Training Principles2 Application Examples
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  • 1. Examples of application in sport/physical activities
  • 2. Application of knowledge
    • The following power point looks at a variety of examples of application of training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology to physical activities/sport.
  • 3. Specificity
    • In applying specificity to a training programme one should look at
    • The individual and the demands of their sport/activity.
    • Components of fitness required
    • Energy systems required
    • Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
  • 4. Components of fitness
    • Basketball is going to be used as the example of applying components of fitness to a training programme.
  • 5. Basketball-Components of fitness
    • Cardio-respiratory endurance is required in general so that one can keep producing energy aerobically and to perform tasks involving the whole body for extended periods of time such as a game.
    • Speed (anaerobic capacity): is required so that during a game one can put the body parts into motion quickly and sustain high intensity efforts eg for a fast break or on defense to catch an attacker. (Note: this component is closely related to muscular strength and power.
  • 6. Basketball-Components of fitness
    • Agility: is required for changing direction quickly and retaining balance eg in turning, dodging, weaving, pivoting all required in the game of basketball.
    • Coordination: hand-eye coordination is required to ensure tasks can be performed smoothly and accurately such as passing, dribbling and shooting in basketball.
  • 7. Basketball-
    • Muscular endurance: is required so that the muscles in the legs can work for long periods of time at less than maximum effort eg for running up and down the court for the duration of a game.
    • Muscular Power: is required to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort eg in jumping, dunking, three point shots, jump shots, and being quick off the mark etc… in the game of basketball.
  • 8. Basketball-
    • Muscular strength: is required to exert against a resistance in a single maximum contraction eg jostling for position in basketball.
  • 9. Basketball-
    • There are obviously too many components to include in a training programme therefore priorities need to be made. This may be done by focusing on weaknesses through testing, skill analysis, knowledge of weaknesses or coaching. It could be driven by inherent needs of the sport eg specialist requirements such as speed, agility and coordination over general components such as cardio-respiratory and muscular endurance (this can also depend on the stage of the season/year). It could also be positional eg a point guard may focus on agility, speed and coordination and a forward may focus on muscular strength and power.
  • 10. Basketball-
    • In terms of components of fitness, what ever activity/activities you choose to apply this to you should measure progress by pre testing and testing at stages during your programme so that success of goals can be measured.
  • 11. Energy systems
    • Running over variety of distances will be looked at to show specificity requirements for energy system involvement.
  • 12. ENERGY SYSTEMS
    • During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise:
    • ANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBIC
    • (Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis)
    • Very rapid Rapid Slow
    • Chemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogen Food fuels: glycogen, fats, and protein
    • Very limited ATP Limited ATP production Unlimited ATP Prod.
    • Production
    • Muscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguing by-prod.
    • causes muscular fatigue Produces H20, CO2, heat
    • Used with sprint or any Used with activities of Used with endurance or
    • High-power, short-duration 1 to 3 min duration. Long-duration activities.
    • Activity up to 10secs Approx 5mins+
    • Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 13. Examples of the overlap of energy systems in sprints/running events.
    • ATP/ CP ANAEROBIC AEROBIC EXAMPLES
    • 50% 40% 10% 100m sprint
    • 10% 60% 30% 200m sprint
    • 5% 55% 40% 400m run
    • 1% 34% 65% 800m run
    • - 20% 80% 1500m run
    • - 10% 90% 3000m run
    • - 5% 95% 10,000 run
    • - 1% 99% marathon
  • 14. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • This should differ from one individual to another and is dependant on the position you play if this is applicable. We are going to use rugby as an example of this as there is such a range of positional requirements.
  • 15. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • This is dependent on positional play and therefore we will go through a variety of positions and look at what is applicable in terms of specific joint and muscle coordination. We are not going to break it down to anatomical movements, rather just demonstrate the type of skills/movements required in practice.
  • 16. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Props (No 1 and 3)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for pushing in the scrum, lifting in the line out, maul and ruck movements and tackling movement requirements.
    • They are also required to take part in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.
  • 17. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Hookers (No 2)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for throwing into the line out, pushing in the scrum, hooking in the scrum, maul and ruck movements and tackling movement requirements.
    • They are required to take part in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.
  • 18. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Locks (no 4 and 5)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrum technique, ruck and maul movements and tackling movement requirements.
    • They are required to take part in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.
  • 19. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Flanker (No 6 and 7)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrum technique, ruck and maul movements and tackling movement requirements.
    • They are required to take part in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.
  • 20. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • No 8’s
    • These will include patterns such as those required for being lifted in the lineout, lifting in the lineout, scrum technique, movements off the back of the scrum, ruck and maul movements and tackling movement requirements.
    • They are required to take part in game basics such as passing, sprinting evading.
  • 21. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Half Backs (No 9)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for feeding the scrum, work at the back of the scrum/ruck/maul, passing from the ground, passing, evading, taking the ball to ground, box kicking, clearing kicks, tackling, taking and distributing ball from the line out etc…
  • 22. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • 1 st Five (No 10)
    • These will include patterns such as those required for all types of kicking (clearing, drop kicks, box kicks, chip kicks etc…), receiving and passing, tackling, evading, patterns for specific backline moves etc…
  • 23. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • 2 nd Five and Centre (12 and 13)
    • These will include patterns such as those receiving and passing, tackling, evading, crashing, kicking, ruck movements, patterns for specific backline moves etc…
  • 24. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Winger
    • These will include patterns such as those required for receiving and passing, taking high balls, taking a mark, taking quick line outs, tackling, evading, chip kicks, clearing kicks, sprinting, patterns for specific backline moves etc…
  • 25. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • Fullback
    • These will include patterns such as those required for chip kicks, clearing kicks, drop kicks, receiving and passing, taking high balls, taking a mark, taking quick line outs, tackling, evading, sprinting, patterns for specific backline moves etc…
  • 26. Specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination
    • These patterns can be developed through skill training, circuit training, and resistance training where the movement patterns and relevant muscle groups are used to develop efficiency and skill.
  • 27. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • We are going to use water polo as an example of how to apply the F.I.T.T principle.
  • 28. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • In applying the F.I.T.T principle it does depend on what stage of the training year the individual/team are in. We will look at examples from different stages. Obviously this differs from an elite athlete to an amateur player.
  • 29. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • Frequency
    • Dependant on stage of the training year.
    • When working for endurance 4-5 x a week.
    • Speed, power, strength etc… 3-4 x a week.
  • 30. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • Intensity
    • For training the aerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% of MHR.
    • For training the anaerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 85-100% MHR.
  • 31. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • Time (duration)-session
    • This differs from 1hr of a variety of components to focus of just one component at different stages of a season
    • Time (duration)-programme
    • Can be a whole training year at the elite level.
    • Could be minimum 12 weeks for others
    http://www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 32. Sample training session-variety of components. http:// www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 33. Example periodisation- water polo.
    • In this graphic chart symbols are following: numbers - represent months; a- general preparation phase, b- basic preparation phase, c- specific water polo preparation phase, d- precompetition preparation phase; I.- preparation period, II.- competition period and III.- relax period.
    http:// www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 34. The F.I.T.T principle.
    • Type
    • Again dependent on the stage of the training year.
    • Most training is water based and includes swimming, leg training, balls skills, game skills/strategies etc…
    • At different times of the year as well as within sessions methods can include, continuous training, interval training, circuit training, resistance training, skill training etc…
    http:// www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm
  • 35. Variety
    • Dependant on goals, focus, etc… variety is important to keep up motivation. An example could be if cardio-respiratory endurance was the focus continuous training could include, swimming, running, cycling etc… or fartlek, circuit training could be used to “add spice”.
  • 36. Progressive overload
    • Across a programme this principle should be applied. This could occur by…
    • Increasing frequency eg running 3x a week increasing to 5x by the end of the programme.
    • Increasing distance eg increasing from 3km -5km over the course of the programme
    • Increasing intensity eg increasing from 60%-85% MHR over the programme
    • Increasing duration eg increasing from 30min runs to 50mins by the end of the programme.
  • 37. Rowing
    • We are going to use rowing as an example of some of the methods of training you can use when applying to a particular sport. We will also look at an example of periodisation.
    http://www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid=56&ArticleID=5
  • 38. The aim of the program:
    • 1. Increase Maximum VO 2 .
    • 2. Increase Strength Endurance.
    • 3. Increase Maximum Strength.
    • 4. Higher efficiency of Rowing Technique.
    • 5. Better Flexibility and Coordination.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 39. Periodisation example
    • Training Program
    • Period 1 : June - September. (Preparation period 1). Program June: Main Effect: Maximum Strength. Secondary: General Endurance. Program July: Main Effect: Maximum Strength and General Endurance.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 40. Periodisation example.
    • Period 2 :
    • October - November (Preparation period 2). Program Oct & Nov: Main Effect: General Endurance and Muscular Endurance.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 41. Periodisation example.
    • Period 3 :
    • December (Pre-competition period). Program December: Main Effect: Basic Specific Endurance and Rowing Technique.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 42. Periodisation example.
    • Period 4 :
    • January - April (Competition period). Program weeks without competition: Main Effect: Increased Specific Endurance.
    • Program weeks with competition: Main Effect: "Super-Compensation" effect and Race preparation Program "Peak" for Championships or Important Regatta: Main Effect: "Peak" for the Championships.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 43. Periodisation example
    • Period 5 :
    • May (Recovery period). Program May: Main Effect: Active recovery.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 44. Training methods.-Short Interval
    • Short interval involves work periods up to two minutes and rests that are so short that oxygen uptake and the pulse (in the rest) does not decrease appreciably before the start of the next work period.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 45. Training methods.-Long Interval
    • Long interval involves work period from two minutes and up to 10-15 minutes, and rest lengths such that work intensity can be maintained approximately constant during each work period.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 46. Training methods.-Interval
    • The short interval is very important during the regatta season to keep a good quantity of training in the right area of race velocity, and use of stroke rate valid for competition.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 47. Training methods.-Continuous
    • Aerobic training with metabolic balance. Energy covered 100% aerobic or with a small amount of anaerobic capacity involved, but without accumulated production of acid lactate. This can be completed in the boat or on an ERG.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 48. Training methods.-Fartlek
    • Training according to the interval principle, of relatively long duration (8-12 km), with improvised alteration between high and low intensity, and with the main purpose of increasing or maintaining aerobic endurance. Gives a good opportunity to control the technique during different level of intensity.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 49. Training methods.-Age dependant.
    • Junior rowers should have passed the "Puberty" and have a settled body before they start with heavy weight training . The best period to improve muscle volume and strength seems to be between 18 and 23 years. For younger rowers their own "bodyweight" can be used as load. Circuit training and endurance training is preferred.
    http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5
  • 50. Training methods-Resistance training.
    • Olympic rowing coach Terry O’Neil believes that a weight training programme for his sport should mirror actual race requirements as closely as possible (a principle that should always be adhered to regardless of sport). This means that:
    • The exercises selected must be relevant to rowing;
    • They must be performed ultimately at a pace equivalent to the actual stroke;
    • They must create conditions that mirror the heart rate levels sustained during a 2K race and
    • Reflect the time it takes to complete the race distance.
    http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm
  • 51. Acute and chronic effects of exercise.
    • No matter what you choose as a sport/activity/focus you will need to monitor some of the acute and chronic effects of exercise. In terms of acute an example would be working out what intensity you are working at. In terms of chronic effects you can work out what types of gains you have made eg VO 2 Max or Muscle strength.
  • 52. Application
    • All the examples have given a specific sport or physical activity as a focus. Your application may not be based on a specific sport or activity, but rather based on specific components etc… Therefore your principles of training, methods of training, and exercise physiology knowledge should be based on these. There is strong links between your goals setting and your application.
  • 53. What should I consider when planning a programme?
    • What time period (duration) do I have available to complete the programme?
    • What are my goals?
    • How can I best achieve these goals and measure this?
    • What training principles will I apply and how?
    • What components of fitness are my focus and what methods best apply for improvement in these components?
    • What energy systems are relevant to the focus/goals I am trying to achieve?
    • What methods will I apply and how?
  • 54. What should I consider when planning a programme?
    • What acute and chronic effects of exercise can I measure and use to show improvement and success of achieving goals?
    • What components of fitness can I measure and use to show improvement and success of achieving goals?
    • If I am focussing on a sport activity I compete in what stage of the training year am I at?
    • What already occurs in my life that may impact on this programme?
    • How can I best manage these influences (positive or negative)?
    • How do I fit in current physical activity into the training without overtraining?
  • 55. If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate this programme what should I consider?
    • Consider all the aims/ goals and you made in planning.
    • Consider success/difficulties of training principles, methods of training, components of fitness etc…
    • Monitoring as you go so that you have specific information to support/justify statements
    • Consider Biophysical aspects as well as socio-cultural eg barriers, enablers, outside influences.
    • “ Healthism” and the ideologies the programme is based on.
  • 56. If I am required to evaluate/critically evaluate this programme what should I consider?
    • In terms of modifications for the future or if you did it again, look at all the knowledge you have gained over the module and decide if you applied this knowledge successfully/appropriately. If you think that you could have done some things better, what and how?
  • 57. Assessment
    • If this knowledge is being applied for assessment purposes you will be given this kind of guidance. However, it is important to monitor as you go to ensure relevant knowledge is applied and evaluated.
  • 58. Bibliography
    • Websites
    • Books
    http:// www.inet.hr/~davgolub/planing.htm http:// www.rowingnz.com/Default.aspx?tabid =56&ArticleID=5 http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/1024.htm
    • VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)