Microbiology veteriner1 pendahuluan
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    Microbiology veteriner1 pendahuluan Microbiology veteriner1 pendahuluan Presentation Transcript

    • LOGO MICROBIOLOGY VETERINER PROGRAM KEDOKTERAN HEWAN PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN DOKTER HEWAN Dr.Sri Murwani,drh,MP
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Dr.Sri Murwani, drh,MP drh. Masdiana C. Padaga, M.AppSc Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan drh. Aldilla Noviantri drh. Nurina Titisari
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo 3rd SEMESTER 4th SEMESTER MICROBIAL BIOLOGY BAKTERIOLOGY VIROLOGY MIKOLOGY 3 credit points IMMUNOLOGY 3 credit points MICROBIAL INFECTION 3 credit points Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Lecture meeting Structured Program (Seminar) Laboratory Practical Evaluation: Middle assessment (25% Final assessment (25%) Presentation (15%) Quiz (10%) Lab.pract. Assessment (25%) Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo COMPULSARY ATTENDANCE DICIPLINE punctual attendance > 80 % proper wear Hp silenced 1 colour recent Photo 3x4 Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Microbiology ????? Microorganisms Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite ?? --- protozoa Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan Microscopic algae
    • www.themegallery.com Company Logo8 The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms Microbiology Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan What the m.o function ? Balancing -Soil microbes -Photosynthetic m.o -Intestine bacteria -Commercial applications -Etc.
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Pathogenic m.o Non-Pathogenic m.o Opportunistic m.o Microorganisms Normal Flora m.o Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Many branches of Microbiology : - Environmental Microbiology - Space Microbiology - Marine Microbiology - Agricultural Microbiology - Food Microbiology … etc. - Medical Microbiology Vet. Microbiology Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Contents MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MICROBIOLOGY THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMOTHERAPY : DREAMS OF A “MAGIC BULLET” THE GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY THE DEBATE OVER SPONTANEOUS GENERATION THE FIRST OBSERVATION
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo THE FIRST OBSERVATION 1665 – An Englishman, Robert Hooke, reported to the world that life’s smallest structural units were “little boxes” or “cells” Using his improving version of a compound microscope  he was able to see individual cells  beginning of the cell theory  that all living things are composed of cells 1673 – 1723, Antony van Leeuwenhoek The Dutch merchant and amateur scientist was the first to actually observe live microorganism through his simple single lens microscope  the “animalcules”  in rainwater, in liquid of soaked peppercorn, and in material scraped from his teeth the basic form of bacteria as coccus, rods and spiral Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo coccus rods spiral Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo THE DEBATE OVER SPONTANEOUS GENERATION Until the second half of the 19th century many scientists and philosophers (Aristoteles, Samson, Virgil) believed that some form of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter  spontaneous generation atau abiogenesis People commonly believed that toads, snakes, and mice could be born of moist soil; that flies could emerge from manure; and that maggots could arise from decaying corpses Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Evidence Pro and Con 1668 – Fransesco Redi, the Italian physician, a strong opponent of spontaneous generation  demonstrate that maggots do not arise spontaneously from decaying meat cover tightly open no maggots maggots Redi’s antagonists were not convinced; they claimed that fresh air was needed for spontaneous generation Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo  Redi set up a second experiment  three jars were covered with a fine net instead of being sealed. No larvae appeared in the gauze-covered jars  Many scientists still believed that small organisms (van Leeuwenhoek’s animalcules) were simple enough to be generated from nonliving materials  1745 : spontaneous generation seem to be strengthened, when John Needham, an Englishman, found that even after he heated nutrient fluid before pouring them into covered flasks, the cooled solution were soon teeming with microorganisms. Needham claimed that microbes developed spontaneously from the fluid Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Twenty years later : Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian scientist, suggested that microorganisms from the air probably had entered Needham’s solutions after they were boiled. Spallanzani showed that nutrient fluids heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth Needham responded by claiming the “vital force” necessary for spontaneous generation had been destroyed by the heat and was kept out of the flasks by the sealed Laurant Lavoisier showed the importance of oxygen to life Spallanzani’s observations were criticized on the grounds that there was not enough oxygen in the sealed flasks to support microbial life Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Theory of Biogenesis Rudolf Virchow challenged spontaneous generation with the concept of biogenesis, he claim that living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells Arguments about spontaneous generation continued until 1861, when the issue was resolved by the French scientist Louis Pasteur . With a series of ingenious experiments, Pasteur demonstrate that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but air itself does not create microbes Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Pasteur’s experiments disproving the theory of spontaneous generation (1) Pasteur first poured beef broth into a long-necked flask. (2) Next he heated the neck of the flask and bent it into an S-shaped curve; then he boiled the broth for several minutes. (3) Microorganisms did not appear in the cooled solution, even after long periods Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Pasteur showed that microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter  on solids, in liquids, and in the air He demonstrated that microbial life can be destroyed by heat  form the basis of aseptic techniques The debate of Spontaneous Generation disproved However still have a problem of “spores”  resistant to heat  John Tyndall (1820-1893)  TYNDALLIZATION  Spontaneous Generation Theory totally finished Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Golden Age Of Microbiology 1857 - 1914 Pasteur & Robert Koch, led to the establishment of microbiology as a science  Discoveries during these years included both the agents of many diseases and the role of immunity in the prevention and cure of disease  Chemical activities m.o  Improved the techniques for performing microscopy & culturing mo  Vaccination  Surgical techniques Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Fermentation & Pasteurization A group of French merchants asked Pasteur to find out why wine and beer soured  a method that would prevent spoiled ? Many scientist believed that air converted the sugars in these fluids into alcohol Pasteur found instead that microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air. This process, called fermentation, is used to make wine and beer Souring and spoiled are caused by different micro- organisms called bacteria. In the presence of air, bacteria change the alcohol in the beverage into vinegar (acetic acid) Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Germ Theory of Disease Before the time of Pasteur, effective treatments for many diseases were discovered by trial and error, but the causes of the disease were unknown The realization that yeasts play a crucial role in fermentation was the first link between the activity of a microorganism and physical and chemical changes in organic materials This discovery alerted scientists to the possibility that microorganisms might have similar relationships with plants animals - specifically, that microorganisms might cause disease. This idea was known as the germ theory of disease Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Germ Theory of Disease 1840 – Ignaz Semmelweis a Hungarian physician, had demonstrated that physician, who at the time did not disinfect their hands, routinely transmitted infections (puerperal or childbirth fever) from one obstetrical patient to another 1860 – Joseph Lister an English surgeon, applied the germ theory to medical procedure. Disinfectants were not used at the time, but Lister knew that phenol (carbolic acid) kills bacteria, so he began treating surgical wounds with a phenol solution 1876 – Robert Koch, a German physician, proved that bacteria actually cause disease  discovered rod-shaped bacteria now known as Bacillus anthracis in the blood of cattle that had died of anthrax Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Germ Theory of Disease Koch’s research provides a framework for the study of the etiology of any infectious disease  Koch Postulates : 1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of disease 2. The pathogen must be isolated from the disease host and grown in pure culture 3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal 4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo VACCINATION  1796 – Edward Jenner, a young British physician, embarked on an experiment to find a way to protect people from smallpox : - A young milkmaid informed Jenner that she couldn’t get smallpox because she already had been sick from cowpox - Jenner scrapings from cowpox blisters inoculated to a healthy 8-year-old volunteer by scratching the arm with a pox-contaminated needle in a few days, the volunteer became mildly sick but recovered and never again contracted either cowpox or smallpox the process was called vaccination (vacca=cow) - The protection from disease provided by vaccination is called immunity Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo VACCINATION  1880 – Pasteur discovered why vaccination work. He found that the bacteria that causes fowl cholera lost its ability to cause disease after it was grown in the laboratory for long periods. However it – and other microorganisms with decreased virulence – was able to induce immunity against subsequent infections by its virulent counterpart.  Some vaccines are still produced from avirulent microbial strains that stimulate immunity to the related virulent strain. Other vaccines are made from killed virulence microbes, from isolated components of virulent micoorganisms, or by genetic engineering techniques Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy : Dreams of a “ Magic Bullet “ After the relationship between microorganisms and disease was established, medical microbiologists next focused on the search for substances that could destroy pathogenic microorganisms without damaging the infected animal or human Treatment of disease by using chemical substances is called chemotherapy Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory are called synthetic drugs Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria or fungi to act against other microorganisms are called antibiotics Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo The First Synthetic Drugs Paul Ehrlich, a German physician, was the imaginative thinker who fired the first shot in the chemotherapy revolution. Ehrlich speculated about a “magic bullet” that could destroy pathogen without harming the infected host In 1910, he found a chemotherapeutic agent called salvarsan, an arsenic derivative effective against syphylis By the late 1930s, researchers had developed several other synthetic drugs, mostly were derivatives of dyes that could destroy microorganisms In addition, Domagk (1935) discovered that prontosil had dramatically effect against streptococcal infections  in the body was changed into sulfanilamide that analog with PABA Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo A Fortunate Accident - Antibiotics The first antibiotic was discovered by accident 1928 – Alexander Fleming, a Scottish physician and bacteriologist, looked at the curious pattern of growth on the contaminated plates. There was a clear area around the mold where the bacterial culture had stopped growing The mold was later identified as Penicillium notatum, and Fleming named the mold’s active inhibitor as penicillin. The enormous usefulness of penicillin was not apparent until the 1940s  Florey & Chain 1939 – Rene´ Dubos, a French microbiologist, discovered two antibiotics called gramicidin and tyrocidine. Both were produced by a bacterium, Bacillus brevis, cultured from soil.
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Modern Development in Microbiology Bacteriology Mycology Parasitology Immunology Virology Recombinant DNA technology Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo VIROLOGY  The study of virus, actually originated during the Golden Age of Microbiology  1892 – Dmitri Iwanowski reported that the organism that cause mosaic disease of tobacco was so small that it passed through filter fine enough to stop all known bacteria  1935 – Wendell Stanley demonstrated that the organism, called tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), was fundamentally different from other microbes and so simple and homogeneous that it could be cristallized like chemical compound  1940 – Since the development of the electron microscope, microbiologists have been able to observe the structure of viruses in detail. Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Mycology Eukaryotic Morphologically divided into 2 different types: 1. Filamentous fungi 2. Yeast Mostly are opportunistic pathogen, rare cause serious disease in healthy people
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Recombinant DNA Technology 1928 by Griffith study about pathogenecity of Diplococcus pneumoniae. The important material of this bacteria is it capsule which can be move between bacteria. Until the 1930s, all genetic research was based on the study of plant and animal cells In the 1940s, the scientists turned to unicellular organisms, primarily bacteria 1946 – Joshua Lederberg and Edward L.Tatum discovered that genetic material could be transferred from one bacterium to another by a process called conjugation Genetic engineering: induction hormone production, vaccines, diagnostic tool, etc ….. Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo MICROSCOPE Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo MICROSCOPE Compound Light Microscopy Darkfield Microscopy Phase-contrast Microscopy Fluorescence Microscopy Confocal Microscopy Electron Microscopy Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Compound Light Microscope  Has a series of lenses and use visible light as its source of illumination  A series of finely ground lenses forms a clearly focused image that is many time larger than the specimens itself  This magnification is achieved when light rays from an illuminator  condensor  specimen  objective lenses  ocular lens  Total magnification = objective lens magnification x ocular lens magnification  Objective lens : 10 x (low power), 40 x (high power), and 100 x (oil immersion)  Ocular lens : 10 x Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Compound Light Microscope  The total magnifications would be 100 x for low power, 400 x for high power , and 1000 x for oil immersion. Some compound light microscopes can achieve a magnification of 2000 x with the oil immersion lens.  The oil immersion has the same refractive index as glass, so the oil becomes part of the optics of the glass of the microscope.  Unless immersion oil is used, light rays are refracted as they enter the air from the slide Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Compound Light Microscope Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Darkfield Microscopy Is used for examining live microorganisms that either are invisible in the ordinary light microscope, cannot be stained by standard methods, or are so distorted by staining that their characteristics then cannot be identified A darkfield microscope uses a darkfield condensor that contain an opaque disc  the specimen appears light against a black background One use for darkfield microscopy is the examination of very thin spirochetes, such as Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Phase-Contrast Microscopy Is especially useful because it permits detailed examination of internal structures in living microorganisms The principle of phase-contrast microscopy is based on the wave nature of light rays, and the fact that light rays can be in phase (their peaks and valleys match) or out of phase. In phase-contrast microscopy, one set of light rays comes directly from the light source. The other set comes from light that is reflected or diffracted from particular structure in the specimen Phase-contrast microscope is provided with diffraction plate Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Brightfield Darkfield Phase-contrast Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Fluorescence Microscopy  The object is stained with one of a group of fluorescent dyes called fluorochromes (primolin, acridine orange R, thiazo yellow-G, auramine O, fluorescein isothiocyanate)  The light source  Ultraviolet light  The principal use of fluorescence microscopy is a diagnostic technique called fluorescence-antibody (FA) technique, or immunofluorescence Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Confocal Microscopy  A fairly recent development in light microscopy  Like fLuorescent microscopy, specimens are stained with fluorochromes  The light source  laser  Most confocal microscopes are used in conjunction with computers to construct three-dimensional images  Can be used to evaluate cellular physiology by monitoring the distributions and concentrations of substances such as ATP and calcium ions. Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Electron Microscopy  Object smaller than about 0.2 µm, such as virus, or the internal structures of cels must be examined with an electron microscope  A beam of electrons is used instead of light  Objects are generally magnified 10,000 – 100,000 x  Instead of using glass lenses, an electron microscope uses electromagnetic lenses to focus a beam of electrons onto specimen  There are two types of electron microscope : - The transmission electron microscope - The scanning electron microscope Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan
    • 09/21/13www.themegallery.com Company Logo Program Kedokteran Hewan-UB, Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Hewan