Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Leadership Concepts 2009
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Leadership Concepts 2009

10,964
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business

1 Comment
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Incredibly informative. The breadth of this presentation is extremely useful. I wish that the data points were identified with the source. Very grateful to whomever posted this.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
10,964
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
313
Comments
1
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business Leadership Concepts
  • 2. Who Do We Mean – “Leadership”?
    • Induce subordinate – Behave in a desired manner
    • Directs – Coordinating followers
    • Followers – Comply because they want to
    • Influence – Toward accomplishing goals
    • Actions – Resources focused on desirable opportunities
    • Create conditions
    • Get results through others
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 3. Is Leadership a Science or Art?
    • Field of scholarly inquiry
    • Practice of leadership
    • Research findings
      • Helps individuals to better analyze situations using a variety of perspectives
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 4. Is Leadership Rational and Emotional?
    • Reason – Logic
    • Inspiration – Passion
    • Touching others’ feelings
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 5. What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?
    • Administers vs. Innovates
    • Maintains vs. Develops
    • Controls vs. Inspires
    • Short-term view vs. Long-term view
    • Ask how and when vs. Ask what and why
    • Imitates vs. Originates
    • Accepts status quo vs. Challenges it
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 6. What is an Ideal Leader and Follower?
    • “ One-man leadership” – Contradiction in terms
    • Ideal leaders – Characterized
      • Honest
      • Competent
      • Forward-looking
      • Inspiring
    • Ideal followers described
      • Honest
      • Competent
      • Independent
      • Cooperative
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 7. What is the Difference Between Leaders and Managers?
    • Leaders
      • Different in purpose – Knowledge base – Required skills – Goals
      • More personal in their orientation to group members
      • More global in their thinking
      • Focus on values – Expectations
      • Value cooperation – Not just coordination
      • Foster ideas of unity – Equality – Justice – Fairness
    • Managers
      • Focus on control and results
      • Give clear direction – Make solitary assignments –Work hard for cooperation
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 8. What Myths Hinder Leadership Development?
    • Good leadership
      • Common sense
    • Leaders are born
      • Not made
    • The only school
      • School of hard knocks
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 9. Is there a Significant Relationship Between Leadership and Company Performance?
    • Significant positive relationship
      • Between company performance and the number of articles about its leadership
    • More a company’s leadership was emphasized in The Wall Street Journal – The better the company was doing
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 10. How do We Analyze Leadership?
    • Leader
    • Followers
    • Situation
    • In-group
    • Out-group
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 11. What are the Types of Followers?
    • Alienated – Negative
    • Conformist – “Yes people”
    • Pragmatist – Rarely committed
    • Passive – Rely on leader to do all the thinking
    • Exemplary – Self starters
      • Think for themselves
      • Creative solutions
      • Offer constructive advice
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 12. Are You in the In-Group or Out-Group?
    • High degree of mutual influence and attraction
      • Limited to a few
    • In-group vs. out-group
    • Do you know where you stand with your leader?
    • How well does your leader understand your job problems and needs?
    • How well does your leader recognize your potential?
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 13. What are the Common Characteristics of Leaders?
    • Temperament
    • Status
      • Appointed by superiors
      • Less credibility with subordinates
      • Less loyalty
    • Emergent or elected officials – Able to influence group toward goal achievement
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 14. How do We Analyze Followers?
    • Expectations
    • Personality traits
    • Maturity levels
    • Levels of competence
    • Motivation
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 15. What are the Changing Roles of Followers?
    • Increasing pressure
    • Reduced resources
    • Downsizing
    • Reduced the number of managers
    • Increased management span of control
    • Qualities of good followership – Statistically correlated with qualities typically associated with good leadership
    • Positive correlations – Followership
      • Active engagement and independent thinking
      • Dominance
      • Sociability
      • Achievement
      • Orientation
      • Steadiness
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 16. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find?
    • Role stereotypes
      • Created problems for women advancement
    • Managers
      • Defined by attributes thought of as masculine
    • Women today
      • See similarity
    • Women – “manager”
      • Not contradiction in terms
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 17. What do Women Value in the Workplace?
    • Women – Much like senior men they had worked with
      • Same fears
      • Want best for themselves and for their families
      • Want company to succeed
      • Drive to succeed
    • No Statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles
      • Equally analytical
      • People oriented
      • Forceful
      • Goal-Oriented
      • Empathic
      • Skilled at listening
    • Commitment to organization
    • Women were much more likely to be willing to take career risks
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 18. What do Women Value in the Workplace? (cont.)
    • Men
      • Tend to describe themselves in somewhat transactional terms
      • To influence – Organizational position and authority
    • Women
      • Tend to describe themselves in transformational terms
      • Help subordinates develop commitment for broader goals than their own self-interest
      • Describe influence more in terms of personal characteristics than organizational position
      • Encourage participation
      • Share power and information
      • Remain chief caretakers for their families
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 19. What Prevents Women from Advancing to Corporate Leadership?
    • Lack of significant general management or line experience
    • Not in pipeline long enough
    • Male stereotyping – Preconceptions
    • Exclusion from informal networks
    • Inhospitable corporate culture
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 20. How do Leaders Interact with Followers?
    • Leaders
      • Create environments – Followers’ innovations and creative contributions are welcome
      • Encourage growth and development
      • More interested in the big picture of followers’ work
      • Personally motivate followers
      • Redefine tasks
      • Actively change situations
    • Followers
      • Feel a stake in shaping something new, not just maintaining a status quo
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 21. How do Managers Interact with Followers?
    • Managers
      • Emphasize routinization – Control
      • Followers conform to policies or procedures
      • Assign narrow – Rather than broader tasks
      • Less decision-making discretion
      • Assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit – Specific job descriptions
      • Extrinsic motivation
      • Accept definitions of situations presented to them
      • Unlikely to reorient a group’s task or mission
      • Effect change officially – Control tactics
      • Emphasize stability
      • Emphasize consistency and predictability in follower behavior
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 22. Who will be Successful Leaders in 2010?
    • Cognitive ability - Intellectual horse-power
    • Strategic thinking - Global competition
    • Analytical ability - Sort diverse sources of information
    • Sound decisions - Ambiguity-Uncertainty environments
    • Communication skills
    • Influential – Persuasive with different groups
    • Lead in an environment of diversity
    • Delegate effectively
    • Identify - Attract - Develop - Retain talented people
    • Learn from experience
    1 - Leadership Is Everyone's Business
  • 23. Leadership Involves Interaction Leader – Follower Situation Leadership Concepts
  • 24. How do We Analyze Followers?
    • Expectations
    • Personality traits
    • Maturity levels
    • Levels of competence
    • Motivation
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 25. What are the Changing Roles of Followers?
    • Increasing pressure
    • Reduced resources
    • Downsizing
    • Reduced the number of managers
    • Increased management span of control
    • Qualities of good followership – Statistically correlated with qualities typically associated with good leadership
    • Positive correlations – Followership
      • Active engagement and independent thinking
      • Dominance
      • Sociability
      • Achievement
      • Orientation
      • Steadiness
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 26. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find?
    • Role stereotypes
      • Created problems for women advancement
    • Managers
      • Defined by attributes thought of as masculine
    • Women today
      • See similarity
    • Women – “manager”
      • Not contradiction in terms
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 27. What do Women Value in the Workplace?
    • Women – Much like senior men they had worked with
      • Same fears
      • Want best for themselves and for their families
      • Want company to succeed
      • Drive to succeed
    • No Statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles
      • Equally analytical
      • People oriented
      • Forceful
      • Goal-Oriented
      • Empathic
      • Skilled at listening
    • Commitment to organization
    • Women were much more likely to be willing to take career risks
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 28. What do Women Value in the Workplace? (cont.)
    • Men
      • Tend to describe themselves in somewhat transactional terms
      • To influence – Organizational position and authority
    • Women
      • Tend to describe themselves in transformational terms
      • Help subordinates develop commitment for broader goals than their own self-interest
      • Describe influence more in terms of personal characteristics than organizational position
      • Encourage participation
      • Share power and information
      • Remain chief caretakers for their families
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 29. What Prevents Women from Advancing to Corporate Leadership?
    • Lack of significant general management or line experience
    • Not in pipeline long enough
    • Male stereotyping – Preconceptions
    • Exclusion from informal networks
    • Inhospitable corporate culture
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 30. Leadership Vs. Management
    • Leaders
    • Innovative
    • Develop
    • Inspire
    • Long-term view
    • Ask what and why
    • Originate
    • Challenge the status quo
    • Do the right things
    • Manager
    • Administer
    • Maintain
    • Control
    • Short-term view
    • Ask how and when
    • Initiate
    • Accept the status quo
    • Do things right
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 31. Leaders Vs. Management (Cont)
    • Leaders
      • Different in purpose- Knowledge base- Required skills- Goals
      • More personal in their orientation to group members
      • More global in their thinking
      • Focus on values, expectations, and contest
      • Value cooperation, not just coordination
      • Foster ideas of unity- Equality-Justice-Fairness
    • Managers
      • Focus on control and results
      • Give clear direction, make solitary assignments- Work hard for cooperation
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 32. How do Leaders Interact with Followers?
    • Leaders
      • Create environments – Followers’ innovations and creative contributions are welcome
      • Encourage growth and development
      • More interested in the big picture of followers’ work
      • Personally motivate followers
      • Redefine tasks
      • Actively change situations
    • Followers
      • Feel a stake in shaping something new, not just maintaining a status quo
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 33. How do Managers Interact with Followers?
    • Managers
      • Emphasize routinization – Control
      • Followers conform to policies or procedures
      • Assign narrow – Rather than broader tasks
      • Less decision-making discretion
      • Assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit – Specific job descriptions
      • Extrinsic motivation
      • Accept definitions of situations presented to them
      • Unlikely to reorient a group’s task or mission
      • Effect change officially – Control tactics
      • Emphasize stability
      • Emphasize consistency and predictability in follower behavior
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 34. Who will be Successful Leaders in 2010?
    • Cognitive ability - Intellectual horse-power
    • Strategic thinking - Global competition
    • Analytical ability - Sort diverse sources of information
    • Sound decisions - Ambiguity-Uncertainty environments
    • Communication skills
    • Influential – Persuasive with different groups
    • Lead in an environment of diversity
    • Delegate effectively
    • Identify - Attract - Develop - Retain talented people
    • Learn from experience
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 35. Successful Executives
    • Extraordinary tenacity in extracting something worthwhile from their experience
    • Seek experiences rich in opportunities for growth
    • People learn more from their experiences when they spend time thinking about them
    2 - Leadership Involves Interaction Leader - Follower - Situation
  • 36. Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience Leadership Concepts
  • 37. Who are Successful Executives?
    • Extraordinary tenacity
      • Extracting something worthwhile from their experience
    • Seek experiences rich in opportunities for growth
    • Learn more from experiences – When spending time thinking about them
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 38. How Do We Learn?
    • Action – Observation – Reflection
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience 1 3
    • ACTION
    • -What did you do?
    • OBSERVATION
    • What happened? Results
    • Impact on others
    • REFLECTION
    • -How do you look at it now?
    • -How do you feel about it now?
    2
  • 39. Why Reflection?
    • Difficult to change style without reflection
    • Most people interact with others – To manipulate or control others
      • To minimize emotions
      • Create defensive interpersonal relationships – Limit risk taking
      • Avoid conflict – Mistrust
      • Misperceptions of – Miscommunications with others
      • Ineffective problem solving – Poor decision making
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 40. What are Methods for Reflection?
    • Single-loop learning
    • Learners
      • Seek relatively little feedback
      • Little public testing of ideas against valid information
      • Learn only about subjects within “comfort zone”
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 41. What is Double-Loop Learning?
    • Learning how to learn
    • Willing to confront one’s own views
    • Invites opinions
    • Open to information and power sharing
    • Learn how to change leadership styles by questioning assumptions about others
    • Question underlying assumptions about others’ goals – Organizational goals
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 42. Do We Have a Perceptual Bias?
    • Tendency
      • To perceive one thing and not another
      • Look for negative
      • Look past the positive
    • Stereotypes
      • Powerful impediments to learning
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 43. What does Research Show Regarding Perception?
    • Supervisors were biased toward making attributions
      • About subordinate’s standard performance
    • Supervisors
      • Often recommend punishment be used to remedy performance deficit
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
      • When our expectations or predictions cause events we predict
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 44. How Do We Explain Behavior?
    • When others fail
      • Fundamental attribution error
      • Overestimate causes of behavior
      • Underestimate environmental causes
      • Self-serving bias
    • When we fail – Succeed
      • Blame situation for failures
      • Take credit for success
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 45. How Do We Learn From Our Experience?
    • Work with others
      • Different backgrounds – Perspectives – Agendas
    • Pay attention
      • Positive and negative reactions
    • Close association with people who have experience
    • Monitor environmental changes
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 46. How Do We Develop From Our Experience?
    • Accept challenging and difficult tasks
    • Feel responsible for someone else – Increases one’s personal pressure
    • Risk of possible failure – Incentive for leaders to learn
    • Understand differences between large and small organizations
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 47. How Do Executives Learn From Experience?
    • Seek projects involving strategic planning
    • Seek challenging tasks
    • Seek stretch opportunities
    • Seek risk situations where success and failure are possible
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 48. What are the Characteristics of Successful Leaders?
    • Develop and adapt
    • Establish collaborative relations
    • Build and lead teams
    • Consistent exceptional performance
    • Ambitious
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 49. What are the Characteristics of Derailed Leaders?
    • Inability to develop or adapt
    • Poor working relations
    • Inability to build and lead a team
    • Authoritarian
    • Poor performance
    • Too ambitious
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 50. How do People Feel While Working Through Powerful Learning Events?
    • Negatives
      • Pain
      • Fearful
      • Frustrated
      • Stressed
      • Anxious
      • Overwhelmed
      • Uncertain
      • Angry
      • Hurt
    • Positives
      • Challenged
      • Successful
      • Proud
      • Capable
      • Growing
      • Exhilarated
      • Talented
      • Resourceful
      • Learning
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 51. What are Development Issues for Women?
    • Ignore or suppress some part of their true selves in order to succeed
    • Understand
      • Strengths
      • Weaknesses
      • Values
      • Needs
      • Priorities
      • Goals as leaders
    • Needs
      • Feel more comfortable exercising authority
      • Deal differently with organizational situations that make them feel helpless.
      • Become more politically sophisticated
      • Closer friendship and family ties
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 52. How do Women Enhance Personal Experiences?
    • Explore dimensions of personal life that enhance professional life
    • Seek opportunities to enrich interpersonal skills
    • Explore psychological benefits from overcoming obstacles
    • Seek emotional support and advice
    • Handle multiple tasks
    • Explore leadership opportunities in volunteer or community organization settings
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 53. What are Lessons Learned for Men and Women?
    • Direct and motivate associates
    • Self-confidence
    • Basic management values
    • How to work with executives
    • Understanding other people’s perspective
    • Dealing with people you have no authority over
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 54. What do Men Learn from Experience?
    • Technical/professional skills
    • All about the business
    • Coping with ambiguous situations
    • Shouldering full responsibility
    • Persevering through adversity
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 55. What do Women Learn from Experience?
    • Personal limits and blind spots
    • Taking charge of career
    • Recognizing and seizing opportunities
    • Coping with situations beyond your control
    • Knowing what excites you
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 56. What are Effective Education Programs?
    • Educational programs
      • Generally have positive effect on leadership development
    • Individualized feedback
    • Role playing
    • Simulation- Games
    • In-basket exercises
    • Leaderless group discussions
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 57. What is the Link Between Stress and Learning?
    • Growth and development
      • Stimulated by prior learning experiences
    • Able to go against what you did in the past
      • Requires – Unwavering commitment to learning
      • Relentless Willingness to let go of the fear of failure
    • Learning
      • Continues throughout life – Beyond the completion of one’s formal education
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 58. What is an Effective Leadership Training Program?
    • Interpersonal
      • Oral-communication
      • Written-communication skills
    • Time management
    • Planning
    • Goal setting
    • In-basket exercises
    • Leaderless group discussions
    3 - Leadership is Developed Through Education & Experience
  • 59. Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects Leadership Concepts
  • 60. What Methodologies are Used to Study Leadership?
    • Qualitative approach – Case studies
      • In-depth analysis of leader activities
      • Biographies – Common examples of case studies
    • Quantitative approach – Correlation studies
      • Determine statistical relationship
      • Mental abilities
      • Behaviors
    • Experiments – Causal inferences about leadership
      • Independent variable – Test hypothesis
      • Dependent variable – Some measure of leadership effectiveness
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 61. Should We be Concerned about Leadership Talent
    • Number one concern of top leaders
      • Regardless of country or organization
    • 50 percent of the top leaders in many private and public sector organizations
      • Slated to retire in next five years
    • Problem
      • Keeping talent
      • Lack of loyalty
      • Ineffective systems for identifying and developing leadership talent
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 62. Do We have Interesting Data about Leaders?
    • Majority of people in leadership positions
      • Not particularly effective at influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals.
    • Fifty percent of Fortune 500 CEOs
      • Dismissed for poor performance – Next three years
    • More than 75%
      • Most stressful part of their job – Immediate boss
    • Only 30 percent of businesses had “healthy and respectful” work climates
    • Record number of mid-level officers
      • Resigning from military – Lack of confidence in senior Army leadership
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 63. Do We have Interesting Data about Leaders? (cont.)
    • 50-90 percent of all new businesses fail within five years
    • 67 percent of all IT projects either fail to deliver promised functionality- Be delivered on time- Stay within budgeted costs
    • Root cause of most major industrial accidents
      • Traced back to poor management oversight
      • Cost-cutting initiatives
    • Over 70 percent of all mergers and acquisitions – Fail to yield projected profitability and synergies
    • Majority of large-scale organizational change initiatives fail to achieve intended results
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 64. What about You?
    • Dr. Gordy Test
      • Total the number of leaders you have had
      • Count the number of people in this group that you would willingly work for again
      • Calculate the percentage of competent leaders out of the total group of leaders
      • Between 25-40 percent
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 65. What does Successful Planning Data Show?
    • Past 10 years
      • Between 20-33 percent of the CEOs in North American, European, and Asian-Pacific firms are asked to leave for poor performance
      • High visibility scandals – Enron – Worldcom – Parmalat – Xerox – Adelphia – Royal Dutch Shell – Arthur Andersen – Boeing
    • Outside CEOs
      • Do no better than internal successors
    • In 1980
      • Only 7 percent of CEOs came from outside
    • Today
      • Approximately 50 percent of new CEOs come from the outside
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 66. How Do We Develop an Effective Leadership Talent Management System?
    • Process
      • Hire
      • Develop
      • Evaluate
      • Reward
      • Promote
      • Retain
    • Research – Effective talent management systems
      • Have a profound impact on organizational effectiveness
    • Clarify organization’s strategy for the next 5-10 years
    • Identify critical leadership positions
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 67. What is an Effective Method for Securing Leadership Talent?
    • Develop a competency model for the critical leadership positions
      • Skills
      • Knowledge
      • Abilities relevant to successful performance
    • Ensure recruiting and selection processes are identified
      • Hire candidates with the right skills
    • Develop – Promoting leadership talent
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 68. What Competencies Should You Expect?
    • Ability to create high-performing teams
    • Conflict management skills
    • Ability to build relationships
    • Ability to earn the trust of key internal and external stakeholders
    • Communication skills
    • Ability to motivate others
    • Honesty and integrity
    • Ability to cope with high levels of stress
    • In-depth knowledge
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 69. What Competencies Should You Expect? (cont.)
    • Problem-solving
    • Decision-making skills
    • Visioning skills
    • Planning skills
    • Coordinating skills
    • Budgeting skills
    • Delegation skills
    • Organizational change skills
    • Coaching skills
    • Performance management skills
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 70. What Competencies Should You Expect from Mid-Level Leaders?
    • Leading the business
      • Analyzing problems and making decisions
      • Thinking strategically
      • Financial and technical savvy
      • Planning and organization
      • Managing execution
    • Leading people
      • Inspiring shared purpose
      • Driving change
      • Building the talent base
      • Fostering teamwork
    • Building and sustaining relationships
      • Creating open communications
      • Building relationships
      • Customer focus
      • Credibility
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 71. What Competencies Should You Expect from Mid-Level Leaders? (cont.)
    • Adaptive capacity
      • Personal drive
      • Adaptability
      • Learning approach
    • Internet or paper-and-pencil measures
    • Research
      • Effective method for predicting future leader of effectiveness
      • Biographical questionnaires
      • Personality inventories
      • Mental abilities tests
      • Interest inventories
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 72. What is an Effective Process for Hiring Leaders?
    • Defining competencies you want
      • Use job-relevant paper-and-pencil measures as an initial screen
    • Structured interviews
    • Utilize work simulations to identify candidates with most potential
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 73. What are Traditional Methods for Hiring Leaders?
    • Application blanks
    • Unstructured interviews
    • Reference checks
      • Very poor predictors or leadership effectiveness
      • Most frequently used
      • Least valid
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 74. What are the Best Predictions for Assessing Potential?
    • Work sample/skill test .54
    • Assessment center/job simulation .50
    • Job knowledge test .48
    • Personality test .48
    • Job tryout .44
    • Biographical questionnaire .40
    • Structured interview .40
    • Mental abilities test .24
    • Unstructured interview .20
    • Reference check .14
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 75. Is the Multiple Hurdles Approach to Hiring Leaders Effective?
    • Research
      • Effective and valid way to identify best candidate
    • Applicants – Put through a series of leadership potential assessment techniques
    • Only the applicants who “pass” one assessment are allowed to move on
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 76. What are Examples of Structured Interview Questions?
    • Driving change
      • Describe the biggest, most complex change you had to make
      • What were the circumstances surrounding the need to change?
      • What did you specifically do to make the change happen?
    • Labor relations
      • What have been the most difficult labor relations issues you have had to deal with?
      • What was the situation?
      • What did you do?
      • How did the negotiations turn out?
    • Talent management
      • Describe what you have done to recruit, develop, and retain people
      • What happened as a result of your efforts?
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 77. What Methods Do You Utilize to Measure Leader Effects?
    • Measure
    • Superiors’ rating
    • Subordinates’ rating
    • Unit performance indices
    • Advantages
    • Frequently used
    • Multiple raters
    • Actual results
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 78. What are Unit Performance Indices?
    • Store sales
    • Profit Margins
    • Number of defective products returned
    • Number of on-time deliveries
    • Crime rates
    • High school graduation rates
    • Dollar amount of charitable contributions collected
    • Days lost due to accidents
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 79. Why are Subordinates’ Ratings Valid?
    • Followers
      • Often in a better position to make judgments
    • Subordinates’ ratings
      • Can suffer from distortion or bias
      • However – Such effects tend to cancel each other out when multiple raters are used
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 80. What is the Glass Ceiling Effect?
    • As recent as 2000
      • Almost 50 percent of the Fortune 1000 had no women in top executive positions
    • Currently
      • Only 10 percent of the executive positions in Fortune 1000 companies are held by women
      • Only 2 percent of women hold one of the to five jobs in these organizations
    • Japan
      • Only 9 percent of middle-level managers are women
    • Research
      • Few practical differences in leadership potential and performance between men and women
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 81. What did Jack Welch Expect from Leaders?
    • Relentlessly upgrade their team
      • Using every encounter as an opportunity to evaluate
      • Coach
      • Build self-confidence
    • Make sure people not only see vision - Live and breathe it
    • Get into everyone’s skin – Exuding positive energy and optimism
    • Establish trust with candor – Transparency – Credit
    • Have the courage to make unpopular decisions and gut calls
    • Probe and push with a curiosity that borders on skepticism – Making sure their questions are answered with action
    4 - Assessing Leadership and Measuring Its Effects
  • 82. Power and Influence Leadership Concepts
  • 83. What is “Power?”
    • Capacity
      • To produce effects on others
      • Potential to influence others
    • Power does not need to be exercised – To have its effect – Any hold-up person can tell you
    • Perceived power
      • Just as effective as exercising power
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 84. What is “Influence?”
    • Power – Capacity to cause change
    • Influence – Degree of actual change
      • Measured by behavior or attitude manifested
      • Change in a target agent’s attitudes – Values – Beliefs
      • Behaviors – Result of influence tactics
    • Tactics
      • Actual behaviors designed to change
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 85. What are Gestures of Power and Influence?
    • Pecking order – Status differential
      • Lower-ranking baboons – Step aside
    • American society
      • Disrespectful for lower status to stare at a superior
      • Pointing – Acceptable for high-status figures
      • Touching – Without invitation – Acceptable for superior status
    • Higher-power persons – Interrupt
      • Low-power persons are interrupted
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 86. How do Leaders Establish Power?
    • Sitting – Ends of rectangular tables
      • Circular tables – Minimize status differentials
      • Sitting next to each other – Same coalition members exert more power
    • Prominently displaying symbols – Diplomas – Awards – Titles
    • Medical setting
      • Phone calls to nurses’ stations
      • Identified himself – Hospital physician
      • Many nurses complied – Despite it was against hospital policy to transmit prescriptions by phone
      • Unauthorized medication is dangerously excessive
      • 95 percent of nurses complied with the request
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 87. Can Clothing Increase Power?
    • People walking along a city sidewalk – Stopped by someone dressed
      • Regular clothes
      • Uniform of a security guard
      • “ You see that guy over there by the meter? He’s overparked but doesn’t have any change. Give him change!”
    • Fewer than half complied
      • Requestor was dressed in regular clothes
      • 90 percent complied was in uniform
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 88. What are the Dimensions of Power?
    • Expert Power
    • Referent Power
    • Legitimate Power
    • Reward Power
    • Coercive Power
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 89. How do Leaders Flex Power During a Crisis?
    • More power
    • Generally
      • Use referent power to influence
    • During crisis
      • More apt to draw on legitimate and coercive power to influence subordinates
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 90. What did Milgram’s Classic Research on Obedience Yield?
    • How far will people go when directed by authority – To do something that might injure another person
    • Participants
      • Men surrounding Yale University
    • Two subjects at a time
      • Teacher – Took orders
      • Learner – Made Mistakes
    • One experimenter – Told teacher to shock
    • Teacher
      • Help learner memorize a set of word pairs
      • Provide electric shocks when learner made a mistake
    • “ Shock generator” looked ominous
      • Rows of switches – Lights – Warnings labeled in 15-volt increments – To 450 volts
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 91. What did Milgram’s Classic Research on Obedience Yield? (cont.)
    • When learner made a mistake
      • Teacher was ordered to administer the next-higher level of electric shock
    • In actuality – Teacher was the subject in the experiment
    • Purpose of the experiment
      • Assess how much electric shock the teachers would administer
      • Against adamant protestations to stop
    • If teacher refused to deliver any further shocks
      • Experimenter prodded him – “The experiment requires that you go on” and “You have no other choice; you must go on”
    • 70 percent of the subjects
      • Carried through with their orders
      • Delivered the maximum shock
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 92. What Motivates Leaders?
    • High need for power
      • Derives psychological satisfaction from influencing others
      • Seek positions where they can influence others
      • Astute – Build trusting relationships – Assessing power networks
      • Value tangible signs of authority and status
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 93. What Types of Power Motivate Leaders?
    • High need for personalized power
      • Relatively selfish
      • Impulsive
      • Uninhibited
      • Lack self-control
    • High need for socialized power
      • Exercised power – To achieve higher goals
      • Empower others
    • Need for power
      • Positively related to success for nontechnical managers
      • Positively related to managers’ performance ratings
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 94. What Behaviors are Displayed by Leaders with Power Motives?
    • Maintain good relationships with authority figures
    • Compete for recognition – Advancement
    • Active and assertive
    • Exercise influence over subordinates
    • Visibly different from followers
    • Willing to do routine administrative tasks
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 95. What is Influence and What Tactics do Leaders Utilize?
    • Actual behaviors – Employed to change attitudes – Opinions – Behaviors
      • Rational persuasion
      • Inspirational appeals
      • Consultation
      • Personal appeals
      • Exchange of favors
      • Coalition tactics
      • Pressure tactics
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 96. What Influence Tactics do Leaders Utilize?
    • Ingratiation – To please – Win Favor
    • Influence attempts – Factual – Logical analyses – Most frequently reported method
    • Strong tendency
      • Resort to hard tactics when other tactics fail to get results
    • Authoritarian leaders
      • Use more hard tactics
      • Judge subordinates as less motivated – Less skilled – Less suited for promotion
    • Democratic leaders
    • More rational methods
    • Both types did equally good work
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 97. Are There Gender Differences in How Leaders Influence Followers?
    • Interviewed and surveyed male and female managers in Fortune 100 companies – How they influence upward
    • Female leaders
      • Influence attempts – Greater concern for others
      • More likely to act with organization’s broad interests
      • Considerate of how others felt about influence attempts
      • Involve others in planning
      • Focus – Task and interpersonal aspects of the situation
    • Male leaders
      • Influence attempts – Greater concern for self
      • More likely to act out of self-interest
      • Show less consideration for how others might feel about influence attempts
      • Work alone in developing their strategy
      • Focus primarily on the task alone
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 98. Are There Gender Differences in How Leaders Influence Followers? (cont.)
    • Female managers
      • Less likely to compromise or negotiate during their influence attempts
      • More likely to persist in trying to persuade superiors
    • Neither group overall was more effective than the other
    • Managers whose style matches most closely with superior’s
      • May have an advantage in evaluations and promotion decisions
    5 - Power and Influence
  • 99. Leadership and Values Leadership Concepts
  • 100. What are “Values?”
    • States of affairs
      • Constructs considered to be important
      • Affect decision-making
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 101. When it is All Said and Done, What do en it is All Said and Done, What do You Want?
    • Terminal Values – End States
      • Exciting life
      • Sense of accomplishment
      • Family security
      • Inner harmony
      • Social Recognition
      • Friendship
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 102. What Values Will Get You Where You Want to Be?
    • Instrumental Values
      • Courageous
      • Helpful
      • Honest
      • Imaginative
      • Logical
      • Responsible
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 103. Do Generations Differ in Their Organization Values?
    • Veterans (1922-1942)- Stabilizing force in organizations for decades
    • Baby Boomers (1943-1960)- Passion about participation- Spirit – Heart – Humanity
      • Concerned about creating a level playing field for all
    • Gen Xers (1961-1989)- Technologically savvy- Independent- Skeptical of institutions and hierarchy
      • Entrepreneurial – Embrace change
      • Job security – Not too important
      • More committed to vocation
    • Nexters (1990)- Doubt the wisdom of traditional racial and sexual categorizing
      • Expect managers to “earn their stripes”
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 104. What Leaders Value?
    • Desire to standout
      • Value fame – Visibility – Publicity
      • Public Recognition
      • Seeks positions where they will be noticed
    • Desire for achievement
      • Enjoy competition
      • Drive hard to make an impact
      • Value achievement – Accomplishment
      • Seek positions where they can achieve
    • Desire to enjoy work
      • Value fun
      • Enjoy entertaining others
      • Seeks positions that bring pleasure – Variety – Excitement
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 105. What Leaders Value? (cont.)
    • Desire for learning
      • Value scientific methods
      • Seeks positions that require digging deeply into problems
    • Desire to help others
      • Altruism values
      • Help needy and powerless – Social justice
      • Seek positions that provide opportunities to improve others – Improve society
    • Desire to work with highly motivated people
      • Value people – Relationships
      • Enjoy networking – Meeting new people
      • Seek positions in team environment
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 106. What Leaders Value? (cont.)
    • Desire to live a traditional lifestyle
      • Family values
      • Value moral rules – Standards
      • Value religious – Institutional customs
      • Seeks positions moral beliefs will be upheld
    • Desire for security
      • Value stable – Predictable risk-free environments
      • Enjoy creative structures and processes that minimize uncertainty
      • Seeks positions that avoid criticism
    • Desire for financial success
      • Value financial rewards
      • Looks for new business opportunities
      • Seek positions that provide entrepreneurial challenges
    • Desire for aesthetics
      • Enjoys environments that allow experimentation
      • Quality is most important
      • Seeks positions that allow artistic expression – Creative problem solving
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 107. Leadership Values Profile
    • Affiliation 78%
    • Power 60%
    • Aesthetics 60%
    • Recognition 36%
    • Pleasure 14%
    • Altruistic 14%
    • Tradition 14%
    • Science 12%
    • Commerce 7%
    • Security 1%
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 108. According to Research, What do Leaders Value?
    • Strong Commercial values – Weak Altruistic values
      • Greedy and selfish
    • Tend to like followers with similar values
    • Motivated to act in ways consistent with their values
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 109. According to Value Research, What Guides Leaders on How Work Gets Done?
    • Respect associates – Customers – Vendors
    • Top leadership values
      • Tells you more about how an organization actually operates than stated values
    • Research
      • Associates with values similar to the organization or team are more satisfied and likely to stay
    • Leaders fail
      • Not due to lack of competence
      • Due to a misalignment between personal and organizational values
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 110. What are Key Work Values?
    • Recognition
    • Power
    • Hedonism
    • Altruistic
    • Affiliation
    • Tradition
    • Security
    • Commerce
    • Aesthetics
    • Science
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 111. What are the Stages of Moral Reasoning?
    • Preconventional Level
      • Stage 1: “Bad” behavior – Punished.
      • Stage 2: “Good” behavior – Rewarded
    • Conventional Level
      • Stage 3: “Good” behavior – Approved by others
      • State 4: “Good” behavior – Conforms to standards set by social institutions
    • Postconventional Level
      • State 5: “Good” behavior – Conforms to community standards – Set through democratic participation – Concern with maintaining self respect and the respect of equals
      • Stage 6: “Good” behavior – Matter of individual conscience based on responsibly chosen commitments to ethical principles
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 112. What Type of Leaders do Associates Trust?
    • Create compelling visions
      • Demonstrate empathy
      • Consistent
      • Integrity
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 113. How Do Good People Rationalize Doing Bad Things?
    • Moral justification
    • Euphemistic labeling – Disguise the offensiveness of otherwise morally repugnant or distasteful behavior with “cosmetic” words
    • Advantageous comparison
      • Compare to even more heinous behavior
    • Displacement of responsibility
      • Others are behaving the same way
    • Disregard or distortion of consequences
    • Dehumanization
    • Attribution of blame – Caused by someone else’s actions
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 114. What Criteria Should We Use in Making Behavior Choices?
    • How do I decide ethical dilemmas?
    • Do I have set ethical beliefs or standards?
    • If so, do I live by these beliefs or standards?
    • How often have I done something that I am ashamed of?
    • How often have I done things that I am proud of?
    • Do I admit my mistakes?
    • What do I do to correct mistakes that I make?
    • Do I often put the well-being of others ahead of mine?
    • Do I follow the golden rule?
    • Am I honest?
    • Do people respect my integrity
    • List the three best things that have ever happened to me.
    • What is the most dishonest thing I have ever done?
    • Did I ever rectify the situation?
    • What is the most honest thing that I have ever done?
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 115. What Assumptions Do Leaders Make About Associates?
    • Theory X - Reflects a more pessimistic view of others
      • Assume people – Not naturally industrious or motivated to work
    • Theory X managers
      • Far more likely to be in lower-achieving group
    • Theory Y- Reflects positive view – Most people are intrinsically motivated
      • Value a sense of achievement
      • Personal growth
      • Pride
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 116. What are Different Leadership Responses Caused by Culture?
    • Source of Identity
      • Individual Vs. Collective
    • Goals and Means of Achievement
      • Tough Vs. Tender
    • Response to Ambiguity
      • Dynamic Vs. Stable
    • Means of Knowledge Acquisitions
      • Active Vs. Reflective
    • Outlook on Life
      • Doing Vs. Being
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 117. What Cultures Make Leaders Dependent?
    • Emphasize – Top-down control
    • Command and control mindset
    • Seniority – Important bases of respect
    • Great emphasis – Keeping things running smoothly
    • Check things out with one’s boss before taking a new direction
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 118. What Cultures Make Leaders Independent?
    • Leaders emerge as needed – Based on knowledge and expertise
    • Great emphasis - Individual responsibility - Decentralized decision making - Promotion of experts - Professionals - Individual contributors
    • “ Achievement-oriented”
    • Times of stress- Great pressure not to let performance numbers go down
    • Bold and independent action - Achieve results
    • Organization Success
      • Due to highly competent and ambitious individuals
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 119. What Cultures Make Leaders Independent? (cont.)
    • Widespread beliefs - Leadership - A collective activity - Requires mutual inquiry and learning
    • Widespread dialogue – Collaboration
      • Horizontal networks - Valuing of differences - Focus on learning
    • Roles change frequently
    • Learn from experience - Even mistakes
    • Widely shared commitment - Doing what it takes
    • Openness - Candor - Building trust across departments
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 120. What Behaviors and Attributes are Culturally Contingent?
    • Ambitious
    • Cautious
    • Compassionate
    • Domineering
    • Independent
    • Individualistic
    • Logical
    • Orderly
    • Sincere
    • Worldly
    • Formal
    • Sensitive
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 121. What are Positive Forms of Leadership?
    • Authentic Leadership
      • Enhance self-awareness
      • Find more meaning and connection
      • Promote transparency and openness in relationships
      • Foster more inclusive structures and practices in organizations
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 122. What are Positive Forms of Leadership? (cont.)
    • Principle-centered leadership
      • Trustworthy person – Personal
    • Organizational
      • Most creative and productive when structure and strategy are aligned
      • Vision – Aligned and mutually supportive
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 123. What are Positive Forms of Leadership?
    • Servant Leadership
      • Listening
      • Empathy
      • Healing
      • Awareness
      • Persuasion
      • Foresight
      • Commitment to others’ growth
      • Building community
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 124. What Leader Attributes and Behaviors are Universally Viewed as Positive?
    • Trustworthy
    • Just
    • Honest
    • Foresighted
    • Plans ahead
    • Encouraging
    • Informed
    • Excellence Oriented
    • Positive
    • Dynamic
    • Motive arouser
    • Confidence builder
    • Motivational
    • Dependable
    • Coordinator
    • Intelligent
    • Decisive
    • Effective bargainer
    • Win-win problem solver
    • Administratively skilled
    • Communicative
    • Team builder
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 125. What Leader Attributes and Behaviors are Universally Viewed as Negative?
    • Loner
    • Asocial
    • Noncooperative
    • Irritable
    • Nonexplicit
    • Egocentric
    • Ruthless
    • Dictatorial
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 126. What Advice Does Sun Tzu Give Leaders in his Book on the “The Art of War?”
    • People need extrinsic incentives
      • Give soldiers shares of the booty of conquered territory
    • Rule with iron discipline – Maintain authority
      • Too much kindness toward followers could make them useless
    • Winning
      • Requires some cleverness and sometimes even deception
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 127. What Advice Does Bhagavad Gita Give Leaders?
    • Never act for material rewards only
      • Focus on doing well – Good things will follow
    • Enlightened leaders
      • Selfless and compassionate
    • Followers are treated as equals
      • More motivated to enthusiastically support their leader
    • Success
      • Satisfying multiple different stakeholders
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 128. Cult – Enron
    • Cults – Characterized as having these four qualities:
      • Charismatic leadership
      • A compelling and totalistic vision
      • A conversion process
      • A common culture
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 129. Recent Poll of Senior Executives in the U.K., Germany, and France
    • Fewer than three in 10 French bosses – Were happy about decision challenges compared to half of German bosses and more than nine out of 10 business leaders in the U.K.
    • Nearly two-thirds of French bosses – One of the three best things about being a leader was “the freedom to make decisions with minimum interference.”
    • 50 percent of German bosses and 70 percent of British bosses – The best thing about the job is developing talent in the company. Only 14 percent of French bosses rated it among the top three benefits of leadership.
    • French leaders – Three times more likely than the British and eight times more likely than German leaders to consider “being in a position of power” one of the best things about the job.
    6 - Leadership and Values
  • 130. Leadership Traits Leadership Concepts
  • 131. Are Leaders Different from the Average Bear?
    • Leaders differ from non-leaders
      • Drive
      • Desire to lead
      • Honest – Integrity
      • Self confidence
      • Cognitive ability
      • Knowledge of the business
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 132. What Traits are Difficult to Change?
    • Intelligence
    • Personality traits – Types
    • Values – Interests – Motives
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 133. What are Easy to Change?
    • Skills/Competencies
    • Knowledge
    • Experience
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 134. What is the Traits Approach to Personality?
    • Impression person makes
    • Maintains
      • People behave the way they do
      • Strengths of traits they possess
      • Leader behavior reflects interaction between personality traits and situational factors
    • Explains
      • Why people act fairly consistently from one situation to the next
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 135. What Dimensions Predict Personality?
    • Surgency
      • Dominance – Need for power – Self confidence – Extravert
    • Agreeableness
      • Empathy – Friendly – Need for affiliation
    • Dependability
      • Conscientiousness
    • Adjustment
      • Self control
    • Openness to experience
      • Intellectual curiosity
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 136. Are the Dimensions Reliable?
    • Good measures of leadership potential
    • Overwhelming research
      • All five dimensions – Related to leadership success across different cultures
    • Having insight into one’s personality traits
      • Gives people information about their leadership potential
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 137. What are Hogan’s Personality Dimensions?
    • Ambition
    • Sociability
    • Interpersonal sensitivity
    • Prudence
    • Adjustment
    • Inquisitive learning approach
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 138. What Personality Traits Should Leaders Not Display?
    • Mood swings
    • Unhealthy mistrust of others
    • Fearful of bad decisions
    • Times of stress – Withdraw
    • Tendency to blame others
    • Only exert effort in pursuit of own agenda
    • Break rules to see if you can
    • Need to be the center of attention
    • Make strange decisions
    • Frustrate followers
    • Deal with stress by kissing up to superiors
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 139. What are Intelligent Leaders?
    • More intelligent leaders
      • Faster learners
      • Make better assumptions – Deductions – Inferences
      • Better at creating a compelling vision and developing strategies
      • Develop better solutions to problems
      • See more of the primary and secondary implications
      • Quicker on their feet
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 140. What are Average Intelligence Test Scores by Management Level?
    • Executive level 66
    • Middle level 65.5
    • First line manager 65
    • Supervisor 62
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 141. What are the Components of Creative Intelligence?
    • Synthetic ability
      • See things in new ways
    • Analytical intelligence
      • Potential solutions
    • Practical intelligence
      • Relevant knowledge and experience
    • Thinking style
      • Modify what already exists or completely start over
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 142. What are Adaptive and Innovative Thinking Styles?
    • Adaptors
      • Prefer to modify or change existing products or processes
    • Innovators
      • Prefer to create entirely new processes or products
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 143. What is the Difference between Convergent and Divergent Thinking?
    • Convergent thinking
      • Have a single best answer
    • Divergent thinking
      • Many possible answers
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 144. What are the Components of Creative Intelligence?
    • Personality factors
      • Higher openness to experience
      • Higher surgency scores are related to creativity
    • Intrinsic motivation
      • Generate more creative solutions when problem is personally interesting
    • Environmental factors – Generate more creative solutions
      • Supportive leadership
      • Lack of time pressure
      • Team stability
      • Weak social ties
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 145. How do Leaders Build Creative Intelligence Environments?
    • Select creative people
    • Build an environment
      • Where others can be creative
      • Boost creativity throughout groups
      • Provide opportunities for others to develop their creativity
    • Incentives
    • Vision – What the creative product or output should look like
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 146. What does Creative Intelligence Research Yield?
    • Followers – Generate more creative solutions when told to
      • Focus on their intrinsic motivation
      • Take pleasure of solving task
      • Public recognition or pay
    • Students
      • Told projects were to be judged by experts – Produced less creative projects
    • When followers know work will ultimately be evaluated – Pronounced tendency for members to be evaluative and judgmental too early
      • Censor themselves
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 147. What Kills Creativity?
    • Take away all discretion and autonomy
    • Create fragmented work schedules
    • Provide insufficient resources
    • Focus on short-term goals
    • Create tight timelines
    • Discourage collaboration and coordination
    • Keep people happy – Little motivation to change status quo
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 148. How Do You Lead Clever People?
    • Smart – Clever people
      • Know companies need them more than they need companies
      • Tend to ignore the corporate hierarchy
      • Expect instant access to top management
      • Flight risks – If ideas are not respected
    • Leaders
      • Act as “benevolent guardians”
      • Treat with respect and recognition
      • Get them the resources they need
      • Protect them from organizational policies and politics
      • Give them room to be creative and fail
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 149. What Did Leaders Do in Eleven Top Performing Companies?
    • Avoided the spotlight
    • Focus – Creating company that delivers results
    • Possessed an unbreakable resolve – Channeled energy towards success
    • Calm in crisis
    • Took responsibility for failure
    • Courteous – Polite
    • Set the tone
    • Surrounded themselves with the right people
    • Built high-performing teams
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 150. What is the Cognitive Resources Theory?
    • Leaders – Great experience – Low intelligence
      • Hypothesized to have higher-performing groups under conditions of high stress
    • Leaders – Experience levels
      • Experience – Leads to habitual behavior patterns
      • Interferes with performance under low-stress conditions
      • High levels of experience have a tendency to misapply old solutions to problems
    • Leaders – Higher intelligence – Low experience
      • Have higher-performing groups under low-stress conditions
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 151. What is Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence?
    • Perceiving emotions
    • Managing emotions
    • Using emotions
    • Understanding emotions
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 152. What is Goleman’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence?
    • Self-awareness
    • Self-regulation
    • Motivation
    • Empathy
    • Social skills
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 153. What is Bar-On’s Concept of Emotional Intelligence?
    • Intrapersonal
    • Adaptability
    • Stress management
    • Interpersonal
    • General mood
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 154. What does Emotional Intelligence Research Yield?
    • Moderates associates’ reactions
      • To job insecurity
      • Ability to cope with stress when threatened with job loss
    • Relationship between leaders’ moods and followers’ moods
      • Job performance
      • Job satisfaction
      • Creativity
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 155. What Behaviors are Associated with Emotional Intelligence?
    • Self awareness
      • Accurate self-assessment
      • Self-confidence
    • Self regulation
      • Self-control
      • Trustworthiness
      • Conscientiousness
      • Adaptability
      • Innovation
    • Motivation
      • Achievement
      • Commitment
      • Initiative
      • Optimism
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 156. What Behaviors are Associated with Emotional Intelligence? (cont.)
    • Empathy
      • Understanding others
      • Developing others
      • Service orientation
      • Diversity
      • Political awareness
    • Social skills
      • Influence
      • Communication
      • Conflict management
      • Leadership
      • Change Catalyst
      • Building bonds
      • Collaboration/cooperation
      • Team capabilities
    7 - Leadership Traits
  • 157. Leadership Behavior Leadership Concepts
  • 158.
    • What leader behaviors make a difference in follower behavior?
    • What leader behaviors make a difference in leadership success?
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 159. Why Study Leadership Behavior?
    • Identifies how successful leaders act
    • Building blocks of skills
      • Intelligence
      • Personality traits
      • Emotional intelligence
      • Values
      • Attitudes
      • Interests
      • Knowledge
      • Experience
    • Behavior – Skills – Competencies
      • Initiating structure
      • Initiating consideration
      • Leadership grid
      • 360 degree feedback
      • Derailment
      • Self defeating
      • Coaching
      • Mentoring
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 160. How Do We Judge “Good” Leaders From “Bad” Leaders??
    • Good vs. bad results
    • What good and bad leaders do day-to-day
      • Good decisions
      • Provide direction
      • Create plans
      • Provide feedback
      • Obtain resources they needed
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 161. How Do You Measure Leader Effectiveness?
    • Variables – Inferred from behavior
      • Personality traits
      • Values
      • Intelligence
    • Behavior
      • Direct relationship with ability
    • Leaders – High agreeable personality
      • Behavior – Concern and support for followers
      • Behavior – Difficult to discipline followers
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 162. What did the Early Research on Leadership Behavior Yield?
    • Associate-centered
      • Leader support
      • Interaction facilitation
      • Initiating structure
      • Meet work goals – Accomplish tasks
    • Job-centered
      • Work facilitation
    Leadership Behavior
  • 163. What Dimensions Did Two Classic Studies Find?
    • Ohio State dimensions
      • Initiating structure
      • Consideration
    • University of Michigan dimensions
      • Goal emphasis and work facilitation
      • Leader support and interaction facilitation
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 164. What is the Leadership Grid?
    • Concern for people (0-9)
    • Concern for production (9-1)
    • 9,9 leaders – Most effective
    • Leadership behaviors associated with problem solving – Results
      • Initiating structure
      • Consistently related to successful teams
    • Higher consideration behavior
      • Can reduce employee turnover
    Leadership Behavior
  • 165. What Are the Universal Leadership Dimensions?
    • Charismatic – Value-based
      • Ability to inspire – Motivate
      • Expect high performance outcomes – Firmly held core values
    • Team oriented
      • Build effective teams
      • Influence the pursuit of a common purpose or set of goals
    • Participative
      • Involve others in decision-making process
    • Humane oriented
      • Demonstrate supportive or considerate leadership
    • Self-protective
      • Ensure safety and security for team members
    • Autonomous
      • Independent and individualistic
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 166. What Competencies are Associated with Leadership?
    • Intrapersonal skills – Adapt
      • Stress
      • Goal oriented
      • Adhere to rules
    • Interpersonal skills
      • Communication
      • Build relationships
    • Leadership skills
      • Getting results through others
      • Building teams
    • Business skills
      • Analyzing issues
      • Making decisions
      • Financially savvy
      • Strategic thinking
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 167. Is Community Leadership Different from Business Leadership?
    • Building teams of volunteers
    • Achieve community goals
    • Followers – Don’t have to conform to organization norms
    • Followers – Don’t have to attend meetings
    • Usually have fewer resources and rewards
    • No formal selection or promotion process
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 168. What Concepts Can Be Learned From Community Leadership That May Help Business Leaders?
    • Framing competency
      • Recognizing and defining opportunities and issues
      • Deciding what needs to be done
      • Why it is important
      • How it will be done
      • How outcomes benefit followers and community
    • Building social capital
      • Develop and maintain relationships – Work together
      • Power or relationships
    • Mobilization
      • Engaging in critical mass
      • Strategic – Planned – Purposeful activities
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 169. How Do You Improve Leadership Behavior?
    • 360-degree – Multi-rater feedback
      • Provides insight into self-perceptions
    • Ratings – Questionnaires
    • Research – Leaders
      • Have higher performing work groups
      • Only add value if well conceived
    • Self appraisal
      • Not very accurate
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 170. What are Some of the Competencies Evaluated in a 360-Degree Feedback Process?
    • Thinking strategically
    • Personal drive
    • Planning and organizing
    • Inspiring aligned purpose
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 171. What Are Some of the Items Used to Assess Inspiring Purpose?
    • Compelling vision of the future
    • Provides – Clear sense of purpose and direction
    • Challenging goals and expectations
    • Fosters enthusiasm and buy-in
    • Supports initiatives of upper management through words – Actions
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 172. Are Leaders More Effective if they Have High Levels of Insight?
    • Large self observed gaps
      • Effective if they had high observer ratings
      • Key – Help groups achieve goals
    • Leaders who
      • Shared their 360 results with followers
      • Worked on action plans to improve
      • Had dramatic improvements over five years
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 173. According to Research, What Derails Leaders?
    • Problems with interpersonal relationships
    • Failure to meet business objectives
    • Inability to build and lead teams
    • Inability to adapt
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 174. What Specific Behaviors Derail Leaders?
    • Dictate laws
    • Write rules to increase personal power
    • Insensitive to others- Cold- Aloof- Arrogant
    • Overly ambitious
    • Isolates self
    • Authoritarian
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 175. What Specific Behaviors Derail Leaders? (cont.)
    • Betrayal of trust
    • Lack of follow-through
    • Lack of hard work
    • Failing to staff effectively
    • Difficulty molding a staff
    • Unable to adapt to a boss with a different style
    • Strategic differences with top management
    • Unable to manage conflict with upper management
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 176. When Do Leaders Change Behavior?
    • Move from one organization to another
    • When they gain new insights
    • When provided support
    • When leader is motivated to change
    • When leaders have opportunities to practice new skills
    • When leaders are held accountable for changing targeted behaviors
    Leadership Behavior
  • 177. Can Leaders Really Change?
    • Hard wired – Values – Intelligence – Personality
    • Ample evidence to show that people can and do change
    • When they understand where and when to leverage strengths
    • When behaviors get them into trouble
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 178. What Behaviors Need Development?
    • Capabilities
    • Insight
    • Motivation
    • New knowledge and skills
    • Real world application
    • Accountability
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 179. Is Mentoring an Important Behavior
    • Personal relationship – Mentor
      • Acts as a guide- Role model- Sponsor
    • Provides different perspectives
    • Provides advice
      • Potential committee – Task force assignments
    • Personal learning - Career satisfaction - Pay- Promotions - Retention
    • Formal mentoring programs- Last a year
    • Informal mentoring- Can last a lifetime
    Leadership Behavior
  • 180. Are Formal Mentoring Programs Effective?
    • 75% of protégés said the program helped improve their leadership capabilities
    • 77% of protégés are more likely to stay with their parent companies
    • 80% of protégés believe their companies have benefited by their attending the program
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 181. What is Coaching Behavior?
    • Process of
      • Equipping people with tools – Knowledge - Opportunities needed to develop and become more successful
    Leadership Behavior
  • 182. What is Formal Coaching?
    • One-on-one relationship
    • Extensive battery of personality – Intelligence- Interests – Value – 360-degree feedback
    • Meet regularly
    • Role plays and videotape are used extensively
    • Clarification of values – Identification of discrepancies between their espoused values and their actual behaviors
    Leadership Behavior
  • 183. What is Informal Coaching?
    • Forge a Partnership
    • Inspire Commitment
    • Grow Skills
    • Promote Persistence
    • Shape the Environment
    Leadership Behavior
  • 184. What are Useful Factors in Coaching?
    • Handling organizational politics
    • Clear – Direct feedback
    • Provides new perspective
    • Provides advice on handling situations
    • Understand organizational objectives
    • General encouragement
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 185. What are Some Critical Lessons Learned from Formal Coaching?
    • Person being coached – Want to change
    • Assessments are important
    • Some behaviors cannot be changed
    • Practice is critical
    • No substitute for accountability
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 186. What do Effective Coaches Need to Know?
    • Business models – Operations – Structures – Functions – Processes – Metrics – Finances
    • Personality – Intelligence – Values – Behavior – Skills
    • Leadership – Management – Teams – Organizational change
    • Knowledge acquisition – Skill development – Behavioral change
    • Everything you learned in this class
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 187. What is Dungy’s Coaching Philosophy?
    • Good coaches – Essentially teachers
    • Faith and family take priority
    • Four of his assistant coaches moved into head coaching positions
    8 - Leadership Behavior
  • 188. Motivation – Satisfaction – Performance Leadership Concepts
  • 189. Why Do the Top 15 Percent of Workers Produce 20 to 50 Percent More Output and 50 Percent More Customer Orders?
    • Are they more motivated?
    • Are they more satisfied?
    • Can leadership make a difference?
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 190. What is Motivation?
    • Initiate and continue exhibiting certain behaviors
      • Direction
      • Intensity
      • Persistence
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 191. How Does Motivation Work?
    • Energy
      • Direction – Intensity
      • Choice of activity
      • Level of effort
      • Degree of persistence over time
    • Behavior probability
      • Likelihood to initiate and continue exhibiting certain behaviors
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 192. What is the Difference Between Performance and Effectiveness?
    • Performance – Behavioral outcomes
      • Measured by organization mission – Goals
    • Performance – What people do
    • Effectiveness – How well people do it
      • Make judgments about the adequacy of behavior
      • Criteria
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 193. What is Job Satisfaction?
    • Attitudes – Feelings about the job itself
      • Pay – Promotion – Educational opportunities – Supervision – Co-workers – Workload
    • Majority – Report liking their jobs
    • More satisfied
      • More likely to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors
    • May not have a direct effect on the accomplishment of organizational goals
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 194. What does Satisfaction Research Yield?
    • People
      • Generally tend to be very happy with their vocation or occupation
      • Who are happier with their jobs also tend to have higher life satisfaction rates
    • Hierarchy effect
      • People with longer tenure or in higher positions tend to have higher satisfaction
    • Satisfaction
      • Takes considerable amount leaders’ focus and energy to increase satisfaction levels of nonmanagement associates
    • 71 percent of senior management – 58 percent of middle management – 46 percent of nonmangers rate pay as “very good”
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 195. What does Satisfaction – Performance Research Yield?
    • Building relationships – Consideration
      • Result – More satisfied followers
    • More satisfied followers
      • Remain with the company
      • Engage in activities that help others
      • Setting goals
      • Planning
      • Providing feedback
      • Rewarding good performance
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 196. What does Leader Research Indicate?
    • Influence – To exert higher levels of effort
      • Result – Higher levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty
    • Select – Right people
    • Correctly use power and influence tactics
    • Seen as ethical and credible
    • Acquire necessary resources
    • Develop follower skills
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 197. What are Typical Items on a Satisfaction Questionnaire?
    • Overall, I am satisfied with my job
    • I feel the workload is about equal for everyone in the organization
    • My supervisor handles conflict well
    • My pay and benefits are comparable to those in other organizations
    • There is a real future for people in this organization if they apply themselves
    • Exceptional performance is rewarded in this organization
    • We have a good health care plan in this organization
    • In general, I am satisfied with my life and where it is going
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 198. Does Knowledge About Motivation Approaches Matter?
    • Knowledgeable about different motivational theories
      • More likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 199. Why Followers are Motivated to Leave Organizations?
    • Limited recognition and praise 34%
    • Compensation 29%
    • Limited authority 13%
    • Personality conflicts 8%
    • Other 16%
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 200. Why Followers Stay with Organizations?
    • Promises of long-term employment 82%
    • Supports training and education 78%
    • Hires hard-working - Smart people 76%
    • Encourages fun – Collegial relationships 74%
    • Bases job evaluation on innovation 72%
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 201. What are Key Questions that Assess Associate Engagement?
    • I know what is expected from me at work
    • I have the materials and equipment I need to do my job right
    • At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day
    • In the last seven days, I have received recognition and praise for doing good work
    • My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person
    • There is someone at work who encourages my development
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 202. What are Key Questions that Assess Employee Engagement? (cont.)
    • At work, my opinions seem to count
    • The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel my job is important
    • My associates are committed to doing quality work
    • I have a best friend at work
    • In the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progress
    • This past year, I have had the opportunities at work to learn and grow
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 203. Does Affectivity Matter?
    • Positive affectivity
      • Tendency to react to stimuli in a consistent positive emotional manner
    • Negative affectivity
      • Consistently react to changes – Events – Situations in a negative manner
    • Negative affectivity – Related to job dissatisfaction
      • Positive affectivity – Higher job satisfaction
    • Leadership initiatives
      • May have little impact job satisfaction if follower affective disposition is either extremely positive or negative
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 204. What Other Factors Affect Job Satisfaction?
    • Organizational justice
      • People treated unfairly – Less productive – Satisfied – Committed
    • Interactional justice
      • Treated with dignity and respect
    • Distributive justice
      • Followers’ perceptions of level of reward or punishment
      • Commensurate with an individual’s performance or infraction?
    • Procedural justice
      • Process in which rewards or punishments are administered
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 205. What Specific Factors Affect Satisfaction?
    • Herzberg – Two factory theory
      • Supervision
      • Working conditions
      • Co-workers
      • Pay
      • Policies/procedures
      • Job security
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 206. What Specific Factors Affect Motivation?
    • Herzberg – Two factory theory
      • Achievement
      • Recognition
      • The work itself
      • Responsibility
      • Advancement and growth
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 207. What are Needs Motivation Theories?
    • Assume people have basic needs
      • Leaders motivate followers by helping them satisfy their needs
    • Basic Needs
      • Internal states of tension or arousal
      • Uncomfortable states of deficiency - People motivated to change
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 208. What is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? 9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance Self-Actualization needs Esteem needs Belongingness needs Security needs Physiological needs
  • 209. What does the Hierarchy of Needs Mean?
    • Lower-level needs
      • Must be satisfied before the next-higher level becomes salient
    • Self-esteem or self-actualization
      • Not salient until lower needs were satisfied
    • Leader – Determine followers’ needs
      • Ensure all lower-order needs are satisfied before appealing to followers’ self-esteem or self-actualization needs
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 210. What is Another Approach to Needs?
    • Existence – Relatedness – Growth
      • Satisfy more than one need at a time
    • Leaders
      • Identify the degree of need for existence – Relatedness – Growth
    • Followers
      • Having relatively satisfied existence and relatedness needs
      • More apt to focus on growth needs
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 211. How do Individuals Differ?
    • Key personality traits
      • Work values
      • Work they like to do
    • People vary substantially
      • Achievement orientation – Work values – Intrinsic motivation
    • To improve – Select followers
      • Who possess right skills – Have a higher level of achievement orientation
      • Right work values
      • Find work to be intrinsically motivating
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 212. What is Achievement Orientation?
    • Tendency – Exert effort toward task accomplishment
    • McClelland- Strong need for achievement
      • Prefer tasks that provide immediate and ample feedback
      • Moderately Difficult Tasks
      • Successfully solved work problems – Accomplished job tasks
    • Followers – Low need to achieve
      • Prefer easy tasks
      • Do not feel satisfied by solving problems – Accomplishing assigned tasks
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 213. What is the Profile of High Achievers?
    • High achievers
      • Become extremely demoralized when faced with unclear or impossible tasks
    • Working with the elite Army Ranger units
      • Almost always performed at very high levels and were very successful
      • When given unclear missions with few resources and impossible timelines – Same units could self-destruct very quickly
    • Component – Five Factor personality dimension of dependability
    • Dependability
      • Positively related to performance across virtually all jobs as well as predict success in school
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 214. What are Practical Implications of Achievement Orientation?
    • Hire individuals with higher levels of achievement orientation
    • Provide additional responsibilities or opportunities for advancement
    • Set clear expectations
    • Provide opportunities to set and achieve work-related goals
    • Provide feed-back on progress toward goals
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 215. What is Success?
    • Happiness: Do I enjoy what I am doing?
    • Achievement: Am I accomplishing the goals I have set for myself?
    • Significance: Am I doing something important?
    • Legacy: Will my efforts and achievement endure over time?
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 216. Are Values Important Determinants to Motivation?
    • Values – Important and enduring beliefs
    • Leaders
      • Suffer from extrinsic motivational bias
      • Falsely believe followers are more motivated by money
    • Research
      • Most followers value doing important work
      • Being recognized for good performance
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 217. What are Followers’ Key Work Values and Motivational Strategies?
    • Strong Recognition values
      • Believe Fame – Visibility – Publicity are important
    • Strong Power values
      • Enjoy competition – Being seen as influential – Driving hard to make an impact
    • Strong Hedonism values
      • Motivated by pleasure – Variety – Excitement
    • Strong Altruism values
      • Opportunities to improve society and help others
    • Strong Affiliation values
      • Motivated if work allows them to meet new people or work in team environments
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 218. What are Followers’ Key Work Values and Motivational Strategies? (cont.)
    • Strong Tradition values
      • Motivated in organizations – Strong customs and standards of behavior
    • Strong Security values
      • Motivated to engage in various activities if activities create stable – Predictable – Risk-free environments
    • Strong Commerce values
      • Motivated by financial success
    • Strong Aesthetic values
      • Motivated in environments that place a premium on experimentation – Artistic expression – Creative problem solving – Quality
    • Strong Science values
      • Motivated when digging deeply into problems – Keeping up to date with technology
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 219. What is Intrinsic Motivation?
    • Behavior seemingly motivated for its own sake
    • Voluntarily put forth effort toward activities they enjoy doing
    • External rewards
      • Incentives may backfire
      • Can result in a decrease in intrinsic motivation
    • Leader
      • Determine what followers find to be important or intrinsically motivating
      • Avoid extrinsic motivation bias – Pay more is the only path
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 220. What does Intrinsic Motivation Research Yield?
    • External rewards or incentives
      • Result in a decrease in intrinsic motivation when perceived to be “controlling”
    • Rewards seen as providing “informational” value
      • May not result in a decrease in intrinsic motivation
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 221. What are Cognitive Motivation Theories?
    • Goal setting
      • Set goals to change behavior
    • Expectancy theory – Motivate others by clarifying links between behaviors – Performance – Rewards
    • Equity theory – People are motivated to reduce inequities between rewards and effort
    • Self-efficacy – One’s beliefs about being able to successfully complete a task
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 222. What does Goal Setting Theory Assume?
    • Leaders
      • Motivate followers by setting goals
      • Bolster beliefs about task accomplishment
    • Followers – Will exert more effort
      • When the expectations are linked
      • Between the level of effort and desirable outcomes are clear
    • Leaders
      • Engage and persist goal behaviors associated with the accomplishment
      • Persuade people to think differently about their efforts
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 223. How does Goal Setting Motivate Followers?
    • Most powerful determinants of task behaviors
    • Goals
      • Both specific and difficult
      • Result in consistently higher effort and performance
    • Goal commitment – Critical
    • Follower participation in setting goals – Critical
    • Followers – Exerted the greatest effort when goals were accompanied by feedback
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 224. What does Goal Setting Research Yield?
    • Goals – Both specific and difficult
      • Result in consistent higher effort and performance
    • Participation
      • Leads to commitment
    • Feedback – Critical
    • Setting moderately difficult goals – Critical
    • Recognizing partial goal accomplishment – Critical
    • Making use of a continuous-improvement – Critical
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 225. What is the Pygmalion Effect?
    • Expectations alone
      • Lead to higher follower performance
    • Occurs when leaders articulate high expectations for followers
    • Leaders who have little faith in their followers’ ability to accomplish a goal
      • Rarely disappointed
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 226. What is Expectancy Motivation Theory?
    • Links
      • What people do – To rewards
    • Cognitive
      • Result of conscious choice
    • Followers
      • Do what provides them highest rewards
    • Assumes
      • Follower act
      • Maximize their expectations of attaining valued outcomes
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 227. What is Expectancy Motivation Theory? (cont.)
    • Effort-to-performance expectancy
      • Followers estimates the likelihood of performing the desired behavior adequately
      • Assuming they put forth the required effort
    • Performance-to-outcome expectancy
      • Follower - Determines the likely outcomes
      • Perform the task adequately
      • Follower rewarded if they do it
      • Value reward
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 228. What Do You Do if You Feel You are Not Treated Fairly?
    • Inequity - Restore balance
      • Change inputs
      • Change outcomes
      • Alter self-perceptions
      • Alter perception of their reference group
      • Change reference group
      • Leave
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 229. How does Self-Efficacy Affect Motivation?
    • Cognitive theory
      • Core belief – Able to successfully perform a given task
    • Positive self-efficacy
      • Confident they have power to create desired effects
    • Negative self-efficacy
      • Not confident
    • Believe they can perform a particular task
      • Will often exert considerable effort to get the task accomplished
    • Negative self-efficacy
      • Often give up in the face of difficulty
    • Varies from one task to the next
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 230. Does the Situation Affect Motivation?
    • Assumes leaders
      • Can change the situation in order to better motivate followers
    • Research
      • Some jobs are more motivating than others
    • Reengineer jobs to improve followers’ motivation levels
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 231. What is the Operant Approach to Motivation?
    • Reward
      • Any consequence that increases the likelihood that a particular behavior will be repeated
    • Punish
      • Administration of an aversive stimulus or the withdrawal of something desirable
    • Contingent rewards or punishments
      • Administered as consequences of a particular behavior
      • Behavior not rewarded will eventually be eliminated through the process of extinction
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 232. What does Operant Approach Research Yield?
    • Incentive pay targeted at specific follower behaviors – Most effective
    • Followed by social recognition and performance feedback
    • Research
      • Leaders who properly design and implement contingent reward systems
      • Increase follower productivity and performance
    • Leader
      • Specify what behaviors are important
      • Determine if behaviors are currently being punished – Rewarded – Ignored
      • Find what followers actually find rewarding and punishing
    • Social recognition and performance feedback
      • Resulted in significant productivity improvements
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 233. Why Would You Reward A While Hoping for B?
    • We hope for
      • Long-term growth
      • Teamwork
      • Commitment to total quality
      • Reporting bad news
    • But we often reward
      • Quarterly earnings
      • Individual effort
      • Shipping on schedule – Even with defects
      • Reporting good news – Whether it is true or not
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 234. Is It Possible To Be Effective and Incompetent?
    • Demonstrate incompetence
      • To avoid responsibility
    • Ask others for help so much
      • Person being asked
      • Eventually assumes responsibility for getting the task accomplished
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 235. What is an Empowered Associate?
    • Make choices about what they do
      • How they do it
      • When the need to get it done
    • Strong sense of meaning
    • Believe – What they do is important
    • Have an impact on others
      • Believe they can influence their teams or work units
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 236. What is an Empowered Associate? (cont.)
    • Self-determined
    • Sense of meaning
    • High competence
    • High influence
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 237. How Do You Empower Associates?
    • Delegate leadership and decision-making
      • Down to the lowest level possible
    • Equip followers with
      • Resources – Knowledge – Decision making skills
    • Determine – Followers capabilities
    • Enhance – Broaden followers’ capabilities
    • Provide followers commensurate increases in authority and accountability
    • Followers
      • Can tolerate high levels of stress when they have high level of control
    9 - Motivation - Satisfaction - Performance
  • 238. Groups – Teams – Leadership Leadership Concepts
  • 239. What is the Difference Between a Group and a Team?
    • Group
      • Belong for a variety of reasons
      • People – Tend to identify more with groups than their organization
      • Influence and influenced by others
      • Departments
    • Teams
      • Stronger sense of identification
      • Task interdependence
      • Differentiated – Specialized roles
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 240. Does Group Size Matter to Leaders?
    • Leader emergence – Partly a function of group size
    • Greater number of people in large group
      • Probability – Any individual is likely to emerge as a leader
    • Groups become larger – Cliques develop
    • Leaders – Large span of control
      • More directive
      • Spend less times with individual subordinates
      • Use more impersonal approaches
    • Leaders – Small span of control
      • Display more consideration
      • Use more personal approaches when influencing followers
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 241. How Does Group Size Matter?
    • Affects group effectiveness
      • Group output – Combination of individual outputs
    • As group size increases beyond needed
      • Individual contributions decrease
    • Social loafing – Diminishing returns
      • May increase effort or productivity
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 242. Does Size Affect Group Output?
    • Size grows
      • Individual contributions decrease
      • Inefficiencies – Created by more people working together
      • Reduced effort when little accountability for work – Social loafing
      • Individuals increase their level of work due to the presence of others
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 243. Does Social Role Affect Group Behavior?
    • Stanford Prison Experiment
    • Two dozen college students
      • Randomly assigned to be either “prisoners” or “guards”
    • Guards wore uniforms – Carried nightsticks – Whistles
      • Eyes – Covered by sunglasses
    • Prisoners “arrested” at their homes by police cars – Sirens
      • Handcuffed – Frisked – Blindfolded
      • Fingerprinted – Prisoner outfits – Assigned numbers
    • Guards
      • Became more and more abusive
      • Enjoyed punishing prisoners for even minor infractions
    • Emotional stress on the prisoners became profound
      • Six days into the two-week episode – Experiment was halted
    • Participants’ roles – Became their reality
    • Conclusion – Behavior is partly determined by social role
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 244. How Do Teams Develop?
    • Forming
    • Storming
    • Norming
    • Performing
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 245. What Task Roles Do Team Members Exhibit?
    • Initiating
      • Define problems – Suggest activities – Assign tasks
    • Information seeking
      • Ask questions – Seek relevant data or views
    • Information sharing
      • Provide data – Offer opinions
    • Summarizing
      • Integrate others’ points
      • Check for common understanding
      • Readiness for action
    • Evaluating
      • Assess validity of assumptions – Quality of information – Reasonableness of recommendations
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 246. What Team Relationship Roles do Members Exhibit?
    • Harmonizing
      • Resolve interpersonal conflicts
      • Reduce tension
    • Encouraging
      • Support and praise others
      • Show appreciation for others’ contributions
    • Gatekeeping
      • Assure even participation – No individual dominates
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 247. What Dysfunctional Roles Do Team Members Exhibit?
    • Dominating
      • Monopolizing group time
      • Force views on others
    • Blocking
      • Obstruct and impede group work – Persistent negativism
    • Attacking
      • Belittle others
      • Create a hostile or intimidating environment
    • Distracting
      • Engage in irrelevant behaviors
      • Distract others’ attention
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 248. What Type of Role Conflict Do Team Members Experience?
    • Receive contradictory messages about expected behavior
    • Intrasender role conflict
      • Mixed signals
    • Interrole conflict
      • Associate is unable to perform all their roles
    • Person-role conflict
      • Store manager encourages a salesperson to mislead customers
    • Role ambiguity
      • Lack of clarity about expectations
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 249. Why Team Norms?
    • Informal rules
      • Regulate members
    • Facilitate group survival
    • Simplify - Make more predictable
    • What behavior is expected
    • Avoid embarrassing interpersonal problems
    • Express the central values of the group
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 250. Do Teams Have Unwritten Rules?
    • Starting goalie – Always the first player on the ice
    • Losing clubhouse – Act as if there has been a death
    • Hand the manager the ball – Pitcher leaving game
    • No-hitter – Do not talk to or sit near pitcher
    • First base coach – Never stands in coaching box
    • Never hit quarterback during practice
    • Throw a handful of salt into the air before your sumo wrestling match begins
    • Bus may be delayed by superstars only
    • Never admit you trapped the ball
    • Caddie of the last player to putt – Replaces flag
    • Scrubs stand during NBA timeouts
    • Winners buy
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 251. Why is Team Cohesion Important and What are the Pitfalls?
    • Keeps group together
    • Attracts members
    • Provides resistance to leaving
    • Motivates members to be active
    • Overbounding Research
      • Block the use of outside resources
      • Build fences – Boundaries
    • Groupthink
    • Ollieism
      • Illegal actions are taken by overly zealous and loyal subordinates
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 252. What are the Symptoms of Groupthink?
    • Unquestioned assumptions
    • Collective rationalization
    • Stereotypes the opposition
    • Self-censorship
    • An illusion of unanimity
    • Direct pressure on dissenting members
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 253. What are Effectives Team and Characteristics of Leaders?
    • Effective teams
      • Clear mission
      • High performance standards
    • Leaders of successful teams
      • Aware of equipment – Training facilities and opportunities – Outside resources available
      • Spent considerable time assessing technical skills of team members
      • Secure resources and equipment
      • High levels of communication
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 254. What is an Effective Team Task Structure?
    • Does the team know it’s task?
    • Is the task reasonably unambiguous – Consistent with the mission?
    • Does the team have meaningful work?
    • Sufficient autonomy?
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 255. What Questions Should be Answered in Developing Effective Teams?
    • Is collective membership of team appropriate for task to be performed?
    • Are there too few or too many members?
    • Do the members collectively have sufficient knowledge and skills?
    • Does the team have sufficient maturity and interpersonal skills?
    • Is there an appropriate amount of diversity on the team?
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 256. How do Teams Develop and Institute Norms?
    • Does the team share an appropriate set of norms?
    • Imported from the organization
    • Instituted and reinforced by the leader
    • Developed by the team itself
    • Regularly scan and review prevailing norms
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 257. How does a Team Gain Authority?
    • Sufficient competence
    • Establish climate
      • Authority can be used in a flexible manner
      • Team members feel empowered
      • Team members feel comfortable in questioning authority and decisions
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 258. What is the Team Leadership Model?
    • Leader
      • Main job – To determine what needs the team
      • Take care of them
    • Systems theory approach
      • Inputs
      • Process – Throughputs
      • Outputs
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 259. What are TLM Inputs?
    • Raw materials processed
    • Resources available for teams
    • Individual
    • Environmental
    • Team factors
    • Organizational systems
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 260. What is the TLM Process?
    • How the team goes about its work
    • Leader
      • Assess team’s work while it is working
      • Critical indicators
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 261. What are Four Process Measures? 10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
    • Knowledge & Skills
    • Effort
    • Strategy
    • Group Dynamics
  • 262. What are TLM Outputs?
    • Team’s productive output
      • Goods
      • Services
      • Decisions
      • Quantity
      • Quality
      • Timeliness
    • Team
      • Experience enhances growth and personal well-being of individuals
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 263. How does TLM Gain Creativity?
    • Starts with a concept
    • Create a design
    • Engineer it to do what we want it to do
    • Manufacture it
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 264. How do Team Members Dream Using TLM?
    • Most important single step in teamwork
    • Challenging goals?
    • Leader
      • Ensures the team has a clear vision
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 265. How do Team Members Use Design in the TLM Model?
    • Design– Critical
    • Detect deviations in the process stage
    • Explore opportunities for making it better
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 266. What do Research Studies Yield Regarding TLM?
    • Effective leaders
      • Use variety of authority dynamics in the first few minutes of the team’s life
      • Variety of authority styles
      • Establish competence and legitimate authority
      • Insure team has a clear sense of purpose and performance expectations
      • Design or redesign input
      • Ongoing coaching
    • Engage team – Participative process
    • Feedback
      • Individual level – Iinfluence perceived efficacy
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 267. What is the Continual Improvement Process?
    • Creation
      • Create a design
      • Linear flow
    • Dream
      • Paint picture
    • Design
      • Detect deviations
    • Development
      • Find ways to improve an already well-designed team
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 268. What are Virtual Teams?
    • Geographically dispersed teams
    • Leadership research
      • Support of senior management
      • Innovative use of communication technology
      • Adoption of an organization design
      • Prevalence of trust among team members
      • Ability to capture the strengths of diverse cultures – Languages – People
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 269. How do you Lead Virtual Teams?
    • Be proactive
    • Focus on relationships before tasks
    • Seek clarity
    • Create a sense of order and predictability
    • Be a cool-headed – Objective problem solver
    • Develop shared operating agreements
    • Give team members personal attention
    • Respect the challenges of the virtual environment
    • Recognize the limits of available technologies
    • Stay people-focused
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 270. What is Effective Feedback?
    • Helpful
    • Direct
    • Specific
    • Descriptive
    • Timely
    • Flexible
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 271. Is Punishment Effective?
    • Strong positive relationship between punishment and performance
    • Low performance
      • Leads to higher levels of punishment
    • Level and manner of punishment
      • Differ dramatically
    • More severe the punishment (pay reduction)
      • Higher subsequent performance of team members
    • Punishment – Reduces absenteeism – Tardiness
    • Inexperienced leaders – Administer almost twice as much punishment as experienced leaders
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 272. How do you Administer Punishment?
    • Leaders
      • Biased toward making internal attributions about followers’ poor performance
      • Use punishment to modify follower’s behavior
    • Collect the facts
    • Focus on specific behaviors
    • Minimize threat to followers’ self-concepts
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 273. Why Delegate?
    • Frees time for other activities
    • Sends organizational signal
      • Subordinates are trusted
    • Delegate
      • Opportunities for initiative
      • Problem solving
      • Innovation
      • Administration
      • Decision making
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 274. Why Avoid Delegating?
    • Takes too much time
    • Risky
    • Job will not be done as well
    • Task is a desirable one
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 275. What are the Principles of Effective Delegation?
    • Decide what to delegate
    • Make the assignment clear and specific
    • Allow autonomy, but monitor performance
    • Give credit, not blame
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 276. How do You Build High Performance Teams?
    • Rocket Model
      • Mission
      • Talent
      • Norms
      • Buy-In
      • Power
      • Morale
      • Results
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 277. What is an Example of Assessing Team Effectiveness?
    • Dysfunctional health care team
      • Results- Low
      • Power- Medium
      • Morale- Low
      • Norms- Low
      • Buy-In- Low
      • Mission- Low
      • Talent- Medium
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 278. What is an Example of Assessing Team Effectiveness?
    • High performing retail team
      • Results- High
      • Power- High
      • Morale- High
      • Norms- High
      • Buy-In- High
      • Mission- High
      • Talent- Medium
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 279. What are the Steps in Conducting a GAPS Analysis?
    • Step 1: Goals
    • Step 2: Abilities
    • Step 3: Perceptions
    • Step 4: Standards
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 280. How do You Bridge Gaps?
    • Building a Development Plan
      • Step 1: Career – Development Goals
      • Step 2: Criteria for Success
      • Step 3: Actions Steps
      • Step 4: Whom to Involve – Reassess Dates
      • Step 5: Stretch
      • Step 6: Resources
      • Step 7: Reflect with a Partner
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 281. What is Effective Coaching?
    • Forge Partnership
    • Inspire Commitment - Conduct GAPS Analysis
    • Grow Skills – Create Plans
    • Promote Persistence - Help Followers Stick to Their Plans
    • Transfer Skills - Create Learning Environment
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 282. What is an Effective Development Plan?
    • Objectives
      • One-year career objective identified
      • Two or three development goals
      • Motivated and committed to change
    • Criteria for Success:
      • New behavior clearly described
      • Behavior is measured – Observed
    • Action Steps:
      • Specific – Attainable – Measurable steps
      • Includes a variety of types of activities
      • Activities divided into small – Doable steps
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 283. What is an Effective Development Plan? (cont.)
    • Seek Feedback and Support
      • Variety of others
      • Requests for management support
    • Stretch Assignments
      • Related to career objectives
    • Resources
      • Books – Seminars
    • Reflect with a Partner
      • Periodic reviews of learning
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 284. What is the Difference between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Empowerment?
    • Top-down process
      • Delegate leadership and decision making down to the lowest level
    • Bottom-up approach
      • Equip followers
      • With resources
      • Knowledge
      • Skills necessary to make good decisions
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 285. What are the Psychological Components of Empowerment?
    • Intellectual capital
    • Associates – Tolerate high levels of stress
      • When they have a high level of control
    • Sense of self-determination
    • Strong sense of meaning
    • High level of competence
    • Have impact on others
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 286. What are the Best Practices of Empowerment?
    • Create clear vision
      • Goals
      • Accountability
    • Develop others
    • Delegate decision making to followers
    • Lead by example
    • Empowerment
      • Must be systemic to be successful
    10 - Groups - Teams - Leadership
  • 287. Characteristics of the Situation Leadership Concepts
  • 288. Do Situations Determine Who Emerges as Leader?
    • Great leaders – Typically emerged
      • Economic crises
      • Social upheavals
      • Revolutions
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 289. Does Leader Perception of the Situation Affect Leader Behavior?
    • Role theory
      • Rules and regulations governing the job
      • Role expectations of subordinates – Peers – Superiors
      • Nature of the task
      • Feedback about subordinates’ performance
    • Clarifies how leader responds
      • Situational demands – Constraints
    • Perception of role conflict and role ambiguity
      • Successfully resolve conflicts – Determine leadership effectiveness
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 290. What Organization Factors Affect Leader Perceptions?
    • Congruence model – System model
    • Input
      • Environment
      • Resources
      • History
    • Process
      • Strategy
      • Work
      • Informal Organization
      • Formal Organization
      • People
    • Output
      • System
      • Unit
      • Individual
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 291. What Work Variables Affect Leader Perception of the Situation?
    • Tasks – What is to be done
      • Function
      • Skills or abilities
      • Equipment
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 292. What Job Characteristics Affect Leader Perception of the Situation?
    • Skill variety
      • Mechanical – Cognitive – Physical
      • Greater skill variety – More enjoyable
      • Tasks – Low levels of skill variety – Directive behaviors
    • Task identity – Completion of whole unit
    • Task significance – Job substantially impacts others
    • Autonomy – Control over job
    • Task structure – Known vs. Unknown procedure
    • Task interdependence – Coordination and synchronization
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 293. What People Factors Influence Leader Perceptions of the Situation?
    • Skills
    • Knowledge
    • Experience
    • Expectations
    • Needs
    • Preferences
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 294. What Environmental Factors Influence Leader Perception of the Situation?
    • Changing economic conditions
    • Threats of layoffs
    • Hostile takeover
    • Global “off-shoring”
    • Changing political condition
    • Technology changes
    • Legal problems
    • Crises
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 295. How Does Organizational Design and Structure Affect Leader Perceptions?
    • Structure
      • Activities are coordinated and controlled
      • Complexity – Horizontal – Vertical – Spatial elements
      • Centralization – Diffusion of decision-making
    • Design
      • Functional
      • Product
      • Matrix
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 296. What Assumptions Underlie the Information Age?
    • Cross functions vs. specialization
    • Links to customers and suppliers vs. Arm’s length transactions
    • Global scale vs. Local country
    • Innovation vs. Long product life cycles
    • Knowledge workers vs. Do as told
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 297. How does Technology and Uncertainty Affect Leader Perceptions of the Situation?
    • Technological complexity
      • Workers play a large role
      • Modify leader behavior – Depends on situation
    • High technology complexity
      • Highly predictable work flow
    • Mass production
      • Orders are filled from inventory
    • Continuous process
      • Mechanized from beginning to end
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 298. How does Level of Authority Influence Leader Perceptions of the Situation?
    • Lower-level leaders
      • Considerable amount of time training followers
      • Resolving work-unit or team performance problems
      • Scheduling practices or arranging work schedules
      • Implementing policies
    • Higher-level leaders
      • More autonomy
      • More time setting policies
      • Making staffing decisions
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 299. What is the Difference Between Culture and Climate?
    • Organizational culture
      • System of shared norms – Values – Beliefs
      • Myths – Stories – Symbols – Rituals - Language
    • Organizational climate
      • Narrow in scope
      • Subjective reactions
      • How well organizational members get along with each other
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 300. What are Key Organizational Culture Factors?
    • Objects – Seen and noticed
    • Recurring events or activities
      • Reflect important aspects of the underlying culture
    • Jargon
      • Some know
      • Some do not
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 301. How do Leaders Change Culture?
    • Attend to or ignore particular issues – Problems – Projects
    • Through their reactions to crises
    • Reward new or different kinds of behaviors
    • Eliminate previous punishments or negative consequences
    • Myths – Stories – Symbols – Rituals – Language
    • Respected organizations emphasize
      • Making associates feel they are part of the family
      • Reducing social distance
      • Have pleasant working conditions
    • Disrespected organizations
      • More manipulative
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 302. What Culture Factors Should Leaders Attend to in Trying to Understand Their Situation?
    • What is talked about or not talked about
    • How people wield power
    • What people get ahead or stay out of trouble
    • Unwritten rules of the game
    • Organization’s morality and ethics
    • Stories told about the organization
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 303. Are there Culture Mavericks?
    • John DeLorean – Counterculture at GM
      • Took a number of actions to change the dominant culture at GM
      • Liked independence and dissent
      • Modeled behavior he wished others to emulate
      • Wore suits that stood out
      • Changed office furniture – Carpeting – Décor
      • Allowed executives to decorate their offices
      • Did not greet his superiors at the airport
      • Did not have his subordinates pick him up
      • Changed the performance appraisal system
      • Rewarded on the basis of objective performance data
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 304. Are There Situations Where Leaders Can Use Substitutes for Themselves?
    • Subordinate ability and experience
      • May substitute for task-oriented leader behavior
    • Subordinate indifference toward rewards
      • May neutralize a leader’s task and relationship behavior
    • Tasks – Routine or structured
      • May substitute for task-oriented leader behavior
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 305. Are There Situations Where Leaders Can Use Substitutes for Themselves? (cont.)
    • Tasks – Provide intrinsic feedback or intrinsically satisfying
      • May substitute for task oriented leader
    • High levels of formalization in organizations
      • May substitute for task-oriented leader behavior
      • Unbending rules and procedures may even neutralize the leader’s task behavior
    • Cohesive work group
      • May provide substitute for leader’s task and relationship behavior
    11 - Characteristics of the Situation
  • 306. Contingency Theories of Leadership Leadership Concepts
  • 307. What are Contingency Theories?
    • Assumes leaders are able to
      • Accurately diagnose or assess key aspects
      • Situational and follower characteristics
      • Act in a flexible manner
    • Leadership effectiveness – Maximized
      • When leaders select behaviors contingent on
      • Situational characteristics
      • Follower characteristics
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 308. What Situational and Follower Characteristics Drive Contingency Leadership Theory
    • Decision participation?
      • Normative decision model – Decision tree
    • Maturity of followers
      • Situational model
    • Leader-member relations – Task structure – Leader position power
      • Fiedler – Least preferred co-worker scale
    • Follower expectations
      • Path-goal theory
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 309. What is the Normative Decision Making Model?
    • Normative
      • What ought to happen
      • Not describing what does happen
    • Model goal
      • To determine the levels of participation subordinates should have in making decisions
    • How? – Determines leader options
      • Decision tree
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 310. What are the Leader Options?
    • Autocratic processes
      • AI: Leader solves problem – Makes decision
      • AII: Leader obtains any necessary information from followers – Decides
    • Consultative processes
      • CI: Leader shares the problem with individual relevant followers – Makes decision
      • CII: Leader shares problem with followers in group meeting – Makes decision
    • Group process
      • GII: Leader shares problem with group – Together – Generate and evaluate alternatives – Reach agreement (consensus) on a solution
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 311. What is the Leader’s Criteria in Determining Leader Options?
    • Decision quality
      • Decision has a rational determinable “better or worse” alternative
      • “ Will one alternative have a greater cost saving than the other?”
      • “ Does this decision improve services to the client?”
    • Decision acceptance
      • Followers accept the decision as if it were their own
      • Do not merely comply with the decision
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 312. How does the Decision Tree Process Work?
    • Does the problem possess a quality requirement?
    • Do I have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision?
    • Is the problem structured?
    • Is acceptance by subordinates important for effective implementation?
    • If I were to make the decision myself, is it reasonably certain that it would be accepted by subordinates?
    • Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving this problem?
    • Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely?
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 313. Decision Tree 12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 314. What is the Situational Leadership Model?
    • Leaders
      • Often – Different interactional styles
      • Adjust behavior
    • What factors should leader utilize in selecting their interactional style?
      • Follower’s intelligence?
      • Values?
      • Preferences?
      • Technical competence?
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 315. Depending on the Situation, What Leadership Styles are Options?
    • Low relationship – High task
    • Low relationship – Low task
    • High relationship – Low task
    • High relationship – High task
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 316. How does the Leader Select an Option?
    • Follower readiness
      • Able – Willing or confident
      • Able – But unwilling or insecure
      • Unable – But willing or confident
      • Unable – Unwilling or insecure
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 317. Situational Leadership 12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 318. What is a Simple Approach to Determine Leader Behavior?
    • Delegate when followers are able and willing
      • Low relationship – Low task behavior
    • Participation when followers are able, but unwilling
      • High relationship – Low task behavior
    • Sell when followers are unable, but willing
      • High task – High relationship behavior
    • Telling when followers are unable and unwilling
      • High task – Low relationship behavior
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 319. What is Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model?
    • Primarily determined by selecting the right leader for situation
    • Or changing the situation to fit the particular leader’s style
    • Assumes
      • Leaders are more consistent
      • Less flexible in their behavior
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 320. What is the Least-Preferred-Co-worker Scale?
    • Think of the single individual with whom you had the greatest difficulty working
      • Least preferred co-worker (LPC)
    • Describe that individual in terms of a series of bipolar adjectives
    • Scale – Identifies if leader is permanently a low or high score
      • Low score – Task oriented leader
      • High score – Relationship oriented leader
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 321. What is a Low-LPC Leader?
    • Motivated by task
    • Gain satisfaction from task accomplishment
    • If tasks are being accomplished in an acceptable manner
      • Low-LPC leaders move to secondary level of motivation
      • Forming and maintaining relationships
        • Task first – Relationship second
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 322. What is a High LPC Leader?
    • Motivated by relationships
    • Satisfied by establishing and maintaining close interpersonal relationships
    • If high-LPC leaders establish good relationships
      • Will move to their secondary level of motivation
      • Task accomplishment
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 323. If Leadership Style is “Fixed,” What Should you Consider in Trying to Match Leader to the Most Desirable Situation
    • Situational favorability
      • How much control the leader has over followers
      • More control – More favorable the situation
    • To determine control – Three subelements
      • Leader-member relations – Strongest element
      • Task structure
      • Position power – Weakest element in determining situational favorability
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 324. How do the Subelements Determine the Situation?
    • Leader-member relations
      • Is it cooperative or hostile?
      • Leader who rates it as positive – Feels support
    • Task structure
      • Leader assesses if there is detailed descriptions of work products
      • Standard operating procedures
      • Objective indicators of how well the task is being accomplished
      • More affirmatively – Higher the task structure
    • Position power
      • Title – Rank
      • Authority to give rewards and punishment
      • Conduct performance appraisals
      • The more you can do the above – The more position power
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 325. How do you Determine Overall Situational Favorability?
    • Are leader-member relations good or poor?
      • Good
    • Is the task structured or unstructured?
      • Structured
    • Is position power high or low?
      • High
    • Preferred style of leader for this situation
      • Octant
        • Octant – One of eight parts into which space is divided by three
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 326. 12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 327. What LPC Score is the Best for Follower Effectiveness?
    • If situational favorability is moderate
      • Octants 4,5,6, or 7
      • Groups led by high LPC leaders concerned with establishing and maintaining relationships do best
    • If situational favorability is
      • Unfavorable (Octant 8)
      • Or highly favorable (Octants 1,2, or 3)
      • Groups led by low LPC leaders who are task motivated do best
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 328. 12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 329. Do LPC Leaders Change Focus?
    • LPC leaders first
      • Satisfy their primary motivation
      • Low LPC – Focus on task
      • High LPC – Focus on relationships
    • Will change focus when
      • Primary motivation is satisfied
      • Move to secondary motivation state
        • Leaders change focus only when faced with highly favorable situations
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 330. What is Path-Goal Theory
    • Assumes expectancy motivation theory is correct
      • Calculate effort-to-performance probabilities
      • How much effort should I put forth?
      • If I put forth effort, will I be successful?
      • How much do I value the outcome?
    • Leader provides
      • Follower goals
      • Available rewards
      • Follower path to achieving valued rewards
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 331. What are Effective Path-Goal Leaders?
    • Ensure availability of “valued rewards”
    • Help followers to identify goals
    • Help followers clarify path to reach goals
    • Help followers identify and remove roadblocks
    • Provide emotional support
      • Increase followers’ performance expectancies
      • Performance to reward expectancies
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 332. What Actions are Recommended for Path-Goal Leaders?
    • Strengthen followers’ beliefs
      • If they exert a certain level of effort
      • They will more likely accomplish task
      • If they accomplish task
      • They will likely achieve valued outcomes
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 333. What are the Behavior Options for Path-Goal Leaders?
    • Directive – Task behaviors
      • What followers are expected to do
      • When
      • How it fits with the work of others
    • Supportive – Concern for others
      • Open and approachable
    • Participative – Consultative
      • Share work problems – Solicit suggestions – Involve
    • Achievement oriented
      • Set very challenging goals
      • Seek ways to improve
      • Perform at the highest level
      • High degree of confidence
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 334. How Does a Leader Know Which Behaviors to Exhibit?
    • Two variables
      • Satisfaction of followers
      • Followers perception – Of their own abilities relative to the task to be accomplished
    • Satisfaction
      • Leader behavior – Acceptable if it is either an immediate source of satisfaction
      • Or instrumental in achieving future satisfaction
    • Followers – Actively support leader if
      • Leaders actions increase followers level of satisfaction
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 335. How Does a Leader Know Which Behavior to Exhibit? (cont.)
    • Followers locus control
    • Internal
      • More satisfied with participative leaders
    • External
      • More satisfied with directive behavior
    • Followers capable of performing variable
      • Capable – Prefer participative leader
      • Not capable – Directive
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 336. What Situational Factors Influence Leader Behavior?
    • Follower characteristics and situational variables impact each other
    • Task performed may impact
      • Formal authority system
      • Primary work group
    • Leader may become redundant
      • Substitutes for leadership
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 337. According to Path-goal Theory, What is an Effective Leader?
    • Assess situation
      • Task characteristics
      • Formal authority system
    • Assess followers
      • Traits – Skills – Abilities
      • Expectations and work perceptions of own group abilities
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 338. According to Path-goal Theory, What is an Effective Leader? (cont.)
    • Select leader behavior to meet demands
      • Directive
      • Supportive
      • Participative
      • Achievement oriented
    • Increase followers
      • Effort to performance expectancies
      • Increase performance to reward expectancies
      • Or value of outcome
    • Outcomes
      • Leader acceptance
      • Follower motivation
      • Follower satisfaction
    12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 339. 12 - Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • 340. Part 1 – Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts
  • 341. Communication Process
    • Intention
      • Receiver(s)
        • Who needs to hear you
      • Purpose
        • Why they need to hear you
      • Outcome desired
        • Residual message
      • Stimulating thought
      • Stimulating action
      • Stimulating a reaction
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 342. Communication Process (cont.)
    • Receiver(s) analysis
      • Intelligence
      • Language capacity
      • Age
      • Experience
      • Open minded
      • Emotional level
      • Logical
    • Receiver(s) perception of sender
      • Character
      • Authoritativeness
      • Emotional level
      • Logical
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 343. Communication Process (cont.)
    • Message composition
      • Medium – Direct vs. indirect
      • Verbal – Nonverbal
    • Assumptions – Structure
      • One side vs. two sided
      • Implied vs. explicit
    • Language
    • Specific points you want to make
    • Intended receivers – Direct or through others
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 344. Communication Process (cont.)
    • Transmission
      • Expressed – Receiver’s frame of reference
      • Expressed – Receiver’s understanding
      • Consideration for receiver needs
      • Stimulating emotion
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 345. Communication Process (cont.)
    • Reception
      • Message understood as intended
      • Noise in the message
      • Competing messages
      • Receivers assumptions
      • Residual message
    • Feedback to sender
      • Interaction – Verbal – Nonverbal
      • Openness to feedback
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 346. Effective Listeners
    • Visibly demonstrate respect
    • Nonverbal signals match sender’s intent
    • Accurately interpret message
    • Avoid being defensive
    • Paraphrase to demonstrate understanding
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 347. Assertive Behavior
    • Stand up to sender
      • Or avoid interpersonal conflict
    • Aggression
      • Attack
      • Direct – Frank statements of one’s feelings
    • Abilene Paradox
      • Someone suggests the group engage in a course of action
      • However, no one in group wants to do the activity (including the person who made the suggestion)
      • False belief – Everyone in the group wants to do the activity
      • No one behaves assertively and voices an honest opinion
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 348. Assertive Behavior (cont.)
    • “ I” statements
    • Speak up for what you need
    • Learn to say no
    • Monitor your inner dialog
    • Be persistent
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 349. Effective Stress Management
    • Monitor – Own and followers’ stress levels
    • Identify what is causing the stress
    • Practice a healthy lifestyle
    • Learn how to relax
    • Develop supportive relationships
    • Keep things in perspective
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 350. Building Technical Competence
    • Determine
      • How job contributes to overall mission
    • Become expert
      • In the job
    • Seek opportunities
      • Broaden experiences
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 351. Building Effective Relationships
    • Superiors
      • Understanding superior’s world
      • Adapting to superior’s style
    • Peers
      • Recognize common interests and goals
      • Understand peers’ task – Problems – Rewards
      • Adopt theory Y attitude
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 352. Credibility
    • Two dimensions
      • Expertise – Authoritativeness
      • Trust – Character
    • Expertise X Trust
    Part 1 - Leadership Skills
  • 353. Part 2 – Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts
  • 354. Creating Feedback Opportunities
    • Don’t assume invited feedback – By open-door policy
    • Be approachable – Sincere offer
    • Ask for feedback
    • Questionnaires
    • Interesting quotes
    • Newspaper articles
    • Reflections on personal events
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 355. Developmental Plan
    • Systematic plan – Outline self-improvement goals
    • Prioritize importance of different goals
    • Feedback sessions with superiors
    • Personal reading
    • Intellectual stimulation and reflection
    • Research – Effective leaders
      • Communicate feelings
      • Articulate arguments
      • Advocate positions
      • Persuade others
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 356. Listening
    • Demonstrate nonverbally you are listening
    • Actively interpret sender’s message
    • Attend to the sender’s nonverbal behavior
    • Avoid becoming defensive
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 357. Paraphrasing and Assuring Mutual Understanding
    • From your point of view…
    • It seems to me…
    • As you see it…
    • Do you think…
    • What I hear you saying is…
    • Do you mean…
    • I’m not sure I understand what you mean; is it…
    • You appear to be feeling…
    • Correct me if I’m wrong, but...
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 358. Assertiveness
    • Use “I” statements
    • Speak up for what you need
    • Learn to say no
    • Monitor your inner dialogue
    • Be persistent
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 359. Assertiveness Questionnaire
    • Do you let someone know when you think he or she is being unfair to you?
    • Can you criticize someone else’s ideas openly?
    • Are you able to speak up in a meeting?
    • Can you ask others for small favors or help?
    • Is it easy for you to compliment others?
    • Can you tell someone else you don’t like what he or she is doing?
    • When you are complimented, do you really accept the compliment without inwardly discounting it in you own mind?
    • Can you look others in the eye when you talk to them?
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 360. Stress Symptoms Questionnaire
    • Are you behaving “unlike” yourself?
    • Has you mood become negative, hostile, or depressed?
    • Do you have difficulty sleeping?
    • Are you defensive or touchy?
    • Are your relationships suffering?
    • Have you made more mistakes or bad decisions lately?
    • Have you lost interest in normally enjoyable activities?
    • Are you using alcohol or other drugs?
    • Do you seem to have little energy?
    • Do you worry a lot?
    • Are you nervous much of the time?
    • Have you been undereating or overeating?
    • Have you had an increase in headaches or back pains?
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 361. Sample Leadership Credos
    • As a leader I…
      • Believe in the concept of whole persons and will seek to use the full range of talents and abilities of colleagues whenever possible
      • Will seek to keep people fully informed
      • Will more consistently express appreciation to others for a job well done
      • Will take risks in challenging policies or protocol when they do not permit us to effectively serve our customers
      • Will selectively choose battles to fight – rather than trying to fight all of the possible battles
      • Will actively support those providing the most effective direction for our company
      • Will seek to change the things I can in a positive direction and accept those things I have no chance or opportunity to change
    Part 2 - Leadership Skills
  • 362. Part 3 – Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts
  • 363. Providing Constructive Feedback
    • Make it helpful
    • Be specific
    • Be descriptive
    • Be timely
    • Be flexible
    • Give positive as well as negative feedback
    • Avoid blame or embarrassment
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 364. Punishment
    • Undesirable emotional side effects of punishment
      • Might occur only when punishment was administered indiscriminately or was particularly harsh
    • Costs of failing to punish a potentially harmful behavior
    • Punishment only temporarily suppresses behavior
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 365. Punishment, Satisfaction, and Performance Research
    • Leaders who administer punishment on a contingent basis – Also administered rewards on a contingent basis
    • Punishment
      • Clarify roles and expectations
      • Reduce role ambiguity
      • Generally been found to reduce absenteeism and tardiness rates
    • Contingent punishment
      • Either was unrelated to followers’ satisfaction with their supervisor ratings or had a low positive relationship
    • Judicious and appropriate use of punishment by leaders – May result in somewhat higher satisfaction
    • Performance appears mixed
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 366. Schnake’s Experiment
    • Hired college students for a temporary job
    • After several hours at work
      • Publicly reduced the pay or threatened to reduce the pay of a confederate in the work group
    • The more severe the punishment witnessed (either the threat of reduced pay or the reduction of pay), the higher the subsequent performance of other work-group members
    • Coaches who punished more often had less-successful teams
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 367. Punishment Research
    • Low performance led to higher levels of punishment
    • Inexperienced leaders administered almost twice as much punishment
    • Punishment – Can lead to positive organizational outcomes
    • May help increase job satisfaction
    • May decrease role ambiguity and absenteeism rates
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 368. Administering Punishment Research
    • Leaders making internal attributions
      • Were more likely to administer punishment
    • Leaders making external attributions
      • Were more likely to blame the substandard performance on situational factors
    • Leaders
      • Biased toward making internal attributions
      • Establish clearly specified organizational policies and procedures
      • Provide followers with guidance about how to improve
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 369. Delegating Research
    • Leaders who delegate authority more frequently
      • Often have higher-performance
    • Leaders who delegated skillfully
      • Had more satisfied followers
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 370. Why Delegating Is Important
    • Frees time for other activities
    • Develops followers
    • Strengthens the organization
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 371. Common Reasons for Avoiding Delegation
    • Takes too much time
    • Risky
    • Job will not be done as well
    • Task is a desirable one
    • Others are already too busy
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 372. Principles of Effective Delegation
    • Decide what to delegate
    • Who to delegate to
    • Assignment clear and specific
    • Assign an objective – Not a procedure
    • Allow autonomy – But monitor performance
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 373. Points to Cover When Delegating a Task
    • How task relates to organizational goals
    • When subordinate’s responsibility begins
    • How task has been accomplished in the past
    • What problems were encountered in the past
    • Sources of help available
    • Unusual situations that might arise in the future
    • Limits of the subordinate’s authority
    • How leader will monitor the task
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 374. Team Building
    • Awareness raising
    • Diagnostic – Instrument-based feedback
    • Experiential exercises
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 375. Building High Performance Teams: The Rocket Model
    • Mission
    • Talent
    • Norms
    • Buy-in
    • Power
    • Morale
    • Results
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 376. Development Planning
    • Conduct GAPS analysis
    • Identify and prioritize development needs
    • Build a development plan
    • Reflect on learnings – Modify development plans
    • Transfer learnings to new environments
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 377. Conducting a GAPS Analysis
    • Step 1: Goals
    • Step 2: Abilities
    • Step 3: Perceptions
    • Step 4: Standards
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 378. Identifying and Prioritizing Development Needs: Gaps of GAPS
    • Step 1: Career and development objectives
    • Step 2: Criteria for success
    • Step 3: Action steps
    • Step 4: Whom to involve and reassess dates
    • Step 5: Stretch assignments
    • Step 6: Resources
    • Step 7: Reflect with a partner
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 379. Coaching
    • Forge a partnership
    • Inspiring commitment – Conduct GAPS Analysis
    • Growing skills – Create development and coaching plans
    • Promote persistence – Help followers stick to plans
    • Transfer skills – Create learning environment
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 380. Empowerment
    • Delegate leadership and decision making
      • Down to the lowest level possible
    • Top-down – Delegation and accountability
    • Bottom-up approach
      • Focuses on intelligent risk taking – Growth – Change – Trust – Ownership
    • Equip followers with
      • Resources
      • Knowledge
      • Skills necessary to make good decisions
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 381. Psychological Components of Empowerment
    • People can tolerate high levels of stress
      • When they have a high level of control
    • Empowered associates
      • Have a sense of self-determination
      • Make choices about what they do
      • Strong sense of meaning
      • Believe what they do is important
      • Have a high level of competence
      • Empowered employees have an impact on others
      • Have latitude to make decisions
      • Comfortable making decisions
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 382. Unempowered Employees
    • Work and decisions are determined by others
    • Not sure if what they do is important
    • Low competence
    • Low influence
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 383. Best Practices of Empowerment
    • Is empowerment necessary?
    • Create clear vision – Goals – Accountabilities
    • Develop others
    • Delegate decision making to followers
    • Lead by example
    • Empowerment must be systematic to be successful
    Part 3 - Leadership Skills
  • 384. Part 4 – Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts
  • 385. Leadership Skills
    • Set goals
    • Conduct meetings
    • Manage conflict
    • Negotiation
    • Problem solving
    • Improve creativity
    • Diagnose performance problems
    • Team building
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 386. Setting Goals
    • Specific and observable
    • Attainable – But challenging
    • Requires commitment
    • Requires feedback
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 387. Conducting Meetings
    • Determine whether it is necessary
    • List objectives
    • Stick to agenda
    • Provide pertinent materials in advance
    • Make it convenient
    • Encourage participation
    • Keep a record
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 388. Managing Conflict
    • What is conflict?
    • Is conflict always bad?
    • Conflict resolution strategies
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 389. Possible Positive Effects of Conflict
    • Increased efforts
    • Feelings get aired
    • Better understanding of others
    • Impetus for change
    • Better decision making
    • Key issues surface
    • Critical thinking stimulated
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 390. Possible Negative Effects of Conflict
    • Reduced productivity
    • Decreased communication
    • Negative feelings
    • Stress
    • Poorer decision making
    • Decreased cooperation
    • Political backstabbing
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 391. Conflict Resolution Strategies
    • Competition
      • Win-Lose
    • Accommodation
      • Giving in
    • Sharing
      • Compromise
    • Collaboration
      • Problem-solving
    • Avoidance
      • Withdrawal or neglect
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 392. Negotiation
    • Prepare for the negotiation
    • Separate the people from the problem
    • Focus on interests – Not positions
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 393. Problem Solving
    • Identify problems – Opportunities for improvement
    • Analyze causes
    • Develop alternative solutions
    • Implement best solution
    • Assess impact of solution
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 394. Improving Creativity
    • See things in new ways
    • Use power constructively
    • Form diverse problem-solving groups
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 395. Diagnosing Performance Problems in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations
    • Expectations
    • Capabilities
    • Opportunities
    • Motivation
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 396. Managing Creative People
    • Open to information – New experiences
    • Have high energy – Personally assertive
    • React emotionally to events
    • Impulsive
    • More interested in music and art than in hunting and sports
    • Motivated to prove themselves
    • Independent
    • Impractical
    • Unconcerned with money
    • Idealistic
    • Nonconforming
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 397. Managing Creativity Strategies
    • Set goals
    • Provide adequate resources
    • Reduce time pressures
    • Consider nonmonetary as well as monetary rewards
    • Recognize that creativity is evolutionary not revolutionary
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills
  • 398. Executive Teams
    • Challenges – Often do not really require teamwork at all
    • Challenges – Do not warrant full involvement by everyone who is officially on the executive team
    • Rarely function as a collective whole involving all the formal members
    • Diagnostic skills to discern whether the challenge presenting itself involves an individual situation or a team situation
    • “ Stay the course” when a team situation is present
    Part 4 - Leadership Skills