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Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux
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Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux


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I deliver this to my students to help then start understanding what Linux is and how with opensource it is changing the IT industry.

I deliver this to my students to help then start understanding what Linux is and how with opensource it is changing the IT industry.

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    • 1. Introduction To GNU/Linux S.Eiffert Linux Computing Essentials
    • 2. Welcome to Linux
      • Linux is a clone of UNIX.
      • It was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991
      • The PC existed but it was commonly running the Microsoft operating systems and used the Intel chip which did not support commonly unix.
            • DOS was available but didn’t meet his needs
            • Because Linus had used minix at Uni
            • Miniux was a small very basic UNIX-like system which was compatible with the Intel platform, being used in the universities for teaching.
            • And wanted same features at home but could not afford the cost of proprietary hardware on which to run a UNIX system.
            • So he started to create one based on the minux sourcecode – with many contributions from other people over the internet.
      • 1991 – Linus Torvalds created the linux kernel.
    • 3. What is unix
      • unix is an operating system
        • There are many different types of unix.
        • But they all came from a common background.
      • The Internet was built on UNIX.
        • TCP/IP is a native UNIX protocol.
        • Today 80% of the worlds Internet Web servers are using Linux.
      • unix has commonly been used for the past 30 years .
        • It was created in 1969 - long before Microsoft existed.
        • It was the 1st worldwide commercial operating system.
      • Unix has always commonly been used on mainframes.
      • Today as “linux” it is also commonly being used on PC’s as servers & desktops
    • 4. Imagine a game box that could run “every game” !!
      • Unix became the dominate OS because of the following factors.
      • It was able to be run by various types of CPU’s
        • Before unix vendors commonly wrote their own Operating systems
        • Which ran just on their own CPU’s and equipment.
        • Unix was written to be able to run on many different types of CPU’s
      • Unix was one of the first OS to supply:
        • a simple programmers environment
        • a simple user interface
        • simple utilities or commands that can be combined to perform powerful functions
        • a permanent hierarchical file system
        • simple interface to connect new devices to the OS
        • multi-user functions
        • multi-process system functions
        • which was architecturally independent
        • All of which was permanent and transparent to the user.
      Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e
    • 5. 1991 - Creation of Linux
      • Linus Torvalds did not write an entire operating system
      • He wrote a full complete version of a kernel.
        • Which he called Linux.
          • He chose a Penguin to represent his kernel
        • It’s main advantage is it’s - Compatibility for Intel systems.
      • This meant it could be run on any generic PC computer systems .
        • The Linux Kernel is written and distributed as an opensource product.
      • Linus Torvals is part of the opensource community
        • And as he believes in their opensource philosophy
        • The linux kernel was created with the input from many other developers around the world.
      • Opensource community believe in collaboration for the open development of products and distribution of all sourcecode .
      Linux Penguin
    • 6. Idea of the Opensource came from The Free Software Foundation
      • Richard Stallman started the …
      • Free Software Foundation
      • FSF is a non profit organization designed to protect and promote:
      • freedom for both the user and the IT industry.
        • The term free software, refers to S/W freedom, not price.
        • FREEDOM of Distribution NOT Free price
      • Basic Philosophy :
      • People who put their software under the GPL believe in ‘Free Distribution’
      • Meaning that they believe that the source code for the software cannot be withheld.
      • It does not mean that they or companies cannot charge for it.
    • 7. Richard Stallman also started the GPL Software License
      • Software which is put under a GPL Software License is called “Opensource Software”
      • Software which is placed under the GPL is designed to give people:
      • The right to ….
          • receive the source code or have the right to get it if you want it.
          • They can charge for this service if they wish.
          • And the new user can copy or change the existing software code to suit their needs.
          • Or even use pieces of it, in any new GPL free programs they design.
          • But because it originally came from a GPL software they are now obligated to place their new S/W under GPL as well and make their sourcecode available for others.
    • 8. Open Source Software (FLOSS)
      • This type of software uses a GPL or opensource licences.
      • What it gives you?
        • Freedom to use
        • Freedom to examine
        • Freedom to redistribute
        • Freedom to modify
      • What it doesn’t let you do?
        • Deny these freedoms to anyone else
    • 9. GNU/Linux
      • 1990 Richard Stallman
      • One of the people who started this “open” philosophy.
      • Has nearly completed his new GNU operating system based on the UNIX system.
        • He had most of the modules but was still missing the main part !
        • The kernel.
      • 1991 Linus Torvalds creates the kernel then releases it out on an internet FTP server for everyone else’s opinion & help.
        • When complete Linux kernel was released under the GPL license.
        • Slowly but steadily news of Linux spread and work continued.
      • 1992 The Linux kernel is combined with the already created GNU modules & utilities and now becomes a fully useable operating system
        • Distributions of Linux start appearing.
      • There are now about 1000 Linux Users
      • Footnote: These figure are based on the OS Revolution movie
    • 10. The 1990’s
      • 1993 Internet explosion starts and there’s also an ISP explosion which
      • cause’s the 1st viable Linux commercial application.
        • The Apache Web Server .
      • There are now about 500,000 Linux Users
      • 1997 Eric Raymond writes a paper called the ‘ Catheral & Baazar ’ in which he
      • analyzes the development & differences of the
      • ‘ proprietary’ software model verse the ‘opensource’ software models.
        • The article takes the IT industry by storm.
        • Eric Raymond becomes a front man for the new opensource movement.
        • Netscape director reads the article and in direct response freely releases the source code of the Navigator software.
          • Netscape is the 1 st large company to go opensource.
      • There are now about 800,000 Linux Users
    • 11. Many Linux Distributions Appear
    • 12. There are many Linux Distributions
    • 13. Lates 1990’s
      • 1998
        • Linus, Linux & the opensource movement starts becoming commonly known. And gaining momentum.
        • Linus appears on TV
        • On the front of the Forbes Business Magazine.
        • IBM, Oracle, Compaq, SAP + others announce their support for Linux.
        • There are now about 1.5 million Linux Users
      • 1999
        • 1 st Linux World Conference – 6000 people attend
        • Linus delivers the opening and keynote presentation.
        • Red Hat goes public
    • 14. The 2000’s
      • 2002
        • Red Hat splits into 2 versions
          • RHEL - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support
          • Fedora – their home version with no support
      • 2003
        • Novell buys SuSE Linux for $210 million
        • IBM is now the most powerful backer of Linux.
          • To counterbalance the world of Linux they make a 50 million dollar investment in Novell.
          • SuSE becomes the major enterprize competitor to Red Hat.
          • SLES - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support
          • opensuse – their home version with no support
    • 15. Using Linux
      • Original Linux Kernel uses Command Line Interface
      • CLI ( Command Line Interface )
        • Universal Interface ( Administrative tool )
        • Hard to learn
      • GUI ( Graphical User Interface )
        • Looks different on each version of linux
        • All are great customizable desktop’s with good looking desktop
        • Easy to adopt and control by users
        • Easy controls and applicable tools
        • Easy use of Multimedia contents
        • Great opensource GUI applications available
    • 16. The command line
      • Common environment available in all distributions.
      • Works about 95% the same in all distributions.
    • 17. CL Interface is not new ! Windows The DOS Prompt Linux The BASH Shell
    • 18. Linux GUI Environments
      • Most distributions ship with a GUI
      • But they can be very different from each other.
      • There are competing GUI environments in Linux:
        • GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
        • Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE)
      • But the Core component of a linux GUI is called X Windows
        • XWindows is the just the engine on which a desktop manager runs and supplies the GUI desktop.
      • The GUI environment is created by X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment
    • 19. June 6, 2009 suse
    • 20. GNOME Desktop A Linux graphical user interface
    • 21. KDE Desktop
    • 22. KDE Desktop
    • 23. GNOME Web Site Http://
    • 24. Today many b usiness environments are commonly using Linux servers to provide their Networking Services
      • Network Services are all available
      • And most are inbuilt
        • Roaming user profiles
        • Shared network locations for file sharing
        • Network Printing
        • Mail
        • Web
        • Proxy
        • DNS
        • DHCP
        • FTP
        • Firewall
    • 25. Desktop applications
      • Linux also has many applications available
      • Many of them are inbuilt applications
      • Word processing (OpenOffice, Koffice)
      • Programming (C, C++, Perl, Python, Java, PHP)
      • Graphics (GIMP)
      • Web browsers (Mozilla, Konquerer)
      • Email (Evolution, Mozilla, KMail)
      • Audio (amarok)
      • Games (MAME)
        • See for lots of opensource software
        • All available as opensource applications.
    • 26. Openoffice
      • Many companies are now using linux on their desktops as their Office productivity suite:
      • Openoffice supplies the following inbuilt applications
          • Writer = word processing
          • Calc = spreadsheets
          • Impress = slide show’s
          • Base = database
    • 27. Linux ends the monopoly…
    • 28. Linux Today
      • 2008
      • Linux has gone fully mainstream !!!
      • Today Linux has grown from being a hacker / home developed OS to being accepted world wide.
        • It is highly regarded and runs many many major enterprises.
        • Many sites are now also using it on their client machines.
        • Linux currently has an estimated user figures ranging from 20 to 30 million.
        • And growing!
    • 29. Linux Tomorrow!
      • Many countries / governments are going fully opensource
      • Especially in the developing countries
      • USA government is moving towards opensource
      • USA regularly holds conferences with the opensource community to discuss the impact that the opensource community has on the use of future IT.
      • All the major opensource IT companies are involved
      • First - Microsoft chose to ignore opensource.
      • Hoped it would go away – Then tried to make it go away!
      • But now even Microsoft attends the conferences.
      • Microsoft has even be known to have a stand at the Linux Trade Shows
    • 30. How FOSS is changing things
      • Now lets watch this documentary
      • The International Open Source Network (IOSN), UNDP Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP), International Development Research Centre of Canada and UNESCO have participated in the production of a documentary.
      • It investigates how developing countries are using FOSS applications and includes stories and interviews from around the world.
      • This 40-minute version of The Codebreakers is now available for free download online.
      • The Codebreakers is now available under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 license .