Apples Oranges Broccoli Potatoes Milk Yoghurt Cheese Breads Grains Weetbix Tortillas Rolled Oates Pasta Beef Pork Seafood Beans Soya Eggs Fruit and vegetables Milk and milk products Breads and cereals Meat and meat alternatives
Eat starchy, high carbohydrate foods
Eat enough protein for your needs.
Avoid eating to much fat
Eat foods with dietary fibre
Eat a wide variety of foods to get plenty of vitamins and minerals
Have a generous intake of fluids.
If drinking alcohol, do so in moderation
Limit your salt intake
* Draw up your own food pyramid and rate your present food intake
Fine tuning for training
Regardless of your sport, your training diet should be one that supports both your training and competition programme and it should be altered accordingly to support off season training demands.
For any active person increased energy is required to activate the muscles during exercise.
The nutrients that provide this energy are carbohydrate, fat and protein.
It is important that you meet the increased energy demand with the appropriate fuel source. The main fuels for exercise are carbohydrates and fat.
They react with oxygen to produce a product called ATP [adenosine triphosphate] which provides your muscles with energy needed to exercise.
Fine tuning for training
This process is known as aerobic metabolism.
Carbohydrate is a special fuel, in that it can produce ATP without oxygen.
This is called anaerobic metabolism.
Protein usually only contributes a small amount to the total energy required to activate muscles.
The contribution of each of these fuels to your sport depends on a number of factors.
Intensity The main fuel source for high intensity or explosive exercise[ more than 65% VO2 MAX ] is carbohydrate.
Anaerobic metabolism is required in explosive sports such as, 200m sprint, high jump, or a burst down the field in hockey.
Sports that involve lower intensity exercise [less than 65% of VO2 Max] have increased contribution from fat and use aerobic metabolism.
These include, jogging across a field in soccer and endurance type sports.
The lower the exercise intensity, the more the fat contributes as fuel, since oxygen is available for fat to be converted into energy.
Contribution of fuels to sport
2. Duration In sports a long duration more than 60-90 minutes where carbohydrate stores may be at risk of becoming depleted, aerobic metabolism is important.
The contribution of fat as a fuel increases, in an effort to preserve the vital carbohydrate stores.
The trade off for this is that exercise at a high intensity must be reduced, since fat cannot be converted into fuel as quickly as carbohydrates.
In those sports where carbohydrate stores may become depleted, the contribution of protein as a fuel can also increase.
Many sports are a combination of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. EG. Rugby players use explosive bursts of energy when tackling or sprinting for a try. While aerobic energy is used when jogging around the field.
Contribution of fuels to sport
3. Fitness. Regular training at a moderate to high exercise intensities enhances your ability to utilise oxygen and therefore use fat more efficiently as a fuel.
4. Diet Consuming a high carbohydrate diet encourages the muscles to store carbohydrates so that you can exercise for longer at higher intensities.
NUTRIENTS Aids in health of digestion system. Helps reduce bowel cancer risk. Fibre Keeps body hydrated and maintains body temperature and blood pressure Water Help release energy build tissues, constituents of bones and teeth, aid digestion Minerals Protect and maintain the chemistry of the body. Enable growth and repair. Aid in digestion Vitamins Most concentrated source of energy, protects cells and major organs. Contains fat soluble vitamins Fats CHO are the most effective and efficient fuel for body. Basic function for energy Carbohydrates Formation, growth and repair of tissues such as muscles. Used to make hormones Protein Function Nutrient
What is CHO
A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Found in plants animal products eg. milk, liver and muscle
CHO made up of similar units called monosaccharides.
Monosacchirides – Glucose, fructose ,galactose
General Formula Cn H2n On
Disaccharides - Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose , most common known as simple sugars. Linked together
Eg. Sucrose- Veg. Lactose- Milk, Maltose- cereal and malt
Consist of more than 6 monosaccarides.- storage form of CHO.
Glucose most common and important CHO
Serves tissue as major source of energy [blood sugar]
Majority of dietary glucose comes from the breakdown of starch.
Digestion, Absorption and transport of Carbohydrates
CHO broken down to monosaccharides to be absorbed across intestinal wall.
chewing, acidity of the stomach, enzymes[amalyse starch, maltase, and lactase digest CHO
End product of CHO digestion Monosaccharides Glucose, fructose and glactose
Absorption into intestinal wall.
Monosaccharides absorbed by 1. Facilitated diffusion Fructose and 2 Active transport – Glucose and Galactose
Inside intestinal cells
Some glucose used by the cells
Some fractose converted to glucose
Galactose remains the same
Glucose, fractose and galactose enter portal blood travel to liver
Disaccharides and polysaccharides cannot be absorbed and are excreted by urine.
Glucose Gluconeogenesis Amino Acids
Pyruvate anaerobic conditions lactate
Cycle yields energy
Principal products of digestion- glucose, fructose, galactose
After leaving intestinal cells these compounds travel to the liver via portal vein.
Combine [in liver] monosaccharides with ATP to form phoshates.
The primary product of monosaccarides metabolism in the liver is glucose.
The majority of fructose, galactose used to synthesis glucose
2/3rds of glucose found in the liver after a meal enters the systemic blood system to supply the peripheral tissues
1/3 rd glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen
Destination of CHO after digestion
GIT after digestion Liver
Glucose [80% of CHO]
Glycogensis [ Synthesis of glycogen from glucose]
Occurs in most body tissue mainly in the liver and muscle
Purpose of glycogen in tissues is to provide a rapid source of glucose
Glycogenolysis [ the breakdown of glycogen]
When stores of glygogen are depleted, the body must synthesis glucose.
Need for glucose in the body
Fasting between meals
Meet needs of body for glucose when CHO in diet is low
Brain and nervous system need a constant supply glucose
Adipose tissue use glucose as a source of glyceride and glycerol for synthesis of fat
Glucose used by skeletal muscle in anaerobic conditions
A certain level of glucose needed in the body at all times.
The body has pathways to convert non carbohydrate compounds to glucose and secondary role of gluconeogenesis to clear products of metabolism [Lactate, glycerol] circulating in the blood
Liver and kidneys are principle organs of glucose synthesis
Breakdown of glycogen occurs when the body needs a rapid source of glucose.
Muscle glycogen depleted after long hard exercise.
Liver Glycogen depleted after 12 to 18 hours fast.
Glucose used in your body as a source of energy
Energy released from glucose molecules by process- glycolysis and then by oxidation of the end products of glycolysis via Tricarboxylic acid [TCA] glycolysis results in degregation of glucose to pyruvate.
In the presence of o2 pyruvate is converted into
acetyl Co A which enters the TCA cycle
Occurs when O2 becomes unavailable
Pyruvate converted into lactate – diffes out of the cell [does not enter TCA cycle]
Important doesnot supply as much energy as aerobic glycolysis but a build up of pyruvate would slowdown glycolysis
CHO are a superior fuel when it comes to exercise.
One of the main cause of fatigue in exercise is low levels of carbohydrate in the muscle, liver and blood.
Research highlights how important carbohydrate is for enhancing intensity levels and endurance in exercise.
It is important in competition and training.
Our bodies have a limited capacity to store carbohydrate.
Stores usually last up to 90minutes of continuous moderate intensity training, or 15-30 minutes high intensity training.
It is important to include CHO foods in all your meals and snacks.
This will ensure adequate recovery from both training and competition and provide enough CHO to fuel your next exercise session.
Foods with Carbohydrate
CHO foods in our diet can be divided into two groups depending on their structure and makeup.
Simple sugars are found in many foods we find sweet to taste.
They contain simple units of glucose, fractose, sucrose, and maltose.
Many simple sugars foods have a low nutritional value, that is they contain no nutrients other than CHO and are termed empty calories.
When eating simple sugars, choose those that are nutrient dense, that is they contain CHO, vitamins and minerals.
Foods with carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates are made up of many sugar units joined together twisted into long chains.
They are found in foods we think are starchy.
Many contain a wide variety of nutrients important to your peak performance and these foods should make up the major part of your total CHO intake.
Less nutritious complex CHO foods are those that are high in fat, and these foods should be kept to a minimum.
All CHO are broken down into simple sugar unit of glucose and absorbed into your blood stream.
From here they are used as required by your body, or are sent to the muscles or liver to be stored as glycogen [ large number of glucose units joined together.
Most CHO is stored as muscle glycogen, any excess is stored as fat.
Sources of Carbohydrates
Nutritious simple sugars .
Some fruit, fruit juice, diary products, sports drinks.
Non nutritious simple sugars.
Sugars, honey, jam, lollies syrups, cordials
Nutritious complex CHO
Breads cereals, pasta, rice, vegetables, flour
Non nutritious complex CHO
Pastries, muesli bars, potato chips, high fat baked food
One important feature about CH0 foods which has a strong influence on your athletic performance is the speed at which the CHO is digested, absorbed into the bloodstream and made available for use.
The GI is the extent to which blood glucose is raised above normal levels, after eating a food containing 50g of CHO.
Bread and simple glucose give the greatest increase and are given a rating of 100: that is, their CHO is quickly available to your muscle to use as afuel source.
Factors that influence a foods rating include , protein, fibre and fat content which decrease the rating, and the form of the food whether it is dry, paste, raw or cooked.
Foods with a high GI index [Rating 70-100]
Cornflakes, puffed wheat, rice bubbles, wheetbix, brown rice, bagels, bread [white and wholemeal] water crackers, sao crackers, waffles, pumpkin, swede, watermelon, lucozade, potato, parsnip, glucose, maltose, jellybeans
A CHO food source that is quickly absorbed would be a suitable boost of energy before exercise.
Some research shows that having glucose drinks or concentrated high GI foods such as sweets up to 60 minutes before exercise can cause a sharp rise followed by an immediate fall in blood glucose to levels before normal. This is known as the rebound effect.
This rebound may impair performance.
Other studies suggest that high GI food/drinks within 15 minutes of exercise may delay the onset of fatigue.
The general recommendation is to eat low GI foods/drinks about 2 hours before exercise, since the glucose from these foods is slowly released and does not have an unwanted rebound effect.
Moderate to high GI foods and liquids should be used in sports where glycogen stores are at risk of being depleted. This is usual in sports longer than 60- 90 minutes.
High GI foods and liquids are suitable after exercise particularly in the first 15 minutes
Boosting your Cabohydrates
If you find difficulty in eating all the CHO you need, due to the bulk of the food.
Here are some tips to help boost your CHO intake.
1. Choose low fibre foods such as white bread and white rice.
2. Eat little and often. This will reduce the bulk of each meal
3. Use liquids high in CHO, eg. Fruit juice, trim milk, fruit smoothies, sports drinks, High CHO meal replacement drinks.
4. Use simple sugars for example, jam honey on toast add sugar to food, eat jelly beans.
Daily Carbohydrate during exercise
Depending on sport you should try to get between 55-70% of your total daily energy intake from CHO
11-12 g/kg Extreme training 5 or more hours per day Iron man, multi endurance events 9-10 g/kg Endurance training 2-5 hours intense training per day Marathons, cycling 7-8 g/kg Sports that involve 60-120 mins Moderate to high intensity training daily rugby, soccer, short triathlons 5-6 g/kg Sports that include up to 60 mins. Moderate to high intensity training daily. Sprint events Grams of CHO per body WT. In KG. Activity
Eat smart tips to ensure good CHO intake
1. Complex nutritious CHO should form the basis of all meals and snacks. Aim to have 75% of your meal plate taken up by CHO foods.
2. Use fruit in all forms. Dried, fresh, cooked – regularly as snacks with meals, and starchy vegetables such as potatoes, peas, corn.
3. Use bread in a variety of forms such as pita, rolls, bagels.
4. Use pasta and rice as a side or main dish. Use low fat sauces
5. Use low fat CHO desserts such as fruit and cereal and yogurt, milk puddings, using trim milk, low fat fruit crumbles.
6. Try fruit smoothies [milk, fruit yogurt blended together] as snacks or a quick meal replacement.
Function. Provides building blocks for muscle and tissue.
It is involved in the structure of many hormones
It is a minor muscle fuel .
It is important in maintaining an active immune
Extreme cases when protein is called on as a fuel.
Ultra endurance events, starvation. Some diseases
1 gram of protein provides 17 J of energy
Protein should provide 10- 15 % of the total energy consumed per day
Protein requirements because of two reasons.
1. To account for the small contribution of protein to energy
2. To account for the extra muscle that is produced
Protein foods should be selected with the other nutritional guidelines in mind. CHO 60- 65%. Fat 20-30%
How can you achieve this.
Watch how much meat is being consumed serving size.
Vegetable protein often have low fat high CHO content.
2 Adolescents athletes 1.2- 1.6 Endurance training 1.2- 1.6 Weight training 1 General sport Protein [g/kg body wt/day] Activity
Not only is the amount of protein important but also the quality.
Proteins are made up amino acids.
Eight of the twenty known amino acids are known as essential amino acids.
Foods that contain all eight of these are called high quality or complete proteins and are easily absorbed by our bodies.
High quality protein foods include milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, fish, poultry and eggs.
Low quality protein or incomplete protein foods contain only 6 or 7 of the essential amino acids and these are not easily utilised by our bodies.
Therefore protein is less able to meet the needs of your body.
Low quality protein foods include bread cereals, grains, nuts, lugumes and seeds.
As incomplete proteins are the basis for a vegetarian diet, non meat eaters need to balance their protein intake carefully.
Function of fat in the diet.
To produce body fat for protection and energy.
Contain soluble vitamins.
Help make cell walls.
Fats are the richest source of energy in the diet.
One gram of fat provides 37 J of energy. Cf. with CHO and protein which provide only 16 J.
When we digest fat it is converted into two forms.
These are used in biomechanical pathways to produce energy.
Fat Triglycerides Free Fatty Acids
We tend to burn fat as energy within the aerobic system. Initially we burn CHO, then as exercise duration increases, we turn increasingly to the fatty acids and triglycerides.
This process takes between 30-60 minutes.
Degree to which these nutrients are used during aerobic exercise.
60 40 150-180 55 45 120-150 50 50 90-120 43 57 60-90 37 63 30-60 31 69 0-30 % energy From fats % energy from CHO Exercise duration minutes
The key reasons we want to limit are fat intake are :
Too much fat in our food often replaces CHO and this lack of CHO will impair peak performance.
A high fat intake related to an increased risk of developing heart disease, stroke, obesity, and some cancers.
Eat smart ways to lower your fat intake
Limit use of spreads, [butter, peanut butter, cheese spreads].
Trim all visible fat from meats including the skin on chicken.
.Use low fat cooking methods. It is faster and cleaner to microwave, steam, bake, grill or lightly boil food than to fry. Your taste buds will adjust.
Use low fat diary products [ trim milk, yogurt edam cheese]
Choose low fat snack foods, fruit yogurt vegetables. instead of crisps, and chocolate.
Avoid pink, processed meats such as salami, luncheon sausage, saveloys and sausages.
Watch out for hidden fat in chocolate, nuts, ice-cream pastries, chips, croissants and avocado.
It is important to reduce your fat intake but not to eliminate.
Fat has important soluble vitamins A,D, E, and K and is vital to the structure of the cells .
The human body is approximately 70- 75% water
Water is our most important nutrient.
When we exercise fluid is lost [mostly as sweat]
Lost fluid must be replaced in order to prevent dehydration
Thirst is a poor indicator of the onset of dehydration since thirst indicates that the body is already suffering from the early stages of dehydration.
The more exerciser that you perform the greater the fluid you require.
A common way to measure fluid loss during a training session is by monitoring sweat loss.
Calculating fluid loss.
a. Weight before session
b. Weight after session
c. Weight of fluid consumed during session
# 1millilitire of fluid = 1 gram.
Length of session [hr]
[ a ]
Fluid Loss [ml] = [a-b] +c Fluid Loss Rate [ml/hr]=Fluid Loss [ml] Level of dehydration [%]= [a-b] x 100
It is preferable in sport to have the level of hydration between 1-2 % to prevent a reduction in aerobic performance.
A general guideline, fluid should be replaced at approximately 500ml for every 500 grams of fluid lost.
Calculate Fluid loss
A = fluid loss. B= Fluid loss rate. C= Level of dehydration.
An athlete runs for 70minutes. In this time, they consumed no extra fluids. Their body weight at the start of the run was 76.5 kg and 75.1 kg at the conclusion.
Sweat loss [ml] = [a-b] +c
= [76.5kg-75.1kg] +0 kg
= 1.4 kg or 1400ml
Sweat Rate [m/hr] = 1400ml
= 1206.9 ml/hr
Dehydration[%] = [ ( 76.5-75.1KG) ] X100
[ 76.5 ]
= 1.8% 1gm of water = 1ml
# 70/60 mins
Sports drinks and Exercise
Fluid losses of between 2-3 % of body weight will impair aerobic performance.
Consequently, it becomes necessary to replace fluid during and following exercise.
Sports drinks are a popular source of replacement fluid [to offset dehydration] and CHO [ to replace lost muscle glycogen]
When a work out period exceeds 60 minutes, sports drinks can be beneficial because they provide a source of fuel for working muscles and will speed up the absorption of water and glucose from the small intestine due to their chemical composition.
For events less than 60 minutes, plain water before or during exercise is sufficient
Sports Drinks and Exercise
With a sports drink, continued exercise will not deplete muscle glycogen as fast and performance time may be increased.
Following exercise, sports drinks can help reduce recovery time by rapidly restoring muscle glycogen.
If an athlete chooses to use a sports drink it should have 20 grams or less of CHO per 250 ml of fluid.
This equates to 4-8 % CHO concentration.
At concentrations above this, absorption rates from the intestine decrease.
Sodium content should be 10- 25mmol/l ie,
[57-143mg/250ml] to aid the up take of water from the sports drink.
Sports Drinks and Exercise
Athletes should bear in mind that sports drinks are diluted for rapid absorption, they are a weaker source of CHO.
Following exercise an athlete would need to drink twice as much sports drink to replace lost CHO as a standard fruit juice.
The value of sports drinks can be bought into question as some studies have shown that athletes performed better when they thought they were consuming a sports drink. In reality it was a placebo.
There are of course alternatives to sports drinks.
As noted, water will suffice for most athletes.
Dilute fruit juices [1 part juice to 1 part water] will achieve the same effect.
Concentrated CHO drinks such as undiluted fruit drinks, fruit juices and sugar based soft drinks are not advisable during exercise due to their slow absorption rate from the intestine.
Sports drinks and Exercise
A common use for sports drinks is to replace lost electrolytes [sodium, potassium] because of sweating.
The concentration of electrolytes in sweat is extremely small and easily replaced following exercise via the diet.
The exception arises in the case of extreme prolonged exercise when eating is not feasible.
Basic Fluid Replacement Rules
1. Drink approximately 500ml of cool water about 2hours before training/competing.
Follow this by drinking 250ml-500ml 15 minutes before the event.
2. Drink 150- 200ml of water, diluted fruit juice or sports drink every 10-15 minutes during training or competition if feasible.
3. After training replace every 500g of body weight lost with 500ml of water.
4. Avoid caffeine based fluids and alcohol when rehydrating.
Nutritional value of sports drinks NA 0-1 0-1 7.5 128 Mizone Water 110 0 0 15 260 Gaterade 19.3 0-2.5 NA 25.3 425 E2 Body Action 9 0-1 0-1 25.5 432.5 Fresh up Vits. NA NA NA 25.5 433 G –Force 110 0-1 0-1 46.3 713 Lucozade 62 0 0 20 335 Powerade Sodium [mg] Protein [kg] Fat [g] CHO [g] Energy [kg] Brand
Essential nutrient that is not used for energy.
Must be supplied in the diet.
Performs at least one specific function in the body often more.
Protect the body by maintaining body chemistry
Allow growth and maintainance of bones.
Aid in digestion
Have no structural similarites.
Two types of vitamins .
A. Water soluble
B. Fat soluble
1. Water soluble.
Cannot be stored, so need to be consumed each day.
Vitamin c and the B group of vitamins
2. Fat Soluble
Found in fats and oils stored in the body.
Vitamins A,D,E, and K.
Major Food Sources of Vitamins
Bone deformation Rickets in children Inadequate calcuim metabolism Growth and mineralisation of bones Aids absorption of calcium and phosphorus from diet Eggs, butter, fish-oil and fortified margarine. D Calciferol Sun light Retard growth Skin lesions Night blind ness Increase risk of infections Growth repair and development Prevent night blindness maintain cells of skin surface And lining of gut Liver, diary foods. Butter, green leafy vegs. Yellow vegs, fruits A. 3 most common stored in liver Symptoms Major Functions Food source Vitamin
Major Food sources of Vitamins fat soluble May impair blood clotting. Important in blood clotting Functioning of some bone and kidney protein meat, green leafy vegs., soya beans, cauliflower, cabbage K. Haemolytic anaemia in premature infants. Reduced resistance to tissue oxidation RBC. Production An anti oxidant may protect cell membranes. Wheet germ. Vegetable oils, margarine nuts Whole grain products, Green leafy vegs. E. Alpha- tocopherol stored in liver Symptoms. Major function Food source Vitamin
Water soluble vitamins Disturbance of nervous system function. Poor energy production, general fatigue Energy production through CHO metabolism Nerve and heart function Meat, pork, yeast, whole grains, nuts , all vegs, B1 Thiamin Scurvy, poor wound healing. Increased susceptibility to illness. Slower recovery from training stress Maintenance of connective tissue, cartilage, tendons ,bone. Absorption of iron Wound healing muscle regeneration Protects against oxidants Green leafy vegs. parsley, capsicum Citrus fruit, currents, tropical fruits, tomatoes C Ascorbic acid Symptoms Functions Food Source Vitamins
Water Soluble Vitamins General fatigue, gastro-intestinal disturbances, mental disturbances, skin disorders A vital component of co enzymes concerned with the energy process. Meat, liver, fish, eggs , yeast, peanuts, whole grain products Niacin Nicotinic acid General fatigue. growth impairment Inflammation of tongue and lips. Cracks at corner of mouth Energy production, through fat, protein metabolism, growth and development Milk, milk products, yeast, organ meats, eggs, whole grain, green leafy vegs. B2 Riboflain Symptoms Function Food source Vitamin
Water Soluble Vitamins A type of anaemia Nervous system disorders Formation of genetic material Maintenance of normal RBC production. Liver meat, diary products, oysters, sardines B12 Cobalamin Sleeplessness Irritability, depression, skin lesions, anaemia in latter stages Role protein metabolism, role in glucose metabolism Mainly high protein products, wholegrain, yeast, cereals, vegs, peanuts, bananas B6 Pyridoxine Symptoms Function Food Source Vitamins
Water Soluble Vitamins Tingling sensation in hands and feet. Impaired energy production Central role in CHO, fat, protein metabolism. Meat, poultry, Fish, grain, cereals, legumes, yeast, egg yolk Pantothenic acid Anaemic disorders. diarrhoea Formation of genetic material Maintenance of normal RBC production Liver, meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, orange juice Folic Acid Symptoms Function Food source Vitamin
Water Soluble Vitamins General fatigue Loss of appetite Inflamed tongue Nausea, depression, Skin lesion Metabolism of CHO, fats, and proteins. Role in nerve cell growth and function Meat, egg yolk, fish, nuts, vegs Biotin Symptoms Function Food source Vitamins
Vitamins as a general rule do not improve performance in physical activity when consumed in amounts above the levels required.
What happens to excess?
Water soluble vitamins are lost in urine.
Fat soluble vitamins are lost in faeces or stored.
A healthy balanced diet will provide the athlete with all the vitamins they require. This eliminates the need for vitamin supplements in all but the extreme cases.
It is preferable for athletes non athletes to get their daily vitamin requirements from food, rather than relying on multi vitamins.
By having a balanced diet CHO, proteins, fats fibre and minerals are also provided
Minerals inorganic element present in significant quanities found in the residue after combustion.
Trace elements all trace elements are minerals
Found in the body in smsll amounts less than 5g eg. Iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, magnesium, flouride, colbalt.
Minerals like vitamins, are best sourced through a diet that applies the food pyramid and principles of selecting a variety of foods from the four food groups.
Iron Only about 10% iron absorbed from food. Absorption increased with vitamin C and decreases with phytic acid cereals Comment Excess is rare can cause liver damage Excess Anaemina, Reduces resistance to infection, Reduces O2 flow to muscles Deficiency Essential for the transport and utilisation of oxygen and important for many enzymes Formation of haemoglobin Function MSI Men 5g , ADI Men , MSI Women 5mg Women 12mg. Requirement Rich -- Liver, kidney, and dried apricots Moderate. – meat ,eggs, vegetables, whole grain cereal, and dried beans Sources
Calcium 99% calcium found in bones and teeth, stored in bones to maintain blood levels and cells. High protein intakes can cause loss of urine. Excess fibre can bind minerals making them unavailable for absorption Comment Possible kidney stones, muscles and bone changes. Excess Muscle cramp, rickets, Osteoporosis caused by low calcium and hormonal factors more common in women after menopause Deficiency Acts with phosphorous in the structure of bone and teeth, Role in blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses, growth ,muscle contraction, relaxation, muscle and liver glycogen. Function MSI 400mg ADI 600mg Requirement Good-- Milk, cheese, yogurt, fish[ with edible bones sardines ] Green leafed Vegs. Some in whole grain, nuts Poor in eggs butter cream, and potatoes Sources
Eat smart goals for competition
Ensure optimum muscle and glycogen storage.
Be well hydrated
Be at your goal body weight.
Low fibre cereal such as cornflakes, trim milk, fruit, and yogurt
Bread, toast, rolls, fruit bread and jam, honey no butter.
Spaghetti, baked beans on toast. fruit juice.
You might like to practice with low GI foods in training.