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The Livestock & Poultry      Industries-I        Lecture 4        Fall 2006      Elaine Bailey         ELB, ANSC 101    1
What are domestic “livestock”         species?Cattle (beef & dairy)PoultrySwineSheepHorsesOthers?                ELB, ANSC...
TerminologyFood animalsRecreational agricultureVertically integrated businessHorizontally integrated businessDual purpose ...
Cattle                                                                                  Beef                              ...
Bos taurus vs. Bos indicushttp://iserramar.globo.com/webcountry/criadores/bovinos.htm                   http://iserramar.g...
What traits do we want to          emphasize?Beef                                 Dairy   Growth rate                    ...
Phases of Beef Production                                                                 Cow-Calf                        ...
Phase II Beef ProductionStocker-Yearling Intermediary step Emphasis on frame growth Replacement heifers Utilize crop r...
Phase III Beef Production                                                   Feedlot (Finishing)                           ...
Cattle tidbitsAge at puberty: 12-15 months*Age at weaning 5-7 monthsGestation length: 283 daysGoal: breed heifers at 15 mo...
Beef IndustryVarious “phases”Horizontal integrationVery little vertical integrationNCBA (National Cattlemen’s BeefAssociat...
The Dairy IndustryMilk & dairy productsSecondary product: beefProduction, processing, distribution ofmilkLABOR: 2 or 3 mil...
http://www.fbibuildings.com/Pages/DY_carousel3.html                                                ELB, ANSC 101   13
Dairy Industry                Shift from smaller to                larger farms                Marketing genetics vs.     ...
Milk MarketingCooperativeMid-Atlantic MilkMarketingAssociationProcessing*Grades of milk                    ELB, ANSC 101  ...
The Poultry Industry                    Dual purpose: meat                    and eggs                    Other poultry   ...
Growth and Feed Efficiency           ELB, ANSC 101     17
More birdsRatites Flat, “raft-like” keel bones Include Camelus struthio (ostrich), Dromaius  novaehollandiae (emu), as w...
Ostriches              Meat              Oil, feathers, leather              Large capital outlay              for upstart...
The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBree...
Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6week...
ELB, ANSC 101   22
Industry Highlights of 20 years Check-off programs to promote products? Inexpensive meat: chicken Poultry production verti...
Next Time . . .Delving deeper into the livestockindustrySheepHogsHorses                ELB, ANSC 101       24
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Introduction to Livestock Industries

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Overview of livestock industries, including cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, and horses. Part 1 of 2.

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  • For this class, poultry included. USDA typically separates poultry out. Horses questionable as to where they fit. Are they agriculture? Other species? Bison, ostriches, emus, etc.
  • Do dairy and beef cattle belong to the same genus and species? Yes.
  • Why emphasize milking ability of cows for beef? Milking ability of cow affects weaning weight of calf How do we measure fertility? Calf crop, age at puberty, generation interval, etc. Are there concerns about selecting for traits such as polledness or color pattern? Other traits can be “concentrated” if they are linked. Example: dwarfism in Polled Hereford cattle.
  • Cow-Calf: 16 states have 75% of brood cow numbers in US Commercial producers: crossbreds to maximize heterosis for beef production Purebreds to provide genetics to enable production of a superior product. Known “gene carriers” among purebred bulls
  • Cheap feed source Renewable resource? Add “cheap” gain to cattle
  • Finished: of sufficient fat content to produce tender, juicy, flavorful meat. Feeding endpoint. Retained ownership: cow-calf producer hires contract feeder to feed cattle to slaughter weight, then sells fed cattle to packers. Contract feeding in areas where LOTS of grain (Midwest—TX, KS, etc.)
  • Puberty correlated w/breed. Larger breeds, later maturity Age at weaning affected by available feed resources, cow health, etc. Want heifers to calve first time as 2-year-olds.
  • Horizontal integration: pass products from one company to another to produce final product. More than one entity controls inputs from conception to consumption. NCBA: Umbrella organization for state producer groups. Voice for beef producers in Washington, provides consumers info, etc. Beef check-off: per-head assessment to promote beef, do research, and to educate the public about beef
  • Carousel milker unit. Note cleanliness of area. Also, note height of milkers to height of worker.
  • Milk check-off funds: Milk Jug 1% milk as part of McDonald’s Happy Meals. Got Milk? ad campaign Cal Ripken, Daisy Fuentes, Williams (tennis star) sisters, etc.
  • Milk grades “control” what milk used for. Grade A fluid milk (consumption). Grade B processing to other products.
  • Fancy birds for show VERY minimal part of poultry industry. Birds have the best feed:gain ratio of any animal we deal with. LT 2:1 feed:gain.
  • 2005: approximately 100,000 ostriches processed
  • Chicken, major part of remarks Broiler producers originally byproduct of egg production. “Cull” egg layers. Seedstock producers within each category of production. “Company” breeds
  • Precocious young: no maternal rearing required Hatcheries: temp and humidity controlled environment Broilers harvest weight: ~5 lbs. Harvest age VERY genetics dependent!
  • Transcript of "Introduction to Livestock Industries"

    1. 1. The Livestock & Poultry Industries-I Lecture 4 Fall 2006 Elaine Bailey ELB, ANSC 101 1
    2. 2. What are domestic “livestock” species?Cattle (beef & dairy)PoultrySwineSheepHorsesOthers? ELB, ANSC 101 2
    3. 3. TerminologyFood animalsRecreational agricultureVertically integrated businessHorizontally integrated businessDual purpose animals ELB, ANSC 101 3
    4. 4. Cattle Beef Dairy http://www.glengorm.co.uk/images/cowstoned.jpg Dual purpose PURPOSE different Two species exist  Bos taurus  Bos indicushttp://regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/heredity/shorthorn.jpg ELB, ANSC 101 4
    5. 5. Bos taurus vs. Bos indicushttp://iserramar.globo.com/webcountry/criadores/bovinos.htm http://iserramar.globo.com/webcountry/criadores/bovinos.htm ELB, ANSC 101 5
    6. 6. What traits do we want to emphasize?Beef Dairy Growth rate  Milk production Feed efficiency  Fertility (feed:gain)  Temperament Milking ability of cows?  Milk composition Fertility  Polledness? Temperament  Color pattern? Polledness? Color pattern? ELB, ANSC 101 6
    7. 7. Phases of Beef Production Cow-Calf  Forage abundant (TX, MO, OK)  Commercial producers  Seedstock (Purebred) producershttp://www.breedingcattlepage.com/Iashorthorns/fieldday.htm ELB, ANSC 101 7
    8. 8. Phase II Beef ProductionStocker-Yearling Intermediary step Emphasis on frame growth Replacement heifers Utilize crop residue* Photo Courtesy, Purdue University ELB, ANSC 101 8
    9. 9. Phase III Beef Production Feedlot (Finishing)  Grain (concentrate) ration  Rapid growth  Harvest at 1000-1300 pounds+  What is “finished?”USDA Economic Research Service Photo ELB, ANSC 101 9
    10. 10. Cattle tidbitsAge at puberty: 12-15 months*Age at weaning 5-7 monthsGestation length: 283 daysGoal: breed heifers at 15 months of age ELB, ANSC 101 10
    11. 11. Beef IndustryVarious “phases”Horizontal integrationVery little vertical integrationNCBA (National Cattlemen’s BeefAssociation)Beef check-off ELB, ANSC 101 11
    12. 12. The Dairy IndustryMilk & dairy productsSecondary product: beefProduction, processing, distribution ofmilkLABOR: 2 or 3 milkings/day typicalFacility cost, capital investment ELB, ANSC 101 12
    13. 13. http://www.fbibuildings.com/Pages/DY_carousel3.html ELB, ANSC 101 13
    14. 14. Dairy Industry Shift from smaller to larger farms Marketing genetics vs. marketing milk Little vertical integration National Milk Producers Federation Milk check-off ELB, ANSC 101 14
    15. 15. Milk MarketingCooperativeMid-Atlantic MilkMarketingAssociationProcessing*Grades of milk ELB, ANSC 101 15
    16. 16. The Poultry Industry Dual purpose: meat and eggs Other poultry products? Chicken, turkey, duck, goose . . . ? Feed efficiency and growth rate! ELB, ANSC 101 16
    17. 17. Growth and Feed Efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 17
    18. 18. More birdsRatites Flat, “raft-like” keel bones Include Camelus struthio (ostrich), Dromaius novaehollandiae (emu), as well as cassowary and rhea 1995, 1,200 ostriches “processed” in US 1998, 100,000 ostriches processed in US 2006? Adapted from ELB, ANSC 101 Doerr, 2000 18
    19. 19. Ostriches Meat Oil, feathers, leather Large capital outlay for upstart Markets? Nutrition research: Dr. Roselina Angel ELB, ANSC 101 19
    20. 20. The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBreeds of lessimportance ELB, ANSC 101 20
    21. 21. Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6weeks* ELB, ANSC 101 21
    22. 22. ELB, ANSC 101 22
    23. 23. Industry Highlights of 20 years Check-off programs to promote products? Inexpensive meat: chicken Poultry production vertically integrated Competition to improve efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 23
    24. 24. Next Time . . .Delving deeper into the livestockindustrySheepHogsHorses ELB, ANSC 101 24
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