Leadership Concepts 2009

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Leadership Concepts 2009

  1. 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business Leadership Concepts
  2. 2. Who Do We Mean – “Leadership”? <ul><li>Induce subordinate – Behave in a desired manner </li></ul><ul><li>Directs – Coordinating followers </li></ul><ul><li>Followers – Comply because they want to </li></ul><ul><li>Influence – Toward accomplishing goals </li></ul><ul><li>Actions – Resources focused on desirable opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Create conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Get results through others </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  3. 3. Is Leadership a Science or Art? <ul><li>Field of scholarly inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps individuals to better analyze situations using a variety of perspectives </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  4. 4. Is Leadership Rational and Emotional? <ul><li>Reason – Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration – Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Touching others’ feelings </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  5. 5. What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? <ul><li>Administers vs. Innovates </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains vs. Develops </li></ul><ul><li>Controls vs. Inspires </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term view vs. Long-term view </li></ul><ul><li>Ask how and when vs. Ask what and why </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates vs. Originates </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts status quo vs. Challenges it </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  6. 6. What is an Ideal Leader and Follower? <ul><li>“ One-man leadership” – Contradiction in terms </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal leaders – Characterized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward-looking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal followers described </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  7. 7. What is the Difference Between Leaders and Managers? <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different in purpose – Knowledge base – Required skills – Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More personal in their orientation to group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More global in their thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on values – Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value cooperation – Not just coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster ideas of unity – Equality – Justice – Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on control and results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give clear direction – Make solitary assignments –Work hard for cooperation </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  8. 8. What Myths Hinder Leadership Development? <ul><li>Good leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders are born </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The only school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School of hard knocks </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  9. 9. Is there a Significant Relationship Between Leadership and Company Performance? <ul><li>Significant positive relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between company performance and the number of articles about its leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More a company’s leadership was emphasized in The Wall Street Journal – The better the company was doing </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  10. 10. How do We Analyze Leadership? <ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Followers </li></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><li>In-group </li></ul><ul><li>Out-group </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  11. 11. What are the Types of Followers? <ul><li>Alienated – Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Conformist – “Yes people” </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatist – Rarely committed </li></ul><ul><li>Passive – Rely on leader to do all the thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplary – Self starters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer constructive advice </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  12. 12. Are You in the In-Group or Out-Group? <ul><li>High degree of mutual influence and attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to a few </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-group vs. out-group </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know where you stand with your leader? </li></ul><ul><li>How well does your leader understand your job problems and needs? </li></ul><ul><li>How well does your leader recognize your potential? </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  13. 13. What are the Common Characteristics of Leaders? <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by superiors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less credibility with subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergent or elected officials – Able to influence group toward goal achievement </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  14. 14. How do We Analyze Followers? <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity levels </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  15. 15. What are the Changing Roles of Followers? <ul><li>Increasing pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced resources </li></ul><ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the number of managers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased management span of control </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of good followership – Statistically correlated with qualities typically associated with good leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Positive correlations – Followership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active engagement and independent thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steadiness </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  16. 16. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find? <ul><li>Role stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created problems for women advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by attributes thought of as masculine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women – “manager” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not contradiction in terms </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  17. 17. What do Women Value in the Workplace? <ul><li>Women – Much like senior men they had worked with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same fears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want best for themselves and for their families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want company to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equally analytical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled at listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commitment to organization </li></ul><ul><li>Women were much more likely to be willing to take career risks </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  18. 18. What do Women Value in the Workplace? (cont.) <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to describe themselves in somewhat transactional terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence – Organizational position and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to describe themselves in transformational terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help subordinates develop commitment for broader goals than their own self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe influence more in terms of personal characteristics than organizational position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share power and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain chief caretakers for their families </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  19. 19. What Prevents Women from Advancing to Corporate Leadership? <ul><li>Lack of significant general management or line experience </li></ul><ul><li>Not in pipeline long enough </li></ul><ul><li>Male stereotyping – Preconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion from informal networks </li></ul><ul><li>Inhospitable corporate culture </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  20. 20. How do Leaders Interact with Followers? <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create environments – Followers’ innovations and creative contributions are welcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More interested in the big picture of followers’ work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personally motivate followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively change situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel a stake in shaping something new, not just maintaining a status quo </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  21. 21. How do Managers Interact with Followers? <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize routinization – Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers conform to policies or procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign narrow – Rather than broader tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less decision-making discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit – Specific job descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept definitions of situations presented to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely to reorient a group’s task or mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect change officially – Control tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize consistency and predictability in follower behavior </li></ul></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  22. 22. Who will be Successful Leaders in 2010? <ul><li>Cognitive ability - Intellectual horse-power </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking - Global competition </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical ability - Sort diverse sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Sound decisions - Ambiguity-Uncertainty environments </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Influential – Persuasive with different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Lead in an environment of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Identify - Attract - Develop - Retain talented people </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from experience </li></ul>1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  23. 23. Leadership Involves Interaction Leader – Follower Situation Leadership Concepts
  24. 24. How do We Analyze Followers? <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity levels </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  25. 25. What are the Changing Roles of Followers? <ul><li>Increasing pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced resources </li></ul><ul><li>Downsizing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the number of managers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased management span of control </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of good followership – Statistically correlated with qualities typically associated with good leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Positive correlations – Followership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active engagement and independent thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steadiness </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  26. 26. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find? <ul><li>Role stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created problems for women advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by attributes thought of as masculine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women – “manager” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not contradiction in terms </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  27. 27. What do Women Value in the Workplace? <ul><li>Women – Much like senior men they had worked with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same fears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want best for themselves and for their families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want company to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equally analytical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled at listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commitment to organization </li></ul><ul><li>Women were much more likely to be willing to take career risks </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  28. 28. What do Women Value in the Workplace? (cont.) <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to describe themselves in somewhat transactional terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence – Organizational position and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to describe themselves in transformational terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help subordinates develop commitment for broader goals than their own self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe influence more in terms of personal characteristics than organizational position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share power and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain chief caretakers for their families </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  29. 29. What Prevents Women from Advancing to Corporate Leadership? <ul><li>Lack of significant general management or line experience </li></ul><ul><li>Not in pipeline long enough </li></ul><ul><li>Male stereotyping – Preconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion from informal networks </li></ul><ul><li>Inhospitable corporate culture </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  30. 30. Leadership Vs. Management <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term view </li></ul><ul><li>Ask what and why </li></ul><ul><li>Originate </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Do the right things </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Administer </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term view </li></ul><ul><li>Ask how and when </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Do things right </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  31. 31. Leaders Vs. Management (Cont) <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different in purpose- Knowledge base- Required skills- Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More personal in their orientation to group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More global in their thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on values, expectations, and contest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value cooperation, not just coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster ideas of unity- Equality-Justice-Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on control and results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give clear direction, make solitary assignments- Work hard for cooperation </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  32. 32. How do Leaders Interact with Followers? <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create environments – Followers’ innovations and creative contributions are welcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More interested in the big picture of followers’ work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personally motivate followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively change situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel a stake in shaping something new, not just maintaining a status quo </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  33. 33. How do Managers Interact with Followers? <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize routinization – Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers conform to policies or procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign narrow – Rather than broader tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less decision-making discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit – Specific job descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept definitions of situations presented to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely to reorient a group’s task or mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect change officially – Control tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize consistency and predictability in follower behavior </li></ul></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  34. 34. Who will be Successful Leaders in 2010? <ul><li>Cognitive ability - Intellectual horse-power </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking - Global competition </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical ability - Sort diverse sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Sound decisions - Ambiguity-Uncertainty environments </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Influential – Persuasive with different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Lead in an environment of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Identify - Attract - Develop - Retain talented people </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from experience </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  35. 35. Successful Executives <ul><li>Extraordinary tenacity in extracting something worthwhile from their experience </li></ul><ul><li>Seek experiences rich in opportunities for growth </li></ul><ul><li>People learn more from their experiences when they spend time thinking about them </li></ul>2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  36. 36. Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience Leadership Concepts
  37. 37. Who are Successful Executives? <ul><li>Extraordinary tenacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting something worthwhile from their experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seek experiences rich in opportunities for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Learn more from experiences – When spending time thinking about them </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  38. 38. How Do We Learn? <ul><li>Action – Observation – Reflection </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience 1 3 <ul><li>ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>-What did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? Results </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on others </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>-How do you look at it now? </li></ul><ul><li>-How do you feel about it now? </li></ul>2
  39. 39. Why Reflection? <ul><li>Difficult to change style without reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Most people interact with others – To manipulate or control others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To minimize emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create defensive interpersonal relationships – Limit risk taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid conflict – Mistrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misperceptions of – Miscommunications with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective problem solving – Poor decision making </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  40. 40. What are Methods for Reflection? <ul><li>Single-loop learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek relatively little feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little public testing of ideas against valid information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn only about subjects within “comfort zone” </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  41. 41. What is Double-Loop Learning? <ul><li>Learning how to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to confront one’s own views </li></ul><ul><li>Invites opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Open to information and power sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to change leadership styles by questioning assumptions about others </li></ul><ul><li>Question underlying assumptions about others’ goals – Organizational goals </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  42. 42. Do We Have a Perceptual Bias? <ul><li>Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To perceive one thing and not another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look past the positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful impediments to learning </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  43. 43. What does Research Show Regarding Perception? <ul><li>Supervisors were biased toward making attributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About subordinate’s standard performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often recommend punishment be used to remedy performance deficit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When our expectations or predictions cause events we predict </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  44. 44. How Do We Explain Behavior? <ul><li>When others fail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimate causes of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underestimate environmental causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-serving bias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When we fail – Succeed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blame situation for failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take credit for success </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  45. 45. How Do We Learn From Our Experience? <ul><li>Work with others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different backgrounds – Perspectives – Agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pay attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and negative reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Close association with people who have experience </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor environmental changes </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  46. 46. How Do We Develop From Our Experience? <ul><li>Accept challenging and difficult tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Feel responsible for someone else – Increases one’s personal pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of possible failure – Incentive for leaders to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Understand differences between large and small organizations </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  47. 47. How Do Executives Learn From Experience? <ul><li>Seek projects involving strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Seek challenging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Seek stretch opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Seek risk situations where success and failure are possible </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  48. 48. What are the Characteristics of Successful Leaders? <ul><li>Develop and adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Establish collaborative relations </li></ul><ul><li>Build and lead teams </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent exceptional performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  49. 49. What are the Characteristics of Derailed Leaders? <ul><li>Inability to develop or adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working relations </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to build and lead a team </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Poor performance </li></ul><ul><li>Too ambitious </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  50. 50. How do People Feel While Working Through Powerful Learning Events? <ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fearful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhilarated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resourceful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  51. 51. What are Development Issues for Women? <ul><li>Ignore or suppress some part of their true selves in order to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals as leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel more comfortable exercising authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal differently with organizational situations that make them feel helpless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become more politically sophisticated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer friendship and family ties </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  52. 52. How do Women Enhance Personal Experiences? <ul><li>Explore dimensions of personal life that enhance professional life </li></ul><ul><li>Seek opportunities to enrich interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Explore psychological benefits from overcoming obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Seek emotional support and advice </li></ul><ul><li>Handle multiple tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Explore leadership opportunities in volunteer or community organization settings </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  53. 53. What are Lessons Learned for Men and Women? <ul><li>Direct and motivate associates </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Basic management values </li></ul><ul><li>How to work with executives </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding other people’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with people you have no authority over </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  54. 54. What do Men Learn from Experience? <ul><li>Technical/professional skills </li></ul><ul><li>All about the business </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with ambiguous situations </li></ul><ul><li>Shouldering full responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Persevering through adversity </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  55. 55. What do Women Learn from Experience? <ul><li>Personal limits and blind spots </li></ul><ul><li>Taking charge of career </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing and seizing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with situations beyond your control </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what excites you </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  56. 56. What are Effective Education Programs? <ul><li>Educational programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally have positive effect on leadership development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualized feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation- Games </li></ul><ul><li>In-basket exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Leaderless group discussions </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  57. 57. What is the Link Between Stress and Learning? <ul><li>Growth and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by prior learning experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Able to go against what you did in the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires – Unwavering commitment to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relentless Willingness to let go of the fear of failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues throughout life – Beyond the completion of one’s formal education </li></ul></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  58. 58. What is an Effective Leadership Training Program? <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written-communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>In-basket exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Leaderless group discussions </li></ul>3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  59. 59. Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects Leadership Concepts
  60. 60. What Methodologies are Used to Study Leadership? <ul><li>Qualitative approach – Case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth analysis of leader activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biographies – Common examples of case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative approach – Correlation studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine statistical relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiments – Causal inferences about leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variable – Test hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variable – Some measure of leadership effectiveness </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  61. 61. Should We be Concerned about Leadership Talent <ul><li>Number one concern of top leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of country or organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50 percent of the top leaders in many private and public sector organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slated to retire in next five years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective systems for identifying and developing leadership talent </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  62. 62. Do We have Interesting Data about Leaders? <ul><li>Majority of people in leadership positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not particularly effective at influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fifty percent of Fortune 500 CEOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissed for poor performance – Next three years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than 75% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most stressful part of their job – Immediate boss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 30 percent of businesses had “healthy and respectful” work climates </li></ul><ul><li>Record number of mid-level officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resigning from military – Lack of confidence in senior Army leadership </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  63. 63. Do We have Interesting Data about Leaders? (cont.) <ul><li>50-90 percent of all new businesses fail within five years </li></ul><ul><li>67 percent of all IT projects either fail to deliver promised functionality- Be delivered on time- Stay within budgeted costs </li></ul><ul><li>Root cause of most major industrial accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traced back to poor management oversight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-cutting initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 70 percent of all mergers and acquisitions – Fail to yield projected profitability and synergies </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of large-scale organizational change initiatives fail to achieve intended results </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  64. 64. What about You? <ul><li>Dr. Gordy Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total the number of leaders you have had </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count the number of people in this group that you would willingly work for again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the percentage of competent leaders out of the total group of leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 25-40 percent </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  65. 65. What does Successful Planning Data Show? <ul><li>Past 10 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 20-33 percent of the CEOs in North American, European, and Asian-Pacific firms are asked to leave for poor performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High visibility scandals – Enron – Worldcom – Parmalat – Xerox – Adelphia – Royal Dutch Shell – Arthur Andersen – Boeing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outside CEOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do no better than internal successors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 7 percent of CEOs came from outside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 50 percent of new CEOs come from the outside </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  66. 66. How Do We Develop an Effective Leadership Talent Management System? <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research – Effective talent management systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a profound impact on organizational effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify organization’s strategy for the next 5-10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical leadership positions </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  67. 67. What is an Effective Method for Securing Leadership Talent? <ul><li>Develop a competency model for the critical leadership positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities relevant to successful performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure recruiting and selection processes are identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire candidates with the right skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop – Promoting leadership talent </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  68. 68. What Competencies Should You Expect? <ul><li>Ability to create high-performing teams </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to build relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to earn the trust of key internal and external stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to motivate others </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to cope with high levels of stress </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  69. 69. What Competencies Should You Expect? (cont.) <ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making skills </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Planning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating skills </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting skills </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change skills </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching skills </li></ul><ul><li>Performance management skills </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  70. 70. What Competencies Should You Expect from Mid-Level Leaders? <ul><li>Leading the business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing problems and making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking strategically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial and technical savvy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing execution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leading people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiring shared purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building the talent base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building and sustaining relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating open communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  71. 71. What Competencies Should You Expect from Mid-Level Leaders? (cont.) <ul><li>Adaptive capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet or paper-and-pencil measures </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective method for predicting future leader of effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biographical questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental abilities tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest inventories </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  72. 72. What is an Effective Process for Hiring Leaders? <ul><li>Defining competencies you want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use job-relevant paper-and-pencil measures as an initial screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize work simulations to identify candidates with most potential </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  73. 73. What are Traditional Methods for Hiring Leaders? <ul><li>Application blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Reference checks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very poor predictors or leadership effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most frequently used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least valid </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  74. 74. What are the Best Predictions for Assessing Potential? <ul><li>Work sample/skill test .54 </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment center/job simulation .50 </li></ul><ul><li>Job knowledge test .48 </li></ul><ul><li>Personality test .48 </li></ul><ul><li>Job tryout .44 </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical questionnaire .40 </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interview .40 </li></ul><ul><li>Mental abilities test .24 </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interview .20 </li></ul><ul><li>Reference check .14 </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  75. 75. Is the Multiple Hurdles Approach to Hiring Leaders Effective? <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective and valid way to identify best candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applicants – Put through a series of leadership potential assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Only the applicants who “pass” one assessment are allowed to move on </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  76. 76. What are Examples of Structured Interview Questions? <ul><li>Driving change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the biggest, most complex change you had to make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the circumstances surrounding the need to change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you specifically do to make the change happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What have been the most difficult labor relations issues you have had to deal with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the negotiations turn out? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talent management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe what you have done to recruit, develop, and retain people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happened as a result of your efforts? </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  77. 77. What Methods Do You Utilize to Measure Leader Effects? <ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors’ rating </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates’ rating </li></ul><ul><li>Unit performance indices </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently used </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple raters </li></ul><ul><li>Actual results </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  78. 78. What are Unit Performance Indices? <ul><li>Store sales </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Margins </li></ul><ul><li>Number of defective products returned </li></ul><ul><li>Number of on-time deliveries </li></ul><ul><li>Crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>High school graduation rates </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar amount of charitable contributions collected </li></ul><ul><li>Days lost due to accidents </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  79. 79. Why are Subordinates’ Ratings Valid? <ul><li>Followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often in a better position to make judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinates’ ratings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can suffer from distortion or bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However – Such effects tend to cancel each other out when multiple raters are used </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  80. 80. What is the Glass Ceiling Effect? <ul><li>As recent as 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 50 percent of the Fortune 1000 had no women in top executive positions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10 percent of the executive positions in Fortune 1000 companies are held by women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 percent of women hold one of the to five jobs in these organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 9 percent of middle-level managers are women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few practical differences in leadership potential and performance between men and women </li></ul></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  81. 81. What did Jack Welch Expect from Leaders? <ul><li>Relentlessly upgrade their team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using every encounter as an opportunity to evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure people not only see vision - Live and breathe it </li></ul><ul><li>Get into everyone’s skin – Exuding positive energy and optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Establish trust with candor – Transparency – Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Have the courage to make unpopular decisions and gut calls </li></ul><ul><li>Probe and push with a curiosity that borders on skepticism – Making sure their questions are answered with action </li></ul>4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  82. 82. Power and Influence Leadership Concepts
  83. 83. What is “Power?” <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To produce effects on others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to influence others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power does not need to be exercised – To have its effect – Any hold-up person can tell you </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as effective as exercising power </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  84. 84. What is “Influence?” <ul><li>Power – Capacity to cause change </li></ul><ul><li>Influence – Degree of actual change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by behavior or attitude manifested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in a target agent’s attitudes – Values – Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors – Result of influence tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual behaviors designed to change </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  85. 85. What are Gestures of Power and Influence? <ul><li>Pecking order – Status differential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-ranking baboons – Step aside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrespectful for lower status to stare at a superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing – Acceptable for high-status figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching – Without invitation – Acceptable for superior status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher-power persons – Interrupt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power persons are interrupted </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  86. 86. How do Leaders Establish Power? <ul><li>Sitting – Ends of rectangular tables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular tables – Minimize status differentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting next to each other – Same coalition members exert more power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prominently displaying symbols – Diplomas – Awards – Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Medical setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone calls to nurses’ stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified himself – Hospital physician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many nurses complied – Despite it was against hospital policy to transmit prescriptions by phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized medication is dangerously excessive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95 percent of nurses complied with the request </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  87. 87. Can Clothing Increase Power? <ul><li>People walking along a city sidewalk – Stopped by someone dressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform of a security guard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You see that guy over there by the meter? He’s overparked but doesn’t have any change. Give him change!” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fewer than half complied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requestor was dressed in regular clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 percent complied was in uniform </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  88. 88. What are the Dimensions of Power? <ul><li>Expert Power </li></ul><ul><li>Referent Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate Power </li></ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Power </li></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  89. 89. How do Leaders Flex Power During a Crisis? <ul><li>More power </li></ul><ul><li>Generally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use referent power to influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More apt to draw on legitimate and coercive power to influence subordinates </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  90. 90. What did Milgram’s Classic Research on Obedience Yield? <ul><li>How far will people go when directed by authority – To do something that might injure another person </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men surrounding Yale University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two subjects at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher – Took orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner – Made Mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One experimenter – Told teacher to shock </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learner memorize a set of word pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide electric shocks when learner made a mistake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Shock generator” looked ominous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rows of switches – Lights – Warnings labeled in 15-volt increments – To 450 volts </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  91. 91. What did Milgram’s Classic Research on Obedience Yield? (cont.) <ul><li>When learner made a mistake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher was ordered to administer the next-higher level of electric shock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In actuality – Teacher was the subject in the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess how much electric shock the teachers would administer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against adamant protestations to stop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If teacher refused to deliver any further shocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenter prodded him – “The experiment requires that you go on” and “You have no other choice; you must go on” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70 percent of the subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried through with their orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered the maximum shock </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  92. 92. What Motivates Leaders? <ul><li>High need for power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derives psychological satisfaction from influencing others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek positions where they can influence others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astute – Build trusting relationships – Assessing power networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value tangible signs of authority and status </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  93. 93. What Types of Power Motivate Leaders? <ul><li>High need for personalized power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively selfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninhibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High need for socialized power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercised power – To achieve higher goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively related to success for nontechnical managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively related to managers’ performance ratings </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  94. 94. What Behaviors are Displayed by Leaders with Power Motives? <ul><li>Maintain good relationships with authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Compete for recognition – Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Active and assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise influence over subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Visibly different from followers </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to do routine administrative tasks </li></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  95. 95. What is Influence and What Tactics do Leaders Utilize? <ul><li>Actual behaviors – Employed to change attitudes – Opinions – Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of favors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure tactics </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  96. 96. What Influence Tactics do Leaders Utilize? <ul><li>Ingratiation – To please – Win Favor </li></ul><ul><li>Influence attempts – Factual – Logical analyses – Most frequently reported method </li></ul><ul><li>Strong tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resort to hard tactics when other tactics fail to get results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more hard tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge subordinates as less motivated – Less skilled – Less suited for promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic leaders </li></ul><ul><li>More rational methods </li></ul><ul><li>Both types did equally good work </li></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  97. 97. Are There Gender Differences in How Leaders Influence Followers? <ul><li>Interviewed and surveyed male and female managers in Fortune 100 companies – How they influence upward </li></ul><ul><li>Female leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence attempts – Greater concern for others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to act with organization’s broad interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerate of how others felt about influence attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve others in planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus – Task and interpersonal aspects of the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence attempts – Greater concern for self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to act out of self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show less consideration for how others might feel about influence attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work alone in developing their strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus primarily on the task alone </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  98. 98. Are There Gender Differences in How Leaders Influence Followers? (cont.) <ul><li>Female managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to compromise or negotiate during their influence attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to persist in trying to persuade superiors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neither group overall was more effective than the other </li></ul><ul><li>Managers whose style matches most closely with superior’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have an advantage in evaluations and promotion decisions </li></ul></ul>5 - Power and Influence
  99. 99. Leadership and Values Leadership Concepts
  100. 100. What are “Values?” <ul><li>States of affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructs considered to be important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect decision-making </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  101. 101. When it is All Said and Done, What do en it is All Said and Done, What do You Want? <ul><li>Terminal Values – End States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exciting life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  102. 102. What Values Will Get You Where You Want to Be? <ul><li>Instrumental Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courageous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  103. 103. Do Generations Differ in Their Organization Values? <ul><li>Veterans (1922-1942)- Stabilizing force in organizations for decades </li></ul><ul><li>Baby Boomers (1943-1960)- Passion about participation- Spirit – Heart – Humanity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned about creating a level playing field for all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gen Xers (1961-1989)- Technologically savvy- Independent- Skeptical of institutions and hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial – Embrace change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job security – Not too important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More committed to vocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nexters (1990)- Doubt the wisdom of traditional racial and sexual categorizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect managers to “earn their stripes” </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  104. 104. What Leaders Value? <ul><li>Desire to standout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value fame – Visibility – Publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions where they will be noticed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire for achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive hard to make an impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value achievement – Accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek positions where they can achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire to enjoy work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy entertaining others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions that bring pleasure – Variety – Excitement </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  105. 105. What Leaders Value? (cont.) <ul><li>Desire for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value scientific methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions that require digging deeply into problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire to help others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altruism values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help needy and powerless – Social justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek positions that provide opportunities to improve others – Improve society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire to work with highly motivated people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value people – Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy networking – Meeting new people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek positions in team environment </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  106. 106. What Leaders Value? (cont.) <ul><li>Desire to live a traditional lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value moral rules – Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value religious – Institutional customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions moral beliefs will be upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire for security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value stable – Predictable risk-free environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy creative structures and processes that minimize uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions that avoid criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire for financial success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value financial rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for new business opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek positions that provide entrepreneurial challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire for aesthetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys environments that allow experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks positions that allow artistic expression – Creative problem solving </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  107. 107. Leadership Values Profile <ul><li>Affiliation 78% </li></ul><ul><li>Power 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition 36% </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Science 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Security 1% </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  108. 108. According to Research, What do Leaders Value? <ul><li>Strong Commercial values – Weak Altruistic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greedy and selfish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tend to like followers with similar values </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated to act in ways consistent with their values </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  109. 109. According to Value Research, What Guides Leaders on How Work Gets Done? <ul><li>Respect associates – Customers – Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Top leadership values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells you more about how an organization actually operates than stated values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associates with values similar to the organization or team are more satisfied and likely to stay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders fail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not due to lack of competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to a misalignment between personal and organizational values </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  110. 110. What are Key Work Values? <ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonism </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  111. 111. What are the Stages of Moral Reasoning? <ul><li>Preconventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: “Bad” behavior – Punished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2: “Good” behavior – Rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: “Good” behavior – Approved by others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State 4: “Good” behavior – Conforms to standards set by social institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postconventional Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State 5: “Good” behavior – Conforms to community standards – Set through democratic participation – Concern with maintaining self respect and the respect of equals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6: “Good” behavior – Matter of individual conscience based on responsibly chosen commitments to ethical principles </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  112. 112. What Type of Leaders do Associates Trust? <ul><li>Create compelling visions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  113. 113. How Do Good People Rationalize Doing Bad Things? <ul><li>Moral justification </li></ul><ul><li>Euphemistic labeling – Disguise the offensiveness of otherwise morally repugnant or distasteful behavior with “cosmetic” words </li></ul><ul><li>Advantageous comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to even more heinous behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Displacement of responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are behaving the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disregard or distortion of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumanization </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution of blame – Caused by someone else’s actions </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  114. 114. What Criteria Should We Use in Making Behavior Choices? <ul><li>How do I decide ethical dilemmas? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have set ethical beliefs or standards? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, do I live by these beliefs or standards? </li></ul><ul><li>How often have I done something that I am ashamed of? </li></ul><ul><li>How often have I done things that I am proud of? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I admit my mistakes? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I do to correct mistakes that I make? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I often put the well-being of others ahead of mine? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I follow the golden rule? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I honest? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people respect my integrity </li></ul><ul><li>List the three best things that have ever happened to me. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most dishonest thing I have ever done? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I ever rectify the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most honest thing that I have ever done? </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  115. 115. What Assumptions Do Leaders Make About Associates? <ul><li>Theory X - Reflects a more pessimistic view of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume people – Not naturally industrious or motivated to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory X managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far more likely to be in lower-achieving group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y- Reflects positive view – Most people are intrinsically motivated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value a sense of achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  116. 116. What are Different Leadership Responses Caused by Culture? <ul><li>Source of Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Vs. Collective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals and Means of Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough Vs. Tender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response to Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Vs. Stable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Means of Knowledge Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Vs. Reflective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outlook on Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Vs. Being </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  117. 117. What Cultures Make Leaders Dependent? <ul><li>Emphasize – Top-down control </li></ul><ul><li>Command and control mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Seniority – Important bases of respect </li></ul><ul><li>Great emphasis – Keeping things running smoothly </li></ul><ul><li>Check things out with one’s boss before taking a new direction </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  118. 118. What Cultures Make Leaders Independent? <ul><li>Leaders emerge as needed – Based on knowledge and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Great emphasis - Individual responsibility - Decentralized decision making - Promotion of experts - Professionals - Individual contributors </li></ul><ul><li>“ Achievement-oriented” </li></ul><ul><li>Times of stress- Great pressure not to let performance numbers go down </li></ul><ul><li>Bold and independent action - Achieve results </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to highly competent and ambitious individuals </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  119. 119. What Cultures Make Leaders Independent? (cont.) <ul><li>Widespread beliefs - Leadership - A collective activity - Requires mutual inquiry and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread dialogue – Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal networks - Valuing of differences - Focus on learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles change frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from experience - Even mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Widely shared commitment - Doing what it takes </li></ul><ul><li>Openness - Candor - Building trust across departments </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  120. 120. What Behaviors and Attributes are Culturally Contingent? <ul><li>Ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Compassionate </li></ul><ul><li>Domineering </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Individualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Orderly </li></ul><ul><li>Sincere </li></ul><ul><li>Worldly </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  121. 121. What are Positive Forms of Leadership? <ul><li>Authentic Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find more meaning and connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote transparency and openness in relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster more inclusive structures and practices in organizations </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  122. 122. What are Positive Forms of Leadership? (cont.) <ul><li>Principle-centered leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trustworthy person – Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most creative and productive when structure and strategy are aligned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision – Aligned and mutually supportive </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  123. 123. What are Positive Forms of Leadership? <ul><li>Servant Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foresight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to others’ growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building community </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  124. 124. What Leader Attributes and Behaviors are Universally Viewed as Positive? <ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Just </li></ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul><ul><li>Foresighted </li></ul><ul><li>Plans ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging </li></ul><ul><li>Informed </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Motive arouser </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence builder </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive </li></ul><ul><li>Effective bargainer </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win problem solver </li></ul><ul><li>Administratively skilled </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative </li></ul><ul><li>Team builder </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  125. 125. What Leader Attributes and Behaviors are Universally Viewed as Negative? <ul><li>Loner </li></ul><ul><li>Asocial </li></ul><ul><li>Noncooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable </li></ul><ul><li>Nonexplicit </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Ruthless </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorial </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  126. 126. What Advice Does Sun Tzu Give Leaders in his Book on the “The Art of War?” <ul><li>People need extrinsic incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give soldiers shares of the booty of conquered territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule with iron discipline – Maintain authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much kindness toward followers could make them useless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires some cleverness and sometimes even deception </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  127. 127. What Advice Does Bhagavad Gita Give Leaders? <ul><li>Never act for material rewards only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on doing well – Good things will follow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlightened leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfless and compassionate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followers are treated as equals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More motivated to enthusiastically support their leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfying multiple different stakeholders </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  128. 128. Cult – Enron <ul><li>Cults – Characterized as having these four qualities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charismatic leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A compelling and totalistic vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A conversion process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A common culture </li></ul></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  129. 129. Recent Poll of Senior Executives in the U.K., Germany, and France <ul><li>Fewer than three in 10 French bosses – Were happy about decision challenges compared to half of German bosses and more than nine out of 10 business leaders in the U.K. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly two-thirds of French bosses – One of the three best things about being a leader was “the freedom to make decisions with minimum interference.” </li></ul><ul><li>50 percent of German bosses and 70 percent of British bosses – The best thing about the job is developing talent in the company. Only 14 percent of French bosses rated it among the top three benefits of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>French leaders – Three times more likely than the British and eight times more likely than German leaders to consider “being in a position of power” one of the best things about the job. </li></ul>6 - Leadership and Values
  130. 130. Leadership Traits Leadership Concepts
  131. 131. Are Leaders Different from the Average Bear? <ul><li>Leaders differ from non-leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest – Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the business </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  132. 132. What Traits are Difficult to Change? <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits – Types </li></ul><ul><li>Values – Interests – Motives </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  133. 133. What are Easy to Change? <ul><li>Skills/Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  134. 134. What is the Traits Approach to Personality? <ul><li>Impression person makes </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People behave the way they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths of traits they possess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader behavior reflects interaction between personality traits and situational factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why people act fairly consistently from one situation to the next </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  135. 135. What Dimensions Predict Personality? <ul><li>Surgency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance – Need for power – Self confidence – Extravert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy – Friendly – Need for affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual curiosity </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  136. 136. Are the Dimensions Reliable? <ul><li>Good measures of leadership potential </li></ul><ul><li>Overwhelming research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All five dimensions – Related to leadership success across different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Having insight into one’s personality traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives people information about their leadership potential </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  137. 137. What are Hogan’s Personality Dimensions? <ul><li>Ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisitive learning approach </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  138. 138. What Personality Traits Should Leaders Not Display? <ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>Unhealthy mistrust of others </li></ul><ul><li>Fearful of bad decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Times of stress – Withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to blame others </li></ul><ul><li>Only exert effort in pursuit of own agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Break rules to see if you can </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be the center of attention </li></ul><ul><li>Make strange decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Frustrate followers </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with stress by kissing up to superiors </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  139. 139. What are Intelligent Leaders? <ul><li>More intelligent leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make better assumptions – Deductions – Inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better at creating a compelling vision and developing strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop better solutions to problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See more of the primary and secondary implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker on their feet </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  140. 140. What are Average Intelligence Test Scores by Management Level? <ul><li>Executive level 66 </li></ul><ul><li>Middle level 65.5 </li></ul><ul><li>First line manager 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor 62 </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  141. 141. What are the Components of Creative Intelligence? <ul><li>Synthetic ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See things in new ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant knowledge and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thinking style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify what already exists or completely start over </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  142. 142. What are Adaptive and Innovative Thinking Styles? <ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer to modify or change existing products or processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer to create entirely new processes or products </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  143. 143. What is the Difference between Convergent and Divergent Thinking? <ul><li>Convergent thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a single best answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divergent thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many possible answers </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  144. 144. What are the Components of Creative Intelligence? <ul><li>Personality factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher openness to experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher surgency scores are related to creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate more creative solutions when problem is personally interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors – Generate more creative solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of time pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak social ties </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  145. 145. How do Leaders Build Creative Intelligence Environments? <ul><li>Select creative people </li></ul><ul><li>Build an environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where others can be creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boost creativity throughout groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for others to develop their creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Vision – What the creative product or output should look like </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  146. 146. What does Creative Intelligence Research Yield? <ul><li>Followers – Generate more creative solutions when told to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on their intrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take pleasure of solving task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public recognition or pay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Told projects were to be judged by experts – Produced less creative projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When followers know work will ultimately be evaluated – Pronounced tendency for members to be evaluative and judgmental too early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Censor themselves </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  147. 147. What Kills Creativity? <ul><li>Take away all discretion and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Create fragmented work schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Provide insufficient resources </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on short-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Create tight timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage collaboration and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Keep people happy – Little motivation to change status quo </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  148. 148. How Do You Lead Clever People? <ul><li>Smart – Clever people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know companies need them more than they need companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to ignore the corporate hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect instant access to top management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight risks – If ideas are not respected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as “benevolent guardians” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat with respect and recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get them the resources they need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect them from organizational policies and politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them room to be creative and fail </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  149. 149. What Did Leaders Do in Eleven Top Performing Companies? <ul><li>Avoided the spotlight </li></ul><ul><li>Focus – Creating company that delivers results </li></ul><ul><li>Possessed an unbreakable resolve – Channeled energy towards success </li></ul><ul><li>Calm in crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Took responsibility for failure </li></ul><ul><li>Courteous – Polite </li></ul><ul><li>Set the tone </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded themselves with the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Built high-performing teams </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  150. 150. What is the Cognitive Resources Theory? <ul><li>Leaders – Great experience – Low intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesized to have higher-performing groups under conditions of high stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders – Experience levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience – Leads to habitual behavior patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interferes with performance under low-stress conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of experience have a tendency to misapply old solutions to problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders – Higher intelligence – Low experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have higher-performing groups under low-stress conditions </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  151. 151. What is Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Perceiving emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Managing emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Using emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding emotions </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  152. 152. What is Goleman’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  153. 153. What is Bar-On’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>General mood </li></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  154. 154. What does Emotional Intelligence Research Yield? <ul><li>Moderates associates’ reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To job insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to cope with stress when threatened with job loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship between leaders’ moods and followers’ moods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  155. 155. What Behaviors are Associated with Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Self awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate self-assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  156. 156. What Behaviors are Associated with Emotional Intelligence? (cont.) <ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration/cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team capabilities </li></ul></ul>7 - Leadership Traits
  157. 157. Leadership Behavior Leadership Concepts
  158. 158. <ul><li>What leader behaviors make a difference in follower behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What leader behaviors make a difference in leadership success? </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  159. 159. Why Study Leadership Behavior? <ul><li>Identifies how successful leaders act </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior – Skills – Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360 degree feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derailment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self defeating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  160. 160. How Do We Judge “Good” Leaders From “Bad” Leaders?? <ul><li>Good vs. bad results </li></ul><ul><li>What good and bad leaders do day-to-day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain resources they needed </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  161. 161. How Do You Measure Leader Effectiveness? <ul><li>Variables – Inferred from behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct relationship with ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders – High agreeable personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior – Concern and support for followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior – Difficult to discipline followers </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  162. 162. What did the Early Research on Leadership Behavior Yield? <ul><li>Associate-centered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet work goals – Accomplish tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job-centered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work facilitation </li></ul></ul>Leadership Behavior
  163. 163. What Dimensions Did Two Classic Studies Find? <ul><li>Ohio State dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal emphasis and work facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader support and interaction facilitation </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  164. 164. What is the Leadership Grid? <ul><li>Concern for people (0-9) </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for production (9-1) </li></ul><ul><li>9,9 leaders – Most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership behaviors associated with problem solving – Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently related to successful teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher consideration behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reduce employee turnover </li></ul></ul>Leadership Behavior
  165. 165. What Are the Universal Leadership Dimensions? <ul><li>Charismatic – Value-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to inspire – Motivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect high performance outcomes – Firmly held core values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build effective teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence the pursuit of a common purpose or set of goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve others in decision-making process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humane oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate supportive or considerate leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-protective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure safety and security for team members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent and individualistic </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  166. 166. What Competencies are Associated with Leadership? <ul><li>Intrapersonal skills – Adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhere to rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting results through others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financially savvy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  167. 167. Is Community Leadership Different from Business Leadership? <ul><li>Building teams of volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve community goals </li></ul><ul><li>Followers – Don’t have to conform to organization norms </li></ul><ul><li>Followers – Don’t have to attend meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have fewer resources and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>No formal selection or promotion process </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  168. 168. What Concepts Can Be Learned From Community Leadership That May Help Business Leaders? <ul><li>Framing competency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing and defining opportunities and issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding what needs to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it will be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How outcomes benefit followers and community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building social capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain relationships – Work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power or relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in critical mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic – Planned – Purposeful activities </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  169. 169. How Do You Improve Leadership Behavior? <ul><li>360-degree – Multi-rater feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides insight into self-perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratings – Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Research – Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have higher performing work groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only add value if well conceived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not very accurate </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  170. 170. What are Some of the Competencies Evaluated in a 360-Degree Feedback Process? <ul><li>Thinking strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Personal drive </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiring aligned purpose </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  171. 171. What Are Some of the Items Used to Assess Inspiring Purpose? <ul><li>Compelling vision of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Provides – Clear sense of purpose and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters enthusiasm and buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Supports initiatives of upper management through words – Actions </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  172. 172. Are Leaders More Effective if they Have High Levels of Insight? <ul><li>Large self observed gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective if they had high observer ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key – Help groups achieve goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared their 360 results with followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked on action plans to improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had dramatic improvements over five years </li></ul></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  173. 173. According to Research, What Derails Leaders? <ul><li>Problems with interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to meet business objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to build and lead teams </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to adapt </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  174. 174. What Specific Behaviors Derail Leaders? <ul><li>Dictate laws </li></ul><ul><li>Write rules to increase personal power </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to others- Cold- Aloof- Arrogant </li></ul><ul><li>Overly ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>Isolates self </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  175. 175. What Specific Behaviors Derail Leaders? (cont.) <ul><li>Betrayal of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of follow-through </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to staff effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty molding a staff </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to adapt to a boss with a different style </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic differences with top management </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to manage conflict with upper management </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  176. 176. When Do Leaders Change Behavior? <ul><li>Move from one organization to another </li></ul><ul><li>When they gain new insights </li></ul><ul><li>When provided support </li></ul><ul><li>When leader is motivated to change </li></ul><ul><li>When leaders have opportunities to practice new skills </li></ul><ul><li>When leaders are held accountable for changing targeted behaviors </li></ul>Leadership Behavior
  177. 177. Can Leaders Really Change? <ul><li>Hard wired – Values – Intelligence – Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Ample evidence to show that people can and do change </li></ul><ul><li>When they understand where and when to leverage strengths </li></ul><ul><li>When behaviors get them into trouble </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  178. 178. What Behaviors Need Development? <ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Real world application </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  179. 179. Is Mentoring an Important Behavior <ul><li>Personal relationship – Mentor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a guide- Role model- Sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides different perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Provides advice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential committee – Task force assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal learning - Career satisfaction - Pay- Promotions - Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Formal mentoring programs- Last a year </li></ul><ul><li>Informal mentoring- Can last a lifetime </li></ul>Leadership Behavior
  180. 180. Are Formal Mentoring Programs Effective? <ul><li>75% of protégés said the program helped improve their leadership capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>77% of protégés are more likely to stay with their parent companies </li></ul><ul><li>80% of protégés believe their companies have benefited by their attending the program </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  181. 181. What is Coaching Behavior? <ul><li>Process of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipping people with tools – Knowledge - Opportunities needed to develop and become more successful </li></ul></ul>Leadership Behavior
  182. 182. What is Formal Coaching? <ul><li>One-on-one relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive battery of personality – Intelligence- Interests – Value – 360-degree feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Meet regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Role plays and videotape are used extensively </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification of values – Identification of discrepancies between their espoused values and their actual behaviors </li></ul>Leadership Behavior
  183. 183. What is Informal Coaching? <ul><li>Forge a Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Grow Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Shape the Environment </li></ul>Leadership Behavior
  184. 184. What are Useful Factors in Coaching? <ul><li>Handling organizational politics </li></ul><ul><li>Clear – Direct feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Provides new perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Provides advice on handling situations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>General encouragement </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  185. 185. What are Some Critical Lessons Learned from Formal Coaching? <ul><li>Person being coached – Want to change </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments are important </li></ul><ul><li>Some behaviors cannot be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Practice is critical </li></ul><ul><li>No substitute for accountability </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  186. 186. What do Effective Coaches Need to Know? <ul><li>Business models – Operations – Structures – Functions – Processes – Metrics – Finances </li></ul><ul><li>Personality – Intelligence – Values – Behavior – Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership – Management – Teams – Organizational change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition – Skill development – Behavioral change </li></ul><ul><li>Everything you learned in this class </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  187. 187. What is Dungy’s Coaching Philosophy? <ul><li>Good coaches – Essentially teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Faith and family take priority </li></ul><ul><li>Four of his assistant coaches moved into head coaching positions </li></ul>8 - Leadership Behavior
  188. 188. Motivation – Satisfaction – Performance Leadership Concepts
  189. 189. Why Do the Top 15 Percent of Workers Produce 20 to 50 Percent More Output and 50 Percent More Customer Orders? <ul><li>Are they more motivated? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they more satisfied? </li></ul><ul><li>Can leadership make a difference? </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  190. 190. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Initiate and continue exhibiting certain behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  191. 191. How Does Motivation Work? <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction – Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of persistence over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood to initiate and continue exhibiting certain behaviors </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  192. 192. What is the Difference Between Performance and Effectiveness? <ul><li>Performance – Behavioral outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by organization mission – Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance – What people do </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness – How well people do it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make judgments about the adequacy of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  193. 193. What is Job Satisfaction? <ul><li>Attitudes – Feelings about the job itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay – Promotion – Educational opportunities – Supervision – Co-workers – Workload </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority – Report liking their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>More satisfied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May not have a direct effect on the accomplishment of organizational goals </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  194. 194. What does Satisfaction Research Yield? <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally tend to be very happy with their vocation or occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are happier with their jobs also tend to have higher life satisfaction rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with longer tenure or in higher positions tend to have higher satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes considerable amount leaders’ focus and energy to increase satisfaction levels of nonmanagement associates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>71 percent of senior management – 58 percent of middle management – 46 percent of nonmangers rate pay as “very good” </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  195. 195. What does Satisfaction – Performance Research Yield? <ul><li>Building relationships – Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result – More satisfied followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More satisfied followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain with the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in activities that help others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding good performance </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  196. 196. What does Leader Research Indicate? <ul><li>Influence – To exert higher levels of effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result – Higher levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select – Right people </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly use power and influence tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as ethical and credible </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire necessary resources </li></ul><ul><li>Develop follower skills </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  197. 197. What are Typical Items on a Satisfaction Questionnaire? <ul><li>Overall, I am satisfied with my job </li></ul><ul><li>I feel the workload is about equal for everyone in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>My supervisor handles conflict well </li></ul><ul><li>My pay and benefits are comparable to those in other organizations </li></ul><ul><li>There is a real future for people in this organization if they apply themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional performance is rewarded in this organization </li></ul><ul><li>We have a good health care plan in this organization </li></ul><ul><li>In general, I am satisfied with my life and where it is going </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  198. 198. Does Knowledge About Motivation Approaches Matter? <ul><li>Knowledgeable about different motivational theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  199. 199. Why Followers are Motivated to Leave Organizations? <ul><li>Limited recognition and praise 34% </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation 29% </li></ul><ul><li>Limited authority 13% </li></ul><ul><li>Personality conflicts 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Other 16% </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  200. 200. Why Followers Stay with Organizations? <ul><li>Promises of long-term employment 82% </li></ul><ul><li>Supports training and education 78% </li></ul><ul><li>Hires hard-working - Smart people 76% </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages fun – Collegial relationships 74% </li></ul><ul><li>Bases job evaluation on innovation 72% </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  201. 201. What are Key Questions that Assess Associate Engagement? <ul><li>I know what is expected from me at work </li></ul><ul><li>I have the materials and equipment I need to do my job right </li></ul><ul><li>At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day </li></ul><ul><li>In the last seven days, I have received recognition and praise for doing good work </li></ul><ul><li>My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person </li></ul><ul><li>There is someone at work who encourages my development </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  202. 202. What are Key Questions that Assess Employee Engagement? (cont.) <ul><li>At work, my opinions seem to count </li></ul><ul><li>The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel my job is important </li></ul><ul><li>My associates are committed to doing quality work </li></ul><ul><li>I have a best friend at work </li></ul><ul><li>In the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progress </li></ul><ul><li>This past year, I have had the opportunities at work to learn and grow </li></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  203. 203. Does Affectivity Matter? <ul><li>Positive affectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to react to stimuli in a consistent positive emotional manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative affectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently react to changes – Events – Situations in a negative manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative affectivity – Related to job dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive affectivity – Higher job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have little impact job satisfaction if follower affective disposition is either extremely positive or negative </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  204. 204. What Other Factors Affect Job Satisfaction? <ul><li>Organizational justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People treated unfairly – Less productive – Satisfied – Committed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactional justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated with dignity and respect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributive justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers’ perceptions of level of reward or punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensurate with an individual’s performance or infraction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process in which rewards or punishments are administered </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  205. 205. What Specific Factors Affect Satisfaction? <ul><li>Herzberg – Two factory theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  206. 206. What Specific Factors Affect Motivation? <ul><li>Herzberg – Two factory theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancement and growth </li></ul></ul>9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  207. 207. What are Needs Motivation Theories? <ul><li>Assume people have basic needs </li></ul><ul><ul

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