Introduction History Origin HIV Virus Life Cycle Types of HIV Viruses Statistics Transmission Prevention Treatment ICTC Responsibilities
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The virus and disease are often referred to together as HIV/AIDS It destroys cells of the immune system Attacks T-cells or CD4 cells that are designed to fight infections and diseases
In the early 1980s, the first recognized cases of AIDS occurred June 5, 1981, when the U. S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. In the beginning, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease In the general, the term GRID, which stood for gay-related immune deficiency, had been coined By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness
The Hunter Theory The Oral Polio Vaccine Theory The Contaminated Needle Theory The Conspiracy Theory
It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV viral transfer between animals and humans takes place SIV became HIV in humans
It is the most commonly accepted theory SIV was transferred to humans as a result of chimps being killed and eaten their blood getting into cuts or wounds on the hunter SIV on a few occasions adapted itself within its new human host and become HIV
virus was transmitted via various medical experiments The oral polio vaccine called Chat was given to millions of people Then it was cultivated on kidney cells taken from the chimps infected with SIV in order to reproduce the vaccine later affected large number of people with HIV
African healthcare professionals were using one single syringe to inject multiple patients without any sterilization in between This could have rapidly have transferred infection from one individual to another resulting in mutation from SIV to HIV
HIV was manufactured as part of a biological warfare programme to wipe out large numbers of black and homosexual people
HIV particles are much too small to be seen through an ordinary microscope HIV particles surround themselves with a coat of fatty material known as the viral envelope (or membrane). Projecting from this are around 72 little spikes Just below the viral envelope is a layer called the matrix, which is made from the protein p17 The viral core (or capsid) is usually bullet- shaped and is made from the protein p24 Inside the core are three enzymes required for HIV replication called reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease
Entry HIV can only replicate inside human cells The process typically begins when a virus particle bumps into a cell that carries on its surface a special protein called CD4 The spikes on the surface of the virus particle stick to the CD The contents of the HIV particle are then released into the c Reverse Transcription and Integration Once inside the cell, the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into DNA This DNA is transported to the cells nucleus, where it is spliced into the human DNA by the HIV enzyme integras
Transcription and Translation when the cell becomes activated, it treats HIV genes in much the same way as human genes First it converts them into messenger RNA Then the messenger RNA is transported outside the nucleus, and is used as a blueprint for producing new HIV proteins and enzymes Assembly, Budding and Maturation Among the strands of messenger RNA produced by the cell are complete copies of HIV genetic material. The HIV particles are then released or bud from the cell The newly matured HIV particles are ready to infect another cell and begin the replication process all over again
major difficulty in finding a cure for HIV is its genetic variability, which is very high The main reason for this is variability is the fast replication cycle of the virus producing as many as with the generation of 109 to 1010 virions per day The situation gets more complex, in case if a single cell is simultaneously infected by two or more different strains of HIV.
There are two types of HIV HIV-1 and HIV-2 Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood, and from mother to child both the strains are equally dangerous. Therefore, both should be avoided at any cost. The prevention modes are the same in both the cases. irrespective of which strain is it, do not let HIV in any form affect you.
HIV 1 HIV 2 While HIV1 is the most common strain HIV2 is the less common strain and is not and is found in the majority of HIV found very often. infection cases HIV2 is mainly concentrated to areas of Western Africa. HIV2 cases are mainly HIV1 can be found across all the places of found in countries like, Senegal, Nigeria, as the world well as the Ivory Coast HIV2, being less common Due to this HIV1 strain, since it is most common so it reason, there has not been much medical have more Antiretroviral treatments development HIV1 is faster in progress and weaken the HIV2 has been found to be slow in progress Immunity at much faster rate and has been found to weaken the immune system at a much slower rate HIV1 is more infectious that HIV2 HIV2 is less infectious in the earlier stages Remains the same in all stages later stages, it is HIV2 which does more damage
Estimate RangePeople living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 34 million 31.6-35.2millionProportion of adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 50 47-53who were women (%)Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 3.4 million 3.0-3.8 millionPeople newly infected with HIV in 2010 2.7 million 2.4-2.9 millionChildren newly infected with HIV in 2010 3,90,000 3,40,000-4,50,000AIDS death in 2010 1.8 million 1.6-1.9 million
In 2009 it was estimated that 2.4 million people were living with HIV in India which equates to a prevalence of 0.3%. While this may seem low, because Indias population is so large it is third in the world in terms of greatest number of people living with HIV With a population of around a billion a mere 0.1% increase in HIV prevalence would increase the estimated number of people living with HIV by over half a million.
Unprotected sexual intercourse. Injection drug use. From an infected mother to her infant. Blood transfusions
Unprotected sexual intercourse with infected person either heterosexual or homosexual
The risk of acquiring HIV from a blood transfusion today is estimated to be 1 in 4 for every 600,000 transfusions The risk of acquiring HIV from an organ transplantation is probably similar Today, blood and organ banks screen out most potential donors at risk for HIV infection in advance
HIV can be transmitted from mother to her child during pregnancy during birth breast-feeding• about 1 in 4 or 5 babies born to HIV- infected women became infected• when treatment is taken, the HIV transmission rate from a mother to her baby is greatly reduced
Using shared, unsterile needles and syringes carries a high risk of HIV transmission Sharing cookers, cottons, and water for mixing/bleaching can also transmit HIV After use, small amounts of blood can remain in the used needles, syringes, cookers, and cottons
Kissing, hugging, handshaking Sneezing, coughing, sharing glasses/utensils, etc Injections or surgery with STERILE needles and tools Safer sex using condoms Tears, sweat, saliva, vomit, feces or urine Using toilets, drinking fountains, public swimming pools Insect bites Working, socializing or living with a person with HIV
Sexual Transmission Infection through blood Mother to child
Abstain from sex or delay first sex Be faithful to one partner Use of condoms
Prevent unwanted pregnancies Antiretroviral drugs given to her Avoid breast feeding to child Best feeding options
The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person’s life. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. Drugs are known as: antiretrovirals ARVs anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs There are more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs but not all are licensed or available in every country NRTIs and NNRTIs are available in most countries
Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre(ICTC) Integrated counseling and testing services HIV counseling HIV testing and quality assurance Infection control and protection of staff Training of staff ART center
Poverty Unawareness Lack of Education Risky behavior Society norms and values Attitude Governmental reforms
Government Responsibilities Social Responsibilities Individual Responsibilities
Prevention is better than cure so let’s not be ashamed to talk about AIDS HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it.