
closed the camp.
• In October 1944,
revolted, but failed to
achieve their goal: the
destruction of the
ovens & gas chambers.
79. There were some heroes.
Oscar Schindler (19081974) A German
businessman who first
profitted from the war
but who later saved over
1,300 Jews from the gas
chambers by declaring
them essential workers –
regardless of age or
capacity to work.
80. There was some justice.
On November 22, 1945, the Nuremberg War
Crimes Tribunal began.
81. There were some survivors.
Stanislaw “Shlomo” Smajzner
– survivor of Sobibor escape
Thomas Blatt – survivor of Sobibor escape
82. There was a promise: Never Again.
83. Works Cited
Chartock, Roselle and Jack Spencer. The Holocaust
Years: Society on Trial. New York: Bantam
Harran, Marilyn, et. al. The Holocaust Chronicle:
Ahistory in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood:
Publications International, Ltd., 2000.
Schumacher, Julie A. Voices of the Holocaust.
Logan: Perfection Learning Corporation, 2000.