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Obesity Pp
 

Obesity Pp

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    Obesity Pp Obesity Pp Presentation Transcript

    • Obesity as an issue
    • Starter Activities
      • Write down on a piece of paper how you would define obesity.
      • Have a class discussion on the definitions that arise.
      • Brainstorm on the board the opinion of the class on what are the causes of obesity.
    • Links to look at for obesity
      • http://www.newhealth.govt.nz/toolkits/obesity/Obesity0102.pdf
      • http://www.nhf.org.nz/news.asp?pageID=2145820705&RefID=2141730860
      • http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/med/healthcare/in_the_news/december04_obesity.htm
      http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/wpg_Index/About-Obesity http://www.newhealth.govt.nz/toolkits/obesity/context.htm http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/2E903651-E2D2-4E15-B928-A135B653A9D3/0/nez.pdf http://socialreport.msd.govt.nz/health/obesity.html http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/5ce9769d2910b7c8cc256f62001009ff?OpenDocument http://www.beehive.govt.nz/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=17723 http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1179/534/content.pdf
    • Both sides
      • We will explore causal factors for obesity and how Society impacts upon this issue as well as looking critically at whether there is actually an obesity problem in New Zealand society. An important part of this is recognising “hegemony” in action
    • Hegemony
      • The ideas and messages that are put out through the media and expectations across society have an impact of causing hegemony to occur.
    • Hegemony
      • Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. Hegemony controls the ways that ideas become "naturalized" in a process that informs notions of common sense.
    • Hegemony
      • In the case of the obesity issue this involves western society dictating body ideals and judgement of those that do not conform.
    • CONTENTS
      • Defining obesity
      • Measuring obesity
      • Impacts of obesity
      • Causes of obesity
      • Let’s get critical-on the obesity issue
      • S.P.E.E.C.H influence on this issue
      • Initiatives, ideas ways forward
      • Impact on Society
    • Defining obesity
    • Defining obesity.
      • fleshiness: more than average fatness wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
      • Pertaining to excessive weight or adipose tissue www.mmpc.com/serv/cfhe/resources/glossary.htm
      • Obesity occurs when a person has too much body fat. Obesity is not the same as being overweight; a person is considered obese when they weigh 20% or more of the maximum desirable weight for their height. sportsmedicine.about.com/library/glossary/blglossaryO.htm
    • Defining Obesity
      • Excess of body fat that is 20 percent or more over a person's ideal weight. Obesity strains the cardiovascular system and increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and elevated lipid levels. www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/glossary/o.asp
      • overweight by 30 percent of the ideal body weight. www.rch.org.au/ceed/disorders.cfm
    • Defining Obesity
      • “ Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and mammals is increased to a point where it is thought to be a significant risk factor in certain health conditions, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is relatively rare among animals in the wild, but it is common in domestic animals (who may be overfed and under exercised), and increasingly in humans”. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Measuring obesity
    • Measuring obesity
      • There are a number of ways that obesity is measured many of these can be critiqued for being innacurate.
      • In epidemiological (health and illness) studies BMI alone is used to define obesity.
    • BMI
      • BMI was developed by the Belgian statistician and anthropometrist Adolphe Quetelet[1]. It is calculated by dividing the subject's weight in kilograms by the square of his/her height in meters ( BMI = W / h 2). For example, a person who weighs 75 kilograms and stands 1.8 meters tall would have a BMI of 75/(1.82)=23.148. The number 23.148 is then compared to a table of definitions. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • BMI
      • A BMI below 18.5 is characterized as underweight
      • A BMI of 18.5 - 24.999 is characterized as normal weight
      • A BMI of 25.0 - 29.999 is characterized as overweight or pre-obese
      • A BMI of 30.0 - 39.999 is characterized as obese
      • A BMI of 40.0 or higher is characterized as severely (or morbidly) obese. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Waist circumference
      • BMI does not take into account differing ratios of adipose to lean tissue; nor does it distinguish between differing forms of adiposity, some of which may correlate more closely with cardiovascular risk. Increasing understanding of the biology of different forms of adipose tissue has shown that visceral or central obesity (male-type or apple-type obesity) has a much stronger correlation, particularly with cardiovascular disease, than the BMI alone[3].
      • The absolute waist circumference (>102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or waist-hip ratio (>0.9 for men and >0.85 for women)[3] are both used as measures of central obesity. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Body fat measurement
      • An alternative way to determine obesity is to assess percent body fat. Doctors and scientists generally agree that men with more than 25% body fat and women with more than 30% body fat are obese. However, it is difficult to measure body fat precisely. The most accepted method has been to weigh a person underwater, but underwater weighing is a procedure limited to laboratories with special equipment. Two simpler methods for measuring body fat are the skinfold test , in which a pinch of skin is precisely measured to determine the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer; or bioelectrical impedance analysis, usually only carried out at specialist clinics. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Health Impacts
      • Excessive body weight has been shown to correlate with various important diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis. It is also considered a risk factor for certain cancers. Interventions, such as diet and exercise as well as medication and weight-loss surgery (in severe cases) are frequently recommended to reduce the risk of developing disease. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Factors that have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity include:
      • Sedentary lifestyle
      • A high glycemic diet (i.e. a diet that consists of meals that give high postprandial blood sugar)
      • Weight cycling, caused by repeated attempts to lose weight by dieting
      • Underlying illness (e.g. hypothyroidism)
      • Genetic disorders (e.g. Prader-Willi syndrome)
      • Eating disorders (such as binge eating disorder)
      • Stressful mentality
      • Insufficient sleep
      • Psychotropic medications
      • Smoking cessation
      • Genetic factors Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Technology/work
      • The changing workforce as each year a greater percent of the population spends their entire workday behind a desk or computer, seeing virtually no exercise. In the kitchen the microwave oven has seen sales of calorie-dense frozen convenience foods skyrocket and has encouraged more elaborate snacking.
    • Society/Environment
      • A social cause that is believed by many to play a role is the increasing number of two income households in which one parent no longer remains home to look after the house. This increases the number of restaurant and take-out meals.
      • Urban sprawl may be a factor: obesity rates increase as urban sprawl increases, possibly due to less walking and less time for cooking.
    • Changes
      • Since 1980 both sit-in and fast food restaurants have seen dramatic growth in terms of the number of outlets and customers served. Low food costs, and intense competition for market share, led to increased portion sizes — for example, McDonalds french fries portions rose from 200 Calories (840 kilojoules) in 1960 to over 600 Calories (2,500 kJ) today.
    • Age
      • An aging population may also be a major factor, as the likelihood of becoming obese increases with age. Beyond their twenties, the older a person becomes the slower their metabolism becomes, reducing the amount of calories required to sustain the body, thus if a person does not reduce their intake of food with age, they will become obese over time. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Age
      • As the average age of individuals within a society increases, the rate of obesity also increases. This situation is exacerbated by the baby boom generation, which represents a disproportionately large portion of the population in many countries and is currently nearing the latter end of the typical lifespan in affluent nations, and therefore is in the high-risk zone for obesity. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Evolutionary aspects-Darwinian fat theory.
      • Although there is no definitive explanation for the recent increase of obesity, the thrifty gene hypothesis provides some understanding of this phenomenon. In times when food was scarce, the ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance and use such abundance by storing energy efficiently was undoubtedly an evolutionary advantage. Individuals with greater adipose reserves were more likely to survive famine. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Evolutionary aspects-Darwinian fat theory
      • This tendency to store fat is likely maladaptive in a society with adequate and stable food supplies. Although many people likely have a genetic propensity towards obesity, in most cases this propensity requires the modern environment with increased caloric availability and decreased requirements for physical labor in order to be expressed fully.
      • Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Let's get critical
    • Critical thinking
      • In critical examination, we must look at the other side and question what we are being told and why we are being told it?
      • Who has hidden agendas and want us believing that there is an epidemic?
      • We will look at a variety of critical concepts and research to contradict obesity as an issue in New Zealand society.
      • We will also look at S.P.E.E.C.H and how this influences the issue.
      • .
    • Problems with BMI
      • As stated previously BMI is most accurate for people who live a sedentary lifestyle. It however cannot distinguish between weight from body fat, muscle mass, or bone mass, so it is inaccurate for example in athletes, children or the elderly.
    • Problems with BMI
      • Because muscle is more dense than fat, most amateur athletes would be classified as "overweight" and most professional athletes have enough muscle mass to be classified as "obese" or even "severely obese", when in fact their body fat percentage is very low and they are in no danger of developing any health problems correlative to carriage of excess fat. Children, meanwhile, have higher bone density in the years before puberty because of their smaller size, and that also results in skewed BMI values. In the case of elderly people, muscular atrophy and/or osteoporosis can also decrease the value of a BMI calculation.
      • Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Problems with BMI
      • BMI as an issue.
      • Population measures of obesity using BMI do not accurately represent most of the populations studied. (Bruce Ross 2005)
      • All of the All Blacks are either overweight or obese on the BMI measuring process.
      • (BMI = weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared, or kg/m2, so if, for example, you are 1.70m and weigh 70kg, your BMI will be 24).
    • How could this be changed?
      • There is the additional problem of sex differences between men and women. White and East Asian women tend to have less muscle mass and bone density than men of the same height. The same is not true of black and Polynesian women, however. In the future, a healthy BMI for a given individual may be defined to some extent by their ethnic group, racial origin, or sex, but that is not the case now. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • More critical questions
      • What are the target populations being researched? How do we define obesity? When does ‘healthy weight’ become ‘overweight’? And when does ‘overweight’ become ‘obesity’? How much adipose tissue do we need? How fat is obese? What are advantages and disadvantages of being fat? Is obesity a disease? Do all obese people have an energy intake and output imbalance? Etc…
    • Beyond the assumption obesity caused from poor diet, inactivity (energy intake/output imbalance)
      • Fatness can be genetic, seasonal, hormonal, due to metabolic changes, due to childbearing, age medication, medical conditions (not just poor eating habits).
      • Other impacts on obesity could include, technology, BMI measuring (validity), fast food/convenience food, less PE, Darwinian fat theories (evolution/natural selection), family values, changing work over time, socioeconomic status, feminism and obesity etc..
    • Dieting a vicious circle.
      • Dieting causes obesity-“Since the 1960’s dieting has become a way of life for Australians-and dieting makes you fat, there’s no doubt about it. Research shows that 98 percent of the weight lost on weight loss diets is put back within a short space of time and a significant number of people gain more weight than they lose. So they end up larger than they were before. Many people begin dieting in childhood and adolescence and this disrupts their metabolism, making it harder for them to maintain a healthy weight in the long term. Decades down the track we are still being fooled by the diet industry because it continues to hold out false hope. It is only natural that people who are ostracized continue to hope for ways of becoming acceptable, but what should be changing are the shame-inducing, shameful attitudes against fat people in our society.” Dr Naomi Crafti 2003.
    • Statistics
      • In 2000, the World Health Organisation issued a report on childhood obesity in which it stated. “The global prevalence of overweight is 3.3 percent” New Zealand didn’t take part. Interestingly the highest was not USA, UK or Australia. It was Uzbekistan and countries such as Egypt, Argentina, Chili etc who have high numbers of malnourished kids. This links back with the dieting makes you fat theory.
    • Obese=unhealthy?
      • “‘ Our kids are obese!’ shriek the headlines” but very carefully fail to mention that although this may be the case, it does not follow that those children are necessarily unhealthy. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Obese=unhealthy?
      • 'We're spending all this time telling them to exercise more and lose weight when it's doubtful if dropping your weight from a Body Mass Index of 31 to 28 will help you live longer. Nobody has ever proved that it will.' Gard, M. & Wright, J. (2004).
    • Obese=unhealthy?
      • Many health problems blamed on obesity are actually caused by low quality food and inactivity, not fatness itself. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
      • Most poor health can be traced to four main factors: genetics, a diet low in fresh foods, lack of activity and stress. This is not just true for big people, it is true for everyone. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Culture/media
      • It matters not to vulnerable adolescents that in many of the world’s cultures and to quite a number of people within our own, being bigger is seen as gorgeous. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
      • It’s estimated that over the past year, well over 2000 separate articles, stories and programmes relating to obesity have appeared in the New Zealand media. No other subject, not even crime, receives such blanket coverage.
    • Economics
      • It is well known that big corporations, including diet and pharmaceutical industries, have for many years employed psychologists and public relations companies to manipulate us and flood the market with scare stories in order to boost sales. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Economics
      • Media and money-There has always been a great deal of money to be made out of fat and fat scares. Magazines carrying diet advice sell far better than those which offer a more intellectually stimulating content. Diet weight loss and lifestyle books are nearly always best sellers, taking advantage of our fears and doubts which were put there in the first place by the publicity. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Healthism
      • Many of the thoughts on obesity and how to counteract it involve the beliefs held in “Healthism”. They believe that it is just a energy intake/output issue and that an individual has total control over this.
    • Healthism
      • Healthism is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors.
      • (Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004)
    • Healthism
      • 'Healthism' means that personal health was essentially conceived as the responsibility of the individual and the choices made by the individual about personal lifestyle.
      • http://www.deakin.edu.au/education/crt-pe/teaching/individual.htm
    • Healthism
      • Healthism fails to recognise, or give due attention to, the social and environmental influences on personal health. Moreover, healthism creates the conditions for 'victim blaming' and guilt with respect to individual health 'problems'. For Physical Education, healthism focuses on the supposed link between physical activity and health. http://www.deakin.edu.au/education/crt-pe/teaching/individual.htm
    • Statistics
      • It’s true that a higher percentage of people are larger and heavier these days but according to the Department of Statistics life tables, we are also taller and despite extra weight living longer.
      • Type 2 diabetes among younger, bigger people is on the increase. However, it is also increasing among thinner children. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Critical quotes
      • There are for instance 245 separate risk factors associated with heart disease and to isolate just one, obesity, is ludicrous. Professor Glenn Gaesser 1996.(Big fat lies)
      • Young people by the million now suffer from anorexia and bulimia which while labeled eating disorders are actually mental illnesses with the lowest recovery and the highest death rate of any of the psychological problems. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Obesity and society
      • The term obese comes from the Latin obedere ‘to eat up’, ‘to devour’ and so carries the implication that fat people over indulge eat to much and are greedy. Consequently identifying someone as ‘obese’ is judging their behavior as well as their apparent physical state.
      • (Bruce Ross 2005.)
    • Disease?
      • This book questions the classification of obesity as a disease. Many fat people live healthy, active productive lives and live beyond the lifespan of many thin people so it seems a nonsense to say that fatness is a disease.
      • (Burstyn 1990)
    • S.P.E.E.C.H
    • S.P.E.E.C.H
      • We are going to use SPEECH to look at the issue and impacts upon obesity as well as the impact this issue has in turn on society.
      • Brainstorm S.P.E.E.C.H effects as we work through the presentation.
      Environment Economic Culture Society Politics History
    • Society
      • Societal expectations delivered through the media, body image expectations, conflict of gender roles, media generated stereotypes, attitudes of socio-economic groups, ethnicity, unemployment, attitudes of children, attitudes of adolescents, attitudes of adults, attitudes of the aged, attitudes of woman, gender role stereotyping..
    • Society: Dieting etc…
      • According to the government survey that promoted the summit, body-image issues are the main concern of adolescent girls, far out weighing their preoccupation with education, boyfriends, parental divorce, health and their future. Lynda Finn.2004
      • Model body types represent approx 5% of the population.
      • Most of the female movie stars currently seen as role models by our children are between 23 and 30 percent under normal weight. Lynda Finn.2004
      • In 1970 the average age to begin dieting was 15, by 1990 it had dropped to 8 years, now 3-year-olds are diagnosed with food phobias and weight issues.
    • Society: Dieting etc…
      • Professor Paula Levine, director of Anorexia and Bulimia resource Center in coral Gables, Florida says: Children particularly girls, start to equate attractiveness with thinness when they are still at pre-school. They are indoctrinated with the belief that thin is in, especially if you are female. Beside being bombarded with media messages that thinness is an optimal state, girls also get influential messages at home. Young mothers today are now the second or third generation of weight watching women and their children hear a lot of diet talk “I can’t eat that” or “It’s too fattening.”
    • Politics
      • Hidden agenda of government, ministries etc... To promote physical activity due to cost of inactivity to the government. Therefore messages sent out about the apparent “obesity epidemic”
      • Look at the sites on the first pg of this powerpoint for government initiatives.
      • A 1997 paper reporting six top obesity-related conditions estimated total health care costs of $135 million for one year.
      • Read carry that weight for more political ideas.
    • Political initiatives.
    • Politics
      • 'We have entered a period of history where it is okay for governments and medical institutions to presume to give advice about very intimate things in our lives. It's always been around, but today it is connected with this whole self-help age that we live in, where everybody has advice for how we should live.' Gard, M. & Wright, J. (2004).
    • Economics
      • Media and money-There has always been a great deal of money to be made out of fat and fat scares. Magazines carrying diet advice sell far better than those which offer a more intellectually stimulating content. Diet weight loss and lifestyle books are nearly always best sellers, taking advantage of our fears and doubts which were put there in the first place by the publicity. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Economic
      • Socio-economic status
      • hidden agenda of fitness industry, body image industry, media what do they get out of us believing there is an epidemic?
      • government (see politics)
      • cost of participation
      • unemployment etc…
    • Environment
      • Access to facilities, nature vs. nurture (genetics/body type’s suitability to types of exercise), society, culture, safety etc…
      • Changing environment of living, work place etc…
    • Culture
      • Values, health expectations, types of exercise, holistic views, participation of females etc...
      • Western culture dictates that for the body to be acceptable, it must be young, slim and muscular. Bodies that are overweight, aged or ill are viewed as being unacceptable and undesirable.
    • Culture
      • It matters not to vulnerable adolescents that in many of the world’s cultures and to quite a number of people within our own, being bigger is seen as gorgeous. Lynda Finn 2004 (Healthy Kids Happy Kids).
    • Culture
      • Not all contemporary cultures disapprove of obesity, although the Western preference for thinness is increasingly being exported worldwide as part of the process of globalization. Few cultures have escaped the "Westernization" of body shape preference, though cultures which are traditionally more approving (to varying degrees), include some African, Arabic, Indian, and Pacific Island cultures. Especially in the past decades, obesity has come to be seen more as a medical condition. There is also a small but vocal fat acceptance movement that seeks to challenge weight-based discrimination. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Culture
      • Various stereotypes of obese people have found their way into expressions of popular culture. A common stereotype is the obese character who has a warm and dependable personality, presumedly in compensation for social exclusion, but equally common is the obese vicious bully. Gluttony and obesity are commonly depicted together in works of fiction. In cartoons, obesity is often used to comedic effect, with fat cartoon characters having to squeeze through narrow spaces, frequently getting stuck, or even exploding. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • Culture
      • In several human cultures, obesity is associated with physical attractiveness, strength, and fertility. Some of the earliest known cultural artifacts, known as Venus figurines, are pocket-sized statuettes representing an obese female figure. Although their cultural significance is unrecorded, their widespread use throughout pre-historic Mediterranean and European cultures suggests a central role for the obese female form in magical rituals, and suggests cultural approval of (and perhaps reverence for) this body form. This is most likely due to their ability to easily bear children and survive famine. Wikipedia® (2006)
    • History
      • Changes in what is “obese”
      • changes in BMI
      • changing values in society
      • changes in technology over time employment changes (type, length of day etc..)
      • changes in incidental exercise
      • access to fast food
      • evolution/Darwinian theories etc...
    • Initiatives Ideas Ways forward
    • Initiatives
      • Childhood obesity is equated with adult obesity. Therefore children are targeted through government and school policies. This creates a contradiction with self-esteem, confidence building aims in education/parenting.
      • Healthy Kids Happy Kids or HK2 strategy has green hat thinking on approaching the issue of obesity.
    • Initiatives
      • Solutions (HK2)
      • To give children the knowledge that they are loved and valued at all times and at any size.
      • To offer a varied diet of good-quality, fresh foods and reduce the amount of processed and ‘fast foods’.
      • To participate in enjoyable, fun activities.
      • To promote a high level of confidence and self-esteem.
      • To educate children, even the very young, about the false messages and ideals promoted in society (critical thinking at a young age).
    • Initiatives
      • Dove Campaign for real beauty is a move in the right direction to work against messages we are constantly receiving.
    • Consider this…
      • Children are not a uniform or homogenous group. Generating one-size fits all solutions does not work when children are variously located in a range of different contexts characterized by different social, cultural, economic and gendered circumstances.
      • Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Consider this…
      • Just telling young people what is ‘good for them’ (e.g. right foods, or correct amounts of physical activity) presumes a direct relationship between knowledge – attitude change – and behaviour change – an unrealistic expectation.
      • Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Consider this…
      • That any future obesity prevention initiatives centre on the needs, interests and aspirations of children and young people themselves and are cognisant of the range of meanings children and young people may have for their on and others’ ‘health’ and ‘wellbeing’.
      • Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Own thoughts
      • This is your own experiences, on all you have talked of in the essay. What have you seen at your home, school, environment. What are your values etc…
      • Make sure you show that these are your opinions and what your background is.
    • Impact on society
    • Impact in the opposite direction on Society.
      • Read carry that weight.
      • With a focus on obesity in an already obsessed dieting society. This issue can have a great impact on vulnerable minds.
      • Read the following information on eating disorders and dieting etc…
    • Society
      • The impact on New Zealand society includes….
      • The ongoing messages in the media can have a detrimental effect on individuals. This is across all age groups but as the children of New Zealand are the major target of these some of the impacts on them include…
    • Hegemony
      • The ideas and messages that are put out through the media and expectations across society have an impact of causing hegemony to occur.
    • Hegemony
      • Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. Hegemony controls the ways that ideas become "naturalized" in a process that informs notions of common sense.
    • Hegemony
      • In the case of the obesity issue this involves western society dictating body ideals and judgement of those that do not conform.
    • Self worth
      • Both men and women use their physical appearance, weight and body shape, as a measure of self worth and physical attractiveness. However, there appears to less room for maneuver for women and girls. Females seem to place a far greater emphasis and importance on their physical appearance than males - for example, the majority of people with eating disorders are women and girls.
    • Impacts
      • In our society, women get the message that a "perfect" body can yield happiness, success and even love. The results can be devastating. Poor self-esteem, eating disorders, self-mutilation and even suicide are some of the consequences of a poor body image.
    • Economic
      • -- Eating disorders are not just a problem among the wealthy and the White. Studies have shown that eating disorders also occur amongst women in lower SES groups (Story, French, Resnick & Blum, 1995).
    • Weight issues
      • -- Eighty-nine percent of women surveyed want to lose weight (Garner, 1997).
    • Thought
      • "If the definition of beautiful gets any thinner no one will fit"
    • Impacts
      • Many women suffer from body dissatisfaction, and assiduous dieting and the relentless pursuit of thinness has become a normative behavior among women in Western society (Rodin, Silberstein & Striegel-Moore,1984). Thinness has not only come to represent attractiveness, but also has come to symbolize success, self-control and higher socioeconomic status. Market data Enterprises, Inc. estimated the size of the weight loss industry for 1994 at $32,680 billion.
    • Consequences
      • Smoking is a common method of weight loss being used by today's youth, according to Frances Berg, editor/publisher of the Healthy Weight Journal (Berg, 1997).
    • Consequences
      • Another common method to lose weight is dieting. Dieting is more common than not dieting, with 95% of the female population having dieted at some time (Polivy & Herman, 1987).
    • Society now
      • 'It strikes me as common sense, that middle-class Westerners in particular are eating less and eating better than their grandparents' generation did. And the idea that young women, in particular, are less physically active than, say, my mother's generation - that just seems to be a non-starter.'
    • Inhuman ideals
      • The media promotes and reflects the current mainstream culture's standards for body shape or size and importance of beauty. The media reflect images of thinness and link this image to other symbols of prestige, happiness, love and success for women. Repeated exposure to the thin ideal via the various media can lead to the internalization of this ideal. It also renders these images achievable and real. Until women are confronted with their own mirror images they will continue to measure themselves against an inhuman ideal.
    • Morals??
      • Five popular women's magazines were reviewed for their message regarding weight control messages and morality perceptions (Pongonis & Snyder, 1998). Morality messages have significantly increased in food, weight control and fitness articles and ads over the past 20 years, linking morality to food choices and body weight (such as morality messages alluding to lack of control, laziness and self-indulgence linked to higher weight).
    • Semiotics
      • The Semiotics of Ideal Beauty examines whether there can ever be an objective measurement of beauty or whether the concept and appreciation of beauty will always remain in flux as cultures evolve and establish new standards of physical attractiveness.
    • Interesting
      • Men are less worried about being overweight than are most women, but more concerned about muscle mass--reflecting our cultural ideals of thin women and powerful men. The muscle-bound body build was highly rated by men, while women preferred a medium, lightly muscled build in their ideal males.
    •  
    • Impacts
      • Yet if men feel compelled to make over their bodies to achieve difficult aesthetic goals, they may be opening themselves to problems with steroid abuse, musculoskeletal injury, and eating disorders. If weight is a male concern, it has more to do with looking effeminate, puny, and thin than carrying a few excess pounds.
    • Consider this
      • 'Of all the things we could be talking about, we are focusing on millions and millions of people in Western countries who are going to live average lengths of time and die average deaths.’
      • Gard, M. & Wright, J. (2004).
    • Society
      • The outcomes of many of the simplistic messages within initiatives and programmes may well have longer term negative implications for individual students, particularly in regard to physical activity uptake and views on nutrition. Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Society
      • Children and young people are being encouraged to accept simple messages about nutrition and physical activity. Many of the approaches that are based on obesity as a problem teaches children that there are ‘good’ and ‘bad’ foods, and that physical activity is something one does primarily for physical health purposes. Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Society
      • These programmes fail to invite and enable young people to become critical consumers of health and physical activity information and teach them to blindly follow ‘recipes’ that are constantly changing. (For example, the understanding around ‘how much physical activity’ is required is constantly under review as more research emerges.) Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand
      • From Physical Education New Zealand Te Ao Kori Aotearoa ( Lorna Gillespie – President, Lisette Burrows - Board member)
    • Healthism
      • Another impact on New Zealand society is that it becomes a society that supports Healthism which is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors.
      • (Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004)
    • Healthism in action
      • 'In Australia, they have just brought in a rule that schools can get extra money if they have compulsory after-school physical activity. The idea that you can programme kids and they then become physically active for the rest of their lives...it doesn't work like that. Money is being poured into programmes that will have little or no effect.' Gard, M. & Wright, J. (2004).
    • Healthism in action
      • There are also initiatives in New Zealand with similar goals eg “the activator”, “push play”, “active families”, as well as exercise and breakfast programmes, pilot programmes in a variety of target schools.
    • Impacts
      • Focus on this issue by the government means that funding of counteracting this apparent problem takes away from other areas of government spending. This can lead to lack of money for issues that are having an impact on society eg the herceptin drug funding for cancer.
    • Health influences
      • Obesity can have a negative impact on an individuals health. These can be discussed. However, as covered earlier there are other causal factors beyond obesity that can be causing these.
    • Brainstorm 2 cause and effect diagrams.
      • Causes of obesity-and the effect of this (health effects)
      • Causes of us believing obesity is an issue-and the effect of this (impact on society).
      Causes Effects
      • Have a class discussion on changes of opinion, knowledge on obesity from taking part in this module of work.
      • After discussion write a paragraph about facts etc… that interested you most in this module.
    • Bibliography
      • WEBSITES:
      • http://www.deakin.edu.au/education/crt-pe/teaching/individual.htm
      • http://www.newhealth.govt.nz/toolkits/obesity/Obesity0102.pdf
      • http:// www.nhf.org.nz/news.asp?pageID =2145820705&RefID=2141730860
      • http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/med/healthcare/in_the_news/december04_obesity.htm
      • http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/wpg_Index/About-Obesity
      • http://www.newhealth.govt.nz/toolkits/obesity/context.htm
      • http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/2E903651-E2D2-4E15-B928-A135B653A9D3/0/nez.pdf
      • http://socialreport.msd.govt.nz/health/obesity.html
      • http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/5ce9769d2910b7c8cc256f62001009ff?OpenDocument
      • http://www.beehive.govt.nz/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=17723
      • http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1179/534/content.pdf
      • http://www.tki.org.nz/r/health/cia/make_meaning/learn_expphy_invexc_e.php
      • http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
      • BOOKS:
      • Gard, M. & Wright, J. (2004). The obesity epidemic. Science, morality and ideology. London. Routledge.
      • Finn, L. (2004) Healthy kids, happy kids. Auckland. NZ. Random House>
      • Articles:
      • Gillespie, L. and Burrrows, L. (2006) Submission to the Health Select Committee on the Inquiry into Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand PENZTe Ao Kori Aotearoa
      • Lockett Cordellia (2003) New Zealand Listener | Issue 3316 | November 29-December 5 2003
      • (see article in CDROM)