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Blackbook project on_retention

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  • 1. INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT (KOLKATA) Project Report On “RETENTION at OPUS Estates” Submitted By: ANWESHA CHATTERJEE BBA(H)-3rd year Roll no:071042050049 Registration no:071042050201049 1
  • 2. Approval form Name of the student: Anwesha Chatterjee Address: 99A KUMAR PARA LANE KASBA KOL-42 Institute: Institute of Engineering &Management University: West Bengal University of Technology Registration No: 071042050201049 University Roll No:071042050049 Project Title :Retention at “OPUS Estates” Duration: April-May 2010. Project Guide: Miss Shrija Bhadra • Signature of the student: - • Approved By:- Miss Shrija Bhadra • Designation of the approving authority:- Lecturer 2
  • 3. INDEX TABLE OF CONTENTS Serial No. Topic Page No. 1 Approval form 2 2 Acknowledgement 4 3 Preface 5 4 Details On GCJ Group 8 5 About OPUS ESTATE 12 6 Retention at OPUS 22 7 Introduction on Retention 25 8 Importance of Retention 28 9 Employee Retention strategies 33 10 Research Methodology 36 11 Analysis & Interpretation 39 12 Master Graph 60 13 Findings 61 14 Suggestions 67 15 Annexure/Questionnaire 69 16 Bibliography 72 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives me great privilege and honour to offer thanks to all those who helped me in my project. I would like to extend my sincere thanks and 3
  • 4. gratitude to my project guide Miss. Shrija Bhadra for acting as a mentor and as a catalyst during entire duration of my project. I also thank her for providing continuous cooperation support and expert guidance throughout my project, whenever needed. I also thank the Managing Director of Opus Estates Mr. Ashok Jaiswal for granting me the permission to carry out the survey on his esteemed organization showing keen interest in the study and for giving their valuable suggestions from time to time, as and when required and also for rendering all possible help during the time when the study was conducted. I express my cordial thanks and acknowledgements to all my colleagues and employees for taking out time from their busy schedule and providing me with relevant information, which contributed significantly in my project analysis and increased my knowledge in a totally new sphere. It was great interacting with the customers of various frequencies and learning from their experiences. PREFACE In spite of the theoretical knowledge gained through classroom study, a person is incomplete if not subject to practical exposure of real corporate world and may have to face hurdles, which will be difficult to overcome without any first hand experience of business. 4
  • 5. In this context a project made on any chosen topic has been inculcated within course to make the individual aware of happening of the real business world .The report, entitled “Retention “ has been done by me at OPUS Estates a real estate marketing company basically functioning in Kolkata. The prior reason for choosing the organization was my association with it. I have been a part of OPUS for the past 3 months and I am currently working there as the Business Coordinator. As employees are the bases for company so retention of employees is a major focus for HR department. The management should identify the important factors that affect retention and should take necessary measures to improve these. Also, the management should take appropriate measure to identify the reasons of employee voluntarily leave. It is only the employees that implement and give tangibility to the corporate mission. In other words if it is the highest rung in the corporate 5
  • 6. hierarchy that has ideas, it is the employees’ rung that has the chisel to bring the vision to life. In the best of worlds, employees would love their jobs. Like their co-workers, work hard for their employers, get paid well for their work, have ample chances of advancement and flexible schedules so they could attend to personal or family needs when necessary. And never leave. But then there’s the real world. And in the real world, employees, do, leave, either because they want more money, hate the working conditions, hate their co-workers, want a change, or because their spouse gets a dream job in another state. Unlike inanimate products and systems that subject themselves to fine tuning without any reaction, employees would not subject themselves to any measure taken without reaction and analysis. Hence managing human resources, particularly retaining them, is an art that calls for special skills and strategies. Employee survey and exit interviews can be used for assessing the reasons of employee voluntarily leave. HR interventions such as improving selection process, effective orientation and training, better employee relation, better career development programs and planning etc should be 6
  • 7. used to improve employee retention. The top organizations are on the top because they value their employees and they know how to keep them glued to the organization. So it can be rightly concluded that all leading business houses are on the verge of improvising their retention strategies. Thus I also wanted to endeavor my knowledge upon “EMPLOYEE RETENTION” and grabbed the opportunity to make a thorough study on it. THE GCJ GROUP The Group Dimension Led by dynamic visionaries and entrepreneurs, the GCJ Group has established an outstanding record in uncovering opportunities in diverse industries. In a track record spanning five decades, the multifaceted group has set benchmarks in business areas like iron and steel, telecommunication, information technology, weighment, cement and real estate. 7
  • 8. Proven Record In Serving Customers In the process it is privileged to collaborate with many reputed multinationals from Italy, France, U.K., Japan and Korea, as well as some of the pioneering Indian companies. It has been acknowledged as a National Strategic Partner for leading companies from France and Italy. Since inception the guiding principle of the GCJ Group has been to create true value for its stakeholders and to maintain a transparent and unbiased relationship with all. The client focused business model helps Group companies to deliver optimum solutions to customers and stay ahead of the constantly changing consumer demands and preferences. It is a leader and pioneer in its many fields of endeavor. Group Strengths The GCJ Group of companies brings together a talented professional team backed by technology and finance. A congenial work culture encourages 8
  • 9. talent and innovations. Respect for individual initiative, effective manpower utilization, smart working and the multifarious products and environments, make working for the GCJ Group the first choice for people with ideas. Vision: - To be the first preference of people with ideas Key Assets  Organizational goodwill.  Land & Building assets across India.  Good management and financial strength.  Strong market penetration.  Trained and qualified professionals.  Widespread application of IT.  Understanding of consumer behavior.  Proficiency in time and man management. Mission:- To deliver superior value to their customers, shareholders, employees and society at large. 9
  • 10. Values:  Integrity  Commitment  Passion  Speed  Support ESTEEMED CLIENTS of GCJ Group ♠ALCATEL ♠ARCHIES ♠VODAFONE ♠BIG BAZAR ♠AIRTEL ♠COOKIE MAN ♠MOTOROLA ♠SHOPPERS STOP ♠PHILIPS ♠RAYMOND ♠SAMSUNG ♠FABINDIA ♠NOKIA ♠FRANKFINN ♠DIALOGUE ♠ANAND RATHI ♠VOXTEL ♠NIMBO BIRD ♠6 TENS ♠AGRANI ♠ VIBES ♠BARISTA ♠LEE ♠CAMS 10
  • 11. ♠AQUA JAVA ♠RELIANCE ♠ICICI BANK ♠NIS SPARTA MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE ♠WRANGLER ♠KAYA SHIN CLINIC ♠CAFÉ COFFEE DAY ♠STATE BANK OF INDIA ♠CHANDRANI PEARLS ♠HDFC BANK ♠MAYFAIR ♠MODI CARE ♠SPENCERS ♠ADITYA BIRLA GROUP ♠AIR HOSTESS ACADEMY ♠MUTHOOT FINANCE About OPUS The Group has made significant investments in real estate. The experience ranges from building steel yards to erecting shopping malls and residential complexes. As a consequence it has also acquired expertise in Marketing Projects, Consultancy, Strategic Advice and Portfolio Management. Opus is the latest initiative by this aggressive, multidimensional Group to create a positive difference in the real estate marketing space. Opus is a multifaceted, multitalented and multitasking professional partner. For the real estate industry, this is an age of uncertainty. Buyers need to be sure that they get the home they want at the right price and time. For sellers, the rapidly evolving market dynamics is characterized by many difficult challenges. Professional marketing expertise is the need of the hour but it requires a mastery of many dimensions. 11
  • 12. Opus provides the marketing mastery. They bring together the hardware and brain ware to turn real estate projects into marketing successes. Their network reaches even unreachable places. Their database driven model efficiently reaches the target buyer. Their people have the training and experience to turn prospects into customers by effectively interpreting their desires. They can fit the developer’s projects to customer needs with professional last mile services. Opus is a company that believes in relationships based on integrity, transparency, courtesy and commitment. Whether you are a buyer or seller, they strive to be a reliable partner who counsels and guides at every step. In Opus one can trust upon. The Professional Dimension In the real estate industry, paradigms have been shifting rapidly. It is shifting from building structures to need fulfillment, from selling to marketing. The focus today is on the customer, his dreams and aspirations. Opus is the multifaceted, multitalented and multitasking professional partner. Their expertise spans from interpreting the shifting paradigms to devising innovative marketing strategies. They specialize in exploring the many dimensions of space marketing project planning or customer programmes, 12
  • 13. database marketing or mass advertising, they expertise to ensure that their esteemed and highly respected customers or clients make the right move to reach out to the right people at the right time in the right manner. The Service Dimension Opus Customer Focus Of the many dimensions of real estate, marketing is often most esoteric. In the prevailing market condition it requires high degree of professional training to convert prospects into customers. For customers too, the plethora of choice, the complexity of local conditions and the pitfalls of law make buying fraught with uncertainties. Expert advice is the need of the day. Opus Estates provides the expert edge to serve the needs of buyers and sellers. With over three decades of combined experience in the real estate industry, they fill the gaps of reliable professional services with domain knowledge of transactions and processes related to buying, selling, promoting and managing properties. As a part of the GCJ Group, a 50 year old organization with varied business interests, they have excellent credentials in the real estate industry, as well as enviable resources and experience to implement the service pledge. Integrity, transparency and high ethical standards have been the guiding principles of the GCJ way of 13
  • 14. doing business. Their team of highly experienced marketing professionals help developers to chalk out effective marketing programmers to deliver time-bound results. Aligned To Customer Needs For Opus Estates, customer service is the principal product and they fulfill several vital roles in real estate marketing – serving key players with specialist knowledge, resources and support systems that set new benchmarks for the real estate industry. For real estate developers they serve as experienced service partners who can be entrusted to conceive and implement marketing programmers and advertising campaigns. As an external agency, they bring an objective perspective to developments and markets to enable effective solutions. For multinationals and Indian corporate, they combine a nationwide network with local level knowledge to sterile the best commercial properties for office and retail, as they’ll as residences for transferred executives. Relationship with developers enables to facilitate negotiations quickly and competently. For individual homebuyers, they provide calibrated step-by- step support throughout the purchase process. They evaluate the comparative merits of property options in the context of the buyers needs to find the best fit. They also provide guidance on legal and financial issues to make the transaction easier. 14
  • 15. The Service Range Project Consultancy {For international companies, investors and developers} Advice on acquisition of land at strategic locations. Inter city evaluation. Project design and phase planning. Project launch strategies. Commercial Property {For MNCs and Indian companies} Research, analysis and identification of potential areas for property acquisition, Project budgeting and planning. Advice on expansion plans. Space search for retail, offices, warehouses, land, etc. Home Search {For seekers of residential property} Information on land, flats, bungalows, penthouses, etc. in cities across the country. International Properties. NRI services for expatriate clients. Investment Services {For financial investors} Assessment of property requirements. Portfolio investment and ROI planning. Advisory Services {For homebuyers and developers} Legal compliance, insurance, project and mortgage finance. Relocation Services {For MNCs and Indian companies} Accommodation for relocation of employees. 15
  • 16. PROJECT PORTFOLIO of OPUS  GODREJ  MAYFAIR GROUP  EMAAR MGF  TATA HOUSING  HILAND GROUP  EDEN GROUP  SIDDHA  P S GROUP  HERITAGE  BENGAL SHRACHI  DAFFODIL GROUP  MITTAL GROUP  URBANA  LOHARUKA  NPR GROUP  KEPPEL MAGUS  SHRESTHA GROUP  BENGAL SHRIRAM  AVANI GROUP  UNITECH  BENGAL AMBUJA ASPIRATIONS  J.J. REALTORS  ALPHA G CORP  JAIPURIA GROUP  ROSEDALE DEVELOPERS  BENGAL SHELTER PARSVNATH  ADYA GROUP  MANI GROUP  AMRAPALI GROUP-DELHI & NCR  FORT GROUP  MERLIN GROUP  SALTEE GROUP  SUREKHA GROUP  REALTECH NIRMAN  IDEAL  RDB GROUP  AMP UNIVERSAL  BELANI GROUP  RUCHI REALTY  PASARI GROUP  KHETAWAT GROUP  KWIC/KSUC 16
  • 17.  GANGULY GROUP BPTP LTD. The Resource Dimension Synergy Of Skills And Systems As a part of the GCJ Group, Opus Estates brings together the rich experience of working for various sectors. Their strength lies in understanding customers based on their interactions across markets including the highly competitive telecom sector where total customer satisfaction is mandatory. Marketing expertise, information systems, database marketing, enquiry management, expert advice… Opus consolidates many resources to make every task easier. They recruit motivated achievers, hone their skills through regular, well-formulated training programmes and provide personnel with ongoing support and education needed to excel. Their proprietary computer-based systems contribute to information handling, service efficiency and speed. Offices across the country demarcate their resource spread. In planning marketing programmes they focus on each property as an individual product and tailor the plan to fit the needs of the target audience. Their marketing and advertising specialists help developers to customize each product for its target audience. They complement the developer’s resources in manpower 17
  • 18. and time to give a selling edge to their projects. For customers they offer a variety of services to cover the property life cycle ranging from expert advice to deal facilitation to professional management of property. Enquiries are segregated in three categories -- Land, Residential and Commercial -- for attention by specialized departments. Highly trained property advisors with micro-knowledge of projects and markets spare no effort in satisfying the customers requirements. The accent is on meeting needs – not in coaxing customers into accepting a property that is not suitable. They believe in building long term relationships. The Process Dimension Maximizing Sales Probabilities The marketing process calls for several systematic steps to identify and win a customer, and subsequently satisfy his investment and lifestyle needs. Opus Estates marketing model covers the following key steps. Database Management Opus Estates maintains an exclusive list of potential buyers and property investors. The large database means considerable savings in cost and time. To generate enquiries a regular direct mail and email programme is undertaken with telephonic follow up. 18
  • 19. Advertising & PR They provide expert advice on advertising, public relations and media planning to ensure efficient use of advertising spends. Their experts facilitate the creation of press ads, brochures, audio-visuals, theybsites and other publicity materials. They also provide expert handling of project launches, property exhibitions, road show promotions and celebrity management. Enquiry Handling Their property advisors undergo weeks of rigorous training to be well versed in the nuances of real estate. They provide courteous, clear and informed responses to customer queries, in person or on the phone. They understand what the customer wants and use their market knowledge to satisfy it. Transaction Support Once a customer has selected his property, various legal and financial aspects have to be dealt with. They help to arrange mortgage finance through popular banks, handle the necessary paperwork, provide tax planning advice and make property buying a pleasure. Post Sales Services They aim to build enduring relationship with customers by serving them 19
  • 20. throughout the property life cycle. Their value added services include assisting customers furnishing their homes, arranging tenants and, if necessary, maintaining the property in their absence. Differential Advantage Opus comprises a team of educated, committed and proven professionals with successful record. Integrity, transparency, knowledge and responsibility are the cornerstones of their dealings. Manpower Their marketing team has people from highly competitive telecommunication, FMCG and advertising industries. Their expertise in dealing with customers of varied segments and continuously changing preferences along with the ability to respond to market dynamics effectively and swiftly gives us an unbeatable edge in market planning and execution. Structure Customer service is divided into various verticals such as Residential, Commercial, Land and Exclusive Projects. Each vertical is backed by excellent internal knowledge management systems to facilitate efficient customer servicing. The process driven working structure is geared for information flow among all concerned. Support 20
  • 21. The robust and disciplined internal support system helps us to be highly efficient, professional, consistent and quick on delivery. They provide direct support of time-critical issues via help desk service. The Closing Desk ensures clients have access to dedicated problem-solvers when needed. Retention at OPUS The GCJ Group has been functioning in the Indian Industry for over decades now and has reached new heights. It has been made possible for the sheer dedication and unparallel efforts put in each and every employee of this group. OPUS, their new initiative, is also moving at a fast pace towards success. The major reason for this rapid growth lies in their workforce and how they retain it. The employees are provided with a comfortable working environment to work in. This motivates them to work hard and perform. The aspects of security for the female employee are specially taken care of. Most of the employees have target-oriented jobs. This act as another motivational factor. The employees strive to reach the target and thus end performing better and better. This ultimately works in favor of the company but the management never forgets to reward the ones who have performed. In case of any outstanding performance they are appreciated 21
  • 22. through special gifts. If someone is a consistent performer he/she is felicitated with opportunities of growth and promotion. Permission for temporary leave is granted as and when required based on a justified reason and overwork is adjusted through a day off. No penalty is charged for coming late on any day if it is priorly informed. The employees are often involved in the business activities and fresh and new ideas are openly praised. The management tries to maintain a transparent work culture so that no employee fall prey to the office politics. There is a HR manager available who looks after the issues and problems faced by any employee and tries to redress it as soon as possible. The employees if not satisfied may always opt for a discussion with the management. In such a case, when an employee is on the verge of leaving the organization, the management arranges for the exit interview. This gets conducted with the prior intention of knowing the reason of leaving and then to make an effort to hold him back. Both are helpful in equal ways. Firstly by knowing the reason of leaving, the company will be able to rectify its mistake and secondly it may hold back a valuable employee of the organization. Finally it can be penned down that the rate of attrition is very low in this 22
  • 23. organization. There is immense job security for all of them who work hard and honestly. Thus it is very evident that the retention strategies formulated by the organization are praiseworthy and will ultimately result in being helpful for the stability of its growth. INTRODUCTION on Retention During the past decade, employee turnover has become a very serious problem for organizations. Managing retention & keeping the turnover rate below target & including norms is one of the most challenging issues facing business. All indications point toward the issue compounding in the future and even as economic time change, turnover will continue to be an important issue for most job groups. The causes of turnover are not adequately identified & solutions are often not matched with the causes, so the fail. Preventive measures are either not in place or do not target the issue properly, and therefore have little or no effect, and a 23
  • 24. method for measuring progress & identifying a monetary value (ROI) on retention does not exists in most organizations. Managing employee retention is a practical guide for manager to retain their talented employees. It shows how to manage & monitor turnover and how to develop the ROI of keeping their talent using innovative retention program. Employees are the most important and valuable assets of an organization. Organizations today are doing their best to hold on to their employees. Retaining them is as important as hiring them in the first place. Retention is the next challenge after hiring the employees. Retention is important because to make good people stick in the organization. Employees today are different. They are not the ones who don’t have good opportunities in hand. As soon as they feel dissatisfied with the current employer or the job, they switch over to the next job. It is the responsibility of the employer to retain their best employees. Definition “Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project. Employee retention is beneficial for the organization as they’ll as the employee”. “Employee retention refers to policies and practices companies use to prevent valuable employees from leaving their jobs” 24
  • 25. Factors that affect Employee retention:-  Shifting markets  Demands for specific skills  Business conditions  Demographics  Lifestyle changes  Technology issues  Trends in work life decision as employees needs change What makes an Employee leave? Employees do not leave an organization without any significant reason. There are certain circumstances that lead to their leaving the organization. The most common reasons can be: Job is not what the employee expected to be: Sometimes the job responsibilities don’t come out to be same as expected by the candidates. Unexpected job responsibilities lead to job dissatisfaction. No growth opportunities: No or less learning and growth opportunities in the current job will make candidate’s job and career stagnant. Lack of appreciation: If the supervisor does not appreciate the work, the employee feels de-motivated and loses interest in job. 25
  • 26. Lack of trust and support in coworkers, seniors and management: Trust is the most important factor that is required for an individual to stay in the job Non-supportive coworkers, seniors and management can make office environment unfriendly and difficult to work in. Stress from overwork and work life imbalances: Job stress can lead to work life imbalances which ultimately many times lead to employee leaving the organization. Compensation: Better compensation packages being offered by other companies may attract employees towards themselves. New job offer: As attractive job offer that an employee thinks is good for him with respect to job responsibility, compensation, growth and learning etc., can lead an employee to leave the organization. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE RETENTION Now that so much is being done by organizations to retain its employees why is retention so important? Is it just to reduce the turnover costs? The answer is a definite no. It’s not only the cost incurred by a company that emphasizes the need of retaining employees but also the need to retain talented employees from getting poached. The process of retention will benefit an organization in the following ways: 1. The Cost of Turnover: The cost of employee turnover adds hundreds of thousands of money to a company’s expenses. While it is difficult to fully calculate the cost of turnover, industry experts often quote 25% of the average employee salary as a conservative estimate. 26
  • 27. 2. Loss of Company Knowledge: When an employee leaves, he takes with him valuable knowledge about the company, customers, current projects and past history. Often much time and money has been spent on the employee is expectation of a future return. 3. Interruption of Customer Service: Customers and clients do business with a company in part because of the people. Relationships are developed that encourage continued sponsorship of the business. When an employee leaves, the relationships that employee built for the company are severed, which could lead to potential customer loss. 4. Turnover leads to more turnovers: When an employee terminates, the effect is felt throughout the organizations. Co-workers are often required to pick up the slack. The unspoken negativity often intensifies for the remaining staff. 5. Goodwill of the Company: The goodwill of a company is maintained when the attrition rates are low. Higher retention rates motivate potential employees to join the organization. 6. Regaining efficiency: If an employee resigns, then good amount of time is lost in hiring a new employee and then training him/her and this goes to the loss of the company directly which many a times goes unnoticed and even after this you cannot assure us of the same efficiency from the new employee. 27
  • 28. How to increase Employee Retention? Companies have now realized the importance of retaining their quality workforce. Retaining quality performance contributes to productivity of the organization and increase morale among employees. Of the basic factors that play an important role in increasing employee retention include salary and remuneration, providing recognition, benefits and opportunities for individual growth. But are they really positively contributing to the retention rates of a company? Basic salary these days hardly reduces turnover. 28
  • 29. Employee Retention can be increased by involving the following practices:- 1. Open Communication: A culture of open communication enforces loyalty among employees. Open communication tends to keep employees informed on key issues. Most importantly, they need to know that their opinions matter and that management is100% interested in their input. 2. Employee Reward Program: A positive recognition for work boosts the motivational levels of employees. Recognition can be made explicit by providing awards like best employee of the month or punctually award. Project based recognition also has great significance. The award can be in terms of gifts or money. 3. Career Development Program: Every individual is worried about his/her career. He is always keen to know his career path in the company organizations can offer various technical certifications, which will help employee in enhancing his knowledge. 4. Performance Based Bonus: A provision of performance linked bonus can be made wherein an employee is bale to relate his performance with the company profits and hence will work hard. This bonus should strictly be productivity based. 5. Recreation facilities: Recreation facilities help in keeping employees away from recreational programs should be arranged. They may include taking employees to trips annually or bi-annually, celebrating anniversaries, sports activities, etc., 29
  • 30. 6. Good and healthy working ambience: A good, healthy and safe working environment always enables employees to work comfortably and hence they get an incentive to perform better. 7. Gifts at Some Occasions: Giving out some gifts at the time of one or two festivals to the employees making them feel good. The picture states the latest statement that corporate believes in “Love them or lose them” Employees today are different. They are not the ones who don’t have good opportunities in hand. As soon as they feel dissatisfied with the current employer or the job, they switch over to the next job. It is the responsibility of the employer to retain their best employees. If they don’t, they would be left with no good employees. A good employer should know how to attract and retain its employees. Retention involves five major things: 30
  • 31. 1) COMPENSATION 2) ENVIRONMENT 3) GROWTH 4) RELATIONSHIP 5) SUPPORT Employee Retention Strategies The basic practices that should be kept in mind in the employee retention strategies are: Creating a Motivating Environment: Team leaders who create motivating environments are likely to keep their members together for a longer period of time. Motivation does not necessarily have to come through fun events such as parties, celebrations, team outings etc. they can also come through serious events e.g. arranging a talk by the VP of Quality on career opportunities in the field of quality. Employees who look forward to these events and are likely to remain more engaged. Standing up for the Team: Team leaders are closest to their team members. While they need to ensure smooth functioning of their team by implementing management decisions, they also need to educate their managers about the realities on the ground. When agents see the team leader standing up for them, they will have one more reason to stay in the team. 31
  • 32. Providing coaching: Everyone wants to be successful in his or her current job. However, not everyone knows how. Therefore, one of the key responsibilities will be providing coaching that is intended to improve the performance of employees. Managers often tend to escape this role by just coaching their employees. However, coaching is followed by monitoring performance and providing feedback on the same. Delegation: Many team leaders and managers feel that they are the only people who can do a particular task or job. Therefore, they do not delegate their jobs as much as they should. Delegation is a great way to develop competencies. Extra Responsibility: Giving extra responsibility to employees is another way to get them engaged with the company. However, just giving the extra responsibility does not help. The manager must spend good time teaching the employees of how to manage responsibilities given to them so that they don’t feel over burdened. Focus on Future career: Employees are always concerned about their future career. A manager should focus on showing employees his career leader. If an employee sees that is current job offers a path towards their future career likely to stay longer in the company. Therefore, managers should play the role of career counselors as well. Manager role in Retention When asked about why employees leave, low salary comes out to be a common excuse. However, research has shown that people join companies, but leave because of what their manager’s do or don’t do. It is seen that 32
  • 33. managers who respect and value employees’ competency, pay attention to their aspirations, assure challenging work, value the quality of work life and when asked about why employees leave, low salary comes out to be a common excuse. However, researcher when asked about why employees leave, low salary comes out to be a common excuse. However, research has shown that people join companies, but leave because of what their manager’s do or don’t do. It is seen that managers who respect and value employees’ competency, pay attention to their aspirations, assure challenging work, value the quality of work life and provided chances fro learning have loyal and engaged employees. Therefore, managers and team leader play an active and vital role in employee retention. Managers and team leaders can reduce the attrition levels considerably by creating a motivating team culture and improving the relationships with team members. This can be done in a following way: 1. Hire the right people in the first place. 2. Empower the employees: Give the employees the authority to get things done. 3. Make employees realize that they are the most valuable asset of the organization. 4. Have faith in them, trust them and respect them. 5. Provide them information and knowledge. 6. Keep providing them feedback on their performance. 7. Recognize and appreciate their achievements. 8. Keep their morale high. 9. Create an environment where the employees want to work an have fun. 33
  • 34. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ♦TITLE “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION “ ♦INTRODUCTION This methodology includes need of the study, objectives of the study, research design, collection of data and the limitations of the study. ♦OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are: -  To study the present retention strategies adopted by the company.  To assess the satisfaction level of employee with existing retention strategies.  To study the common reasons of employee voluntarily leaving or staying in organization.  To suggest the strategies and steps for reducing turnover and improving retention.  To study various career development programs offered by the organization.  To study the impact of induction & training programs on retention of employees  To determine the organizational climate. 34
  • 35. ♦STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Employees are the most important and valuable assets of an organization. Employees are the foundation of an organization. Retaining them is an important as hiring them in the first place. Hence it is necessary to know the strategies used to retain the employees in the organization. ♦NEED FOR THE STUDY The present study is focus on the existing retention strategies in Opus Estates Pvt Ltd and find out the satisfaction level of an employee regarding the strategies. ♦RESEARCH DESIGN Using research tools uses descriptive research procedure for describing the resent situations in the organization and analytical research to analyze the results. ♦DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH This research includes surveys and facts finding enquires of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is that the research can only describe the state of affairs existing at present in the organization. The main feature of this method is that the researcher has no control over the extraneous variables called the respondents as they are going to interview the employees of the organization in order to perform study. They can only report what happened or what is happening. In social science and business research, they quiet often use the terms “ex-post facto research” for descriptive research studies, the researcher can discover and describe the causes for various situations but they cannot control the situations. 35
  • 36. ♦RESEARCH TOOLS  Data Source : Primary & Secondary Data  Research Approach : Survey method  Research Instrument : Questionnaire  Sampling scheme : Simple random sampling  Contact method : Personal / Direct  Sample size : 20 ♦DATA SOURCES & COLLECTION METHODS PRIMARY DATA Primary data are those which are colleted a fresh and for the first time & thus happen to be original in character. Primary data is obtained by the study specially designed to fulfill the data needs to problem hand. Such data are original in characters generated by the way of conducting survey. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. The Secondary data consist of reality available compendices already complied statistical statements. Secondary data consists of not only published records and reports but also unpublished records. 36
  • 37. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1. The current age of the employees working in the organization Introduction: This question is incorporated in the questionnaire for the purpose of identifying the average age of the workforce in Opus Estates Pvt Ltd Table 1 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 20-30 12 60 30-40 5 25 40-50 3 15 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 1 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 60% of the respondents are aged between 25-30 yrs, whereas 25% is aged between 30-40 yrs and only 15% is between 40-50 yrs of age. This clearly signifies the workforce is fresh and dynamic at very tender age. 2. Employees are attached to this organization for any particular factor 37
  • 38. Introduction: Each employee sticks to his or her current organization for a specific reason or reasons. This question will help to find the reasons of the employees who are a part of OPUS estates Pvt ltd. Table 2 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Compensation 1 5 Rewards &Recognition 1 5 Job Security 6 30 Relationship 12 60 TOTAL 20 100 Graph 2 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 5% of the respondents have accepted that they are associated to this company for the compensation they are offered while another 5% respondents have said it is for the rewards and recognition.6% respondents have said it is for the job security they are with the company while the rest 60% have admitted the relationship they share within the organization acts as a key factor of holding them back in this place. 3. The nature of the job assigned to the individuals 38
  • 39. Introduction: Employees at different levels are assigned with different kinds of work. This question will help to get an overview of the kinds of jobs each are assigned and their types. Table 3 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Job is challenging 10 50 Skills are effectively used 3 15 Work load is reasonable 4 20 Work environment is safe 3 15 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 3 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 50% of respondents strongly have accepted that the job they are assigned is challenging while 15% respondents have accepted that their skills are effectively used. Another 20% respondents have admitted that their workload is reasonable while the rest 15% respondents have pointed that it is the safe working environment that has a huge impact on the work. 4. The management includes the employees in decision-making process 39
  • 40. Introduction: Employees, being a part of the organization should be included in the work related decisions. This question will get an overview whether it is really practiced in this organization. Table 4 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 15 75 No 5 25 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 4 Inference: From the above graph it is found out that 75% of the respondents have admitted that the organization do involve them in the decision making process while the rest 25% have admitted that they are not involved in any decision making process. 5. Employees are satisfied with the career development at the organization Introduction: 40
  • 41. All the employees work and perform with the zeal to get career development opportunities in the organizations they are currently involved with. This question identifies such scopes in the organization. Table 5 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Very Satisfied 3 15 Satisfied 12 60 Dissatisfied 2 10 Very dissatisfied 3 15 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 5 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 75% of the respondents have accepted that they are satisfied with the career development opportunities that are provided in the organization But 25% respondents have pointed that they are dissatisfied and differs in this respect. 6. Incentives that make an employee stick to the current job profile. Introduction: 41
  • 42. There are factors that help an employee to determine whether to stay with the current organization or consider leaving. This question will fetch an overview upon those factors. Table 6 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Level of challenge &responsibility 3 15 Career development opportunities 14 70 Compensations &benefits 3 15 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 6 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that the employees stick to an organization for the career development opportunities that are offered to them while another 15% have admitted it is for the level of challenge and responsibility that make them stick to their current job profile .The rest 15% pointed it is the compensation and benefits which work as the key factor. 7. The level of satisfaction relating to the challenge and responsibility involved in the current job profile. 42
  • 43. Introduction: Some employees remain content with the level of challenge and responsibility they are ushered with. But some often interpret it as overburden and it may turn out to be a reason of their dissatisfaction. This questions rightly figures out any such possibility. Table 7 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Very satisfied 3 15 Satisfied 12 60 Dissatisfied 2 10 Very dissatisfied 3 15 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 7 Inference: From the above graph, it is clear that around 75% of the respondents are either moderately o highly satisfied with the level of challenge and responsibility while the rest 25% in not much satisfied. 8. The management provides opportunities for growth and promotion Introduction: 43
  • 44. Promotions and growth facilities are always motivating for the employees in any organization. It is very important that an organization provide its workforce with all such facilities. This question will provide an overview whether such facilities are provided in this organization. Table 8 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 14 70 No 6 30 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 8 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that they feel there are enough scopes of growth and promotion provided by the organization where as the rest 30% feel alike. 9. Organization utilizes employee services effectively and efficiently. Introduction: 44
  • 45. This question is to identify whether the organization utilizes their services in an effective and efficient manner. Table 9 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly agree 3 15 Agree 14 70 Disagree 2 10 Strongly disagree 1 5 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 9 Inference: 45
  • 46. From the above graph, it is observed that 85% of the respondents have accepted that their services are effectively and efficiently utilized while the rest 15% have not agreed upon this point. 10. The Training & Development provided by the organization help to increase the individual performance Introduction: This question is to identify whether the training and development programmes initiated by the organization are of any help to the employees. Table 10 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly agree 3 15 Agree 11 55 Disagree 2 10 Strongly disagree 4 20 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph10 46
  • 47. Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that around 70% of the respondents have agreed upon this point whereas the rest 30% does not posses the same notion and some strongly differ. 11. The specific retention problems in the company. Introduction: Retention may turn out to be a major issue in any organization. The question is incorporated to find if there is any specific retention problem in an organization. Table 11 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 2 10 No 18 90 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 11 47
  • 48. Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 10% of the respondents are accustomed to the basic retention problem that is brewing in the company whereas the rest 90% of the respondents are clueless about such problems. 12. There is stress due to overwork Introduction: Burdening the employees with workload and immense pressure is strictly against the Human Resource Norms, which also include any kind of physical or mental stress. This question will help to figure out whether there is stress due to heavy workload or pressure. Table 12 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 10 50 No 10 50 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 12 Inference: 48
  • 49. From the above graph, it is observed that a mixed response is obtained in this particular case.50% of the respondents have admitted to this fact that there is stress due to overwork. While the rest 50% have denied such possibilities. 13. Employees are recognized and praised suitably by the organization. Introduction: The employee recognition and praising plays an important role in motivating the employees. So proper recognition should be given to the employees according to their performance. This question is to identify whether they are recognized or not. Table 13 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 14 70 No 6 30 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 13 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that they have been recognized and rewarded suitably by the 49
  • 50. organization for their performance as per the policy. Around 30% of respondents have not accepted the statement. 14. Employees receive adequate support while doing their job. Introduction: At the time when an employee is assigned with a new job or a more challenging one it is necessary to render him support so that he can perform well and yield better. This question will help us figure out whether such facilities are provided in the organization. Table 14 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 16 80 NO 4 20 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 14 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 80% of the respondents have accepted that they do receive adequate support while performing their work But the rest 20% have not agreed upon this statement. 50
  • 51. 15. Employees are happy with the performance appraisal system in the company. Introduction: Organizations have performance appraisal system, which helps employees to evaluate themselves hence getting a boost to better their performance. This is truly motivating and immensely essential. Table 15 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 12 60 NO 8 40 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 15 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 60% of the respondents strongly have accepted that they are happy with the performance appraisal system in the company while the rest 40% have not agreed upon this fact. 51
  • 52. 16. Proud of working with OPUS Estates Introduction: OPUS ESTATES is one of the major real estate marketing industries. This question is to identify how they feel working with GCJ group and being a part of OPUS Estates Table 16 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 15 75 NO 5 25 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 16 Inference:- From the above graph, it is observed that 75% of the respondents have accepted that they have feel proud of working with OPUS Estates. Around 25% of respondents have not accepted the statement. 52
  • 53. 17. The jobs that are assigned to the employees turned out to be the way they had expected. Introduction: Many a times it may so happen that an employee is recruited for a particular job but in practical way he or she is being asked to do something else. This question will help identify any such probabilities in this organization. Table 17 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 11 55 NO 9 45 TOTAL 20 100.0 53
  • 54. Graph 17 Inference:- From the above graph, it is observed that 55% of the respondents have accepted that the jobs they are assigned with turned out to be like the ones they had expected. But the rest 45% begs to differ at this point. 18 Organization provides health, accident and insurance policy to the employees Introduction: 54
  • 55. The life is not guaranteed to anyone. So every employee needs the Insurance policies. This question is to identify whether the employees are provided with health, accident and insurance policy. Table 18 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 2 10 NO 18 90 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 18 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 10% of the respondents have accepted that they have been covered under the health and accident insurance policy by the organization or by other insurance company. Around 90% of respondents have not accepted the statement. 19 Organization provide leave facility according to the rules to the employees Introduction: Employees are provided with appropriate leaves according to the rules of Human Resource Department as well as in the time of any justified need. 55
  • 56. Table 19 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 6 30 NO 14 70 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 19 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 30% of the respondents have accepted that the organization grants them leave according to the norms while the majority 70% feels that they are not facilitated with the leave facility. 20. Organization provides medical facility as and when needed. Introduction: 56
  • 57. Employee safety and health influence the productivity of the organization. Some well fare facilities should provide to the employees. This question is to identify whether the organization is concerned about the health of the employees or not. Table 20 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 4 20 No 16 80 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 20 Inference: From the above graph, it is observed that 20% of the respondents have accepted that they have received medical facilities as and when needed. Around 80% of the respondents have not accepted the statement. 21. The management employs right person for the right job. Introduction: Often it may so happen that a particular person recruited for a particular job is not being able to perform it properly or may be performing some other job brilliantly. 57
  • 58. This question will figure whether the management employs right person for the right job. Table 21 DIMENSIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 13 65 NO 7 35 TOTAL 20 100.0 Graph 21 Inference: From the above graph it is observed that 65% of the respondents have agreed on this fact that the management employs right kind of people for the right job, but the rest 35 % feels that the management is not always correct in employing the right person. Findings 1. From the graph 1, it is observed that 60% of the respondents are aged 58
  • 59. between 25-30 yrs, whereas 25% is aged between 30-40 yrs and only 15% is between 40-50 yrs of age. This clearly signifies the workforce is fresh and dynamic at very tender age. But a major concerning fact hidden within this is that there is a lack of experience among them. For efficient operation experience is essential. 2. From the graph 2, it is observed that 5% of the respondents have accepted that they are associated to this company for the compensation they are offered while another 5% respondents have said it is for the rewards and recognition.6% respondents have said it is for the job security they are with the company while the rest 60% have admitted the relationship they share within the organization acts as a key factor of holding them back in this place. Thus it can be figured that the company does have grounds to hold their employees back. 3. From the graph 3, it is observed that 50% of respondents strongly have accepted that the job they are assigned is challenging while 15% respondents have accepted that their skills are effectively used. Another 20% respondents have admitted that their workload is reasonable while the rest 15% respondents have pointed that it is the safe working environment that has a huge impact on the work. Thus it can be summed up that the employees are satisfied with their work and work environment. 4. From the graph 4, it is found out that 75% of the respondents have admitted that the organization do involve them in the decision making process while the rest 25% have admitted that they are not involved in any decision making process. Since majority are accepting their association at decision making process this can surely be advantageous for the organization as, through this employees feel important and thus their responsibility sense also increases. 59
  • 60. 5. From the graph 5, it is observed that 15% of the respondents have accepted that they are highly satisfied and another 60% of the respondents have accepted they are moderately satisfied with the career development opportunities that are provided in the organization. But 15% respondents have pointed that they are highly dissatisfied and the rest 10% are moderately dissatisfied and differs in this respect. Though majorities are accepting facilities of this sort but care should be taken for the rest 25%, as all are equally important to the company. 6. From the graph 6, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that the employees stick to an organization for the career development opportunities that are offered to them while another 15% have admitted it is for the level of challenge and responsibility that make them stick to their current job profile .The rest 15% pointed it is the compensation and benefits which work as the key factor. This question reflects each individual’s preference. 7. From the graph 7, it is clear that around 60% of the respondents are moderately and another 15% are highly satisfied with the level of challenge and responsibility while the rest 15% of the respondents are highly and rest 10% are moderately dissatisfied. Again for the dissatisfied class special attention has to be poured in. 8. From the graph 8, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that they feel there are enough scopes of growth and promotion provided by the organization whereas the rest 30% feel alike. Opportunities should be provided to all in an unbiased manner. 60
  • 61. 9. From the graph 9, it is observed that 85% of the respondents have accepted that their services are effectively and efficiently utilized while the rest 15% have not agreed upon this point. The success of any depends on proper utilization of its resources of which workforce is one. Since it is correctly utilized it can be said that the firm is running in well. But the rest 15% should also be taken care off. 10. From the graph 10, it is observed that around 55% of the respondents have strongly and another 15% have moderately agreed upon the point that the training provided by the organization helps them to perform better whereas the rest 30% does not posses the same notion and some strongly differ. The reason for this difference in opinion has to be looked into because this issue can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. 11. From the graph 11, it is observed that 10% of the respondents are accustomed to the basic retention problem that is brewing in the company whereas the rest 90% of the respondents are clueless about such problems. 12. From the graph 12, it is observed that a mixed response is obtained in this particular case.50% of the respondents have admitted to this fact that there is stress due to overwork. While the rest 50% have denied such possibilities. So the 50% of the employees who have actually admitted of having overt stress should be dealt with. Such stress related issues strikes dissatisfaction ultimately resulting to grievance. 13. From the graph 13, it is observed that 70% of the respondents have accepted that they have been recognized and rewarded suitably by the organization for their performance as per the policy. Around 30% of 61
  • 62. respondents have not accepted the statement. This is surely a very good practice as such gestures contribute a lot in boosting ones self-confidence. 14. From the graph 14, it is observed that 80% of the respondents have accepted that they do receive adequate support while performing their work But the rest 20% have not agreed upon this statement. Any person recruited in an organization irrespective of the designation is a fresher to the company. Thus an individual should be provided support to make him accustomed to the place. Moreover support is needed at every stage that helps them to perform better. 15. From the graph 15, it is observed that 60% of the respondents strongly have accepted that they are happy with the performance appraisal system in the company while the rest 40% have not agreed upon this fact. This aspect has to be taken special care off. A proper performance appraisal system is an integral part of the concerned HR department and its perfect presence is utterly necessary in any company. 16. From the graph 16, it is observed that 75% of the respondents have accepted that they have feel proud of working with OPUS Estates. Around 25% of respondents have not accepted the statement. This is definitely an achievement and one to cherish for. It also is like a reward to proper functioning. 62
  • 63. 17. From the graph 17, it is observed that 55% of the respondents have accepted that the jobs they are assigned with turned out to be like the ones they had expected. But the rest 45% begs to differ at this point. Though the majority have spoken for the point, this aspect has to be looked into very soon as it is somewhat a clear indication of employee’s dissatisfaction regarding the job profile. Employees should be made to do the jobs they are hired for. 18. From the graph 18, it is observed that 10% of the respondents have accepted that they have been covered under the health and accident insurance policy by the organization or by other insurance company. Around 90% of respondents have not accepted the statement. It is completely clear from the analysis that the company does not provide insurance policies. It is a prior incentive that all major business groups provide their employees with. This practice must be included within the system. 19. From the graph 19, it is observed that 30% of the respondents have accepted that the organization grants them leave according to the norms while the majority 70% feels that they are not facilitated with the leave facility. Slogging under work pressure for the entire week, the employees look forward to leave and holidays. Thus it’s necessary to provide them with these because it reduces their pressure and as a result they work better. Thus this practice should also be introduced. 20. From the graph 20, it is observed that 20% of the respondents have accepted that they have received medical facilities as and when needed. Around 80% of the respondents have not accepted the statement. Since 63
  • 64. majorities have come up with negative response in this aspect it is strongly recommended that such practice should be introduced soon. 21. From the graph 21, it is observed that 65% of the respondents have agreed on this fact that the management employs right kind of people for the right job, but the rest 35 % feels that the management is not always correct in employing the right person. Right person is immensely required for the right kind of job to obtain the right kind of output and for right functioning. Suggestions  Need to restructure company’s policy and follow certain process to overcome problems.  The ability of the employee to speak his or her mind freely within the organization is a key factor in employee retention.  Involve employees in decisions that affect their jobs and the overall direction of the company.  Recognize excellent performance, and especially link pay to performance.  Provide the opportunities within the company for cross training and career progression. 64
  • 65.  Provide opportunity for career and personal growth through training and educations challenging assignments.  The quality of the supervisor an employee receives is critical to employee retention  The ability of the employee to speak his or her mind freely within the organization.  Talent & skill utilization is a key factor to seek employees in workplace.  Select right people  Should make a hierarchy for various positions  Offer an attractive, Competitive, Benefits package  Provide opportunities for people to share their knowledge via training sessions, present actions, mentioning others & flexible house Retention tips  Company should follow standard SDLC process  Implement good employment practices  Maintain healthy organizational climate  Proper training should be provided to employees according to their skills  Provide medical and insurance policies to all its employees.  Grant leave facilities and holidays as per the HR norms. 65
  • 66. Questionnaire Personal Details: 1.Age……………… 2.Sex: - Male Female 3.Marital status: Married Unmarried 1.What did you like most about this company? Compensation Rewards and Recognition Job Security Relationship 2. Describe about your job? Job is challenging Skills are effectively used Work load is reasonable Work environment is safe 66
  • 67. 3.Does the management include the employees in decision making process Yes No 4.How satisfied you are with the career development at your firm? Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied 5.Which of these is most important to you in determining whether you stay with your current firm or consider leaving? Level of challenge and responsibility. Communication at my firm Career development opportunities Compensation & benefits 6.How satisfied are you with the level of challenge and responsibility in your current role? Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied 7. Does the management provide opportunities for growth and promotion? Yes No 8. Does the organization utilize employee services effectively and efficiently? Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree 9. Does the training and development provided by the organization help you to increase your performance? Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree 67
  • 68. 10. Do you know the specific retention problems in your company? Yes No If yes please specify……………………………………… 11. Is there any stress due to overwork? Yes No 12. Have you received recognition or praise for doing good work? Yes No 13. Did you receive adequate support to do your work? Yes No 14. Are you happy with the performance appraisal system? Yes  No 15.Are you proud of working with OPUS Estates? Yes  No 16. Did your job duties turn out to be as you expected? Yes No 17. Does your company provide you health, accident and insurance policies? Yes No 18. Are you provided with the leave facility according to the rules? Yes No 19.Does your company provide you medical facility immediately? 68
  • 69. Yes No 20. Do you agree that the management employs right person for the right job? Yes No BIBLIOGRAPHY (A) BOOKS 1) V.S.P.RAO, Human Resource Management Texts & Cases Part II, Excel books Publishers. 2) S.S.KHANKA, Human Resource Management S.Chand Publishers & Co.Ltd 3) MOHIT GUPTA, NAVDEEP AGARWAL, Social Research Methods, Kalyani Publishers 4) C R KOTHARI, Research Methodology, New age international publishers (B)LINKS 69
  • 70. 1) http://epa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/27/4/309 2) http://erx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/21/6/423 (C) WEBSITES 1) www.google.com 2) www.yahoo.com 3) www.jomsagepub.com 70

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