Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux
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Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux



I deliver this to my students to help then start understanding what Linux is and how with opensource it is changing the IT industry.

I deliver this to my students to help then start understanding what Linux is and how with opensource it is changing the IT industry.



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Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction To GNU/Linux S.Eiffert Linux Computing Essentials
  • Welcome to Linux
    • Linux is a clone of UNIX.
    • It was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991
    • The PC existed but it was commonly running the Microsoft operating systems and used the Intel chip which did not support commonly unix.
          • DOS was available but didn’t meet his needs
          • Because Linus had used minix at Uni
          • Miniux was a small very basic UNIX-like system which was compatible with the Intel platform, being used in the universities for teaching.
          • And wanted same features at home but could not afford the cost of proprietary hardware on which to run a UNIX system.
          • So he started to create one based on the minux sourcecode – with many contributions from other people over the internet.
    • 1991 – Linus Torvalds created the linux kernel.
  • What is unix
    • unix is an operating system
      • There are many different types of unix.
      • But they all came from a common background.
    • The Internet was built on UNIX.
      • TCP/IP is a native UNIX protocol.
      • Today 80% of the worlds Internet Web servers are using Linux.
    • unix has commonly been used for the past 30 years .
      • It was created in 1969 - long before Microsoft existed.
      • It was the 1st worldwide commercial operating system.
    • Unix has always commonly been used on mainframes.
    • Today as “linux” it is also commonly being used on PC’s as servers & desktops
  • Imagine a game box that could run “every game” !!
    • Unix became the dominate OS because of the following factors.
    • It was able to be run by various types of CPU’s
      • Before unix vendors commonly wrote their own Operating systems
      • Which ran just on their own CPU’s and equipment.
      • Unix was written to be able to run on many different types of CPU’s
    • Unix was one of the first OS to supply:
      • a simple programmers environment
      • a simple user interface
      • simple utilities or commands that can be combined to perform powerful functions
      • a permanent hierarchical file system
      • simple interface to connect new devices to the OS
      • multi-user functions
      • multi-process system functions
      • which was architecturally independent
      • All of which was permanent and transparent to the user.
    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e
  • 1991 - Creation of Linux
    • Linus Torvalds did not write an entire operating system
    • He wrote a full complete version of a kernel.
      • Which he called Linux.
        • He chose a Penguin to represent his kernel
      • It’s main advantage is it’s - Compatibility for Intel systems.
    • This meant it could be run on any generic PC computer systems .
      • The Linux Kernel is written and distributed as an opensource product.
    • Linus Torvals is part of the opensource community
      • And as he believes in their opensource philosophy
      • The linux kernel was created with the input from many other developers around the world.
    • Opensource community believe in collaboration for the open development of products and distribution of all sourcecode .
    Linux Penguin
  • Idea of the Opensource came from The Free Software Foundation
    • Richard Stallman started the …
    • Free Software Foundation
    • FSF is a non profit organization designed to protect and promote:
    • freedom for both the user and the IT industry.
      • The term free software, refers to S/W freedom, not price.
      • FREEDOM of Distribution NOT Free price
    • Basic Philosophy :
    • People who put their software under the GPL believe in ‘Free Distribution’
    • Meaning that they believe that the source code for the software cannot be withheld.
    • It does not mean that they or companies cannot charge for it.
  • Richard Stallman also started the GPL Software License
    • Software which is put under a GPL Software License is called “Opensource Software”
    • Software which is placed under the GPL is designed to give people:
    • The right to ….
        • receive the source code or have the right to get it if you want it.
        • They can charge for this service if they wish.
        • And the new user can copy or change the existing software code to suit their needs.
        • Or even use pieces of it, in any new GPL free programs they design.
        • But because it originally came from a GPL software they are now obligated to place their new S/W under GPL as well and make their sourcecode available for others.
  • Open Source Software (FLOSS)
    • This type of software uses a GPL or opensource licences.
    • What it gives you?
      • Freedom to use
      • Freedom to examine
      • Freedom to redistribute
      • Freedom to modify
    • What it doesn’t let you do?
      • Deny these freedoms to anyone else
  • GNU/Linux
    • 1990 Richard Stallman
    • One of the people who started this “open” philosophy.
    • Has nearly completed his new GNU operating system based on the UNIX system.
      • He had most of the modules but was still missing the main part !
      • The kernel.
    • 1991 Linus Torvalds creates the kernel then releases it out on an internet FTP server for everyone else’s opinion & help.
      • When complete Linux kernel was released under the GPL license.
      • Slowly but steadily news of Linux spread and work continued.
    • 1992 The Linux kernel is combined with the already created GNU modules & utilities and now becomes a fully useable operating system
      • Distributions of Linux start appearing.
    • There are now about 1000 Linux Users
    • Footnote: These figure are based on the OS Revolution movie
  • The 1990’s
    • 1993 Internet explosion starts and there’s also an ISP explosion which
    • cause’s the 1st viable Linux commercial application.
      • The Apache Web Server .
    • There are now about 500,000 Linux Users
    • 1997 Eric Raymond writes a paper called the ‘ Catheral & Baazar ’ in which he
    • analyzes the development & differences of the
    • ‘ proprietary’ software model verse the ‘opensource’ software models.
      • The article takes the IT industry by storm.
      • Eric Raymond becomes a front man for the new opensource movement.
      • Netscape director reads the article and in direct response freely releases the source code of the Navigator software.
        • Netscape is the 1 st large company to go opensource.
    • There are now about 800,000 Linux Users
  • Many Linux Distributions Appear
  • There are many Linux Distributions
  • Lates 1990’s
    • 1998
      • Linus, Linux & the opensource movement starts becoming commonly known. And gaining momentum.
      • Linus appears on TV
      • On the front of the Forbes Business Magazine.
      • IBM, Oracle, Compaq, SAP + others announce their support for Linux.
      • There are now about 1.5 million Linux Users
    • 1999
      • 1 st Linux World Conference – 6000 people attend
      • Linus delivers the opening and keynote presentation.
      • Red Hat goes public
  • The 2000’s
    • 2002
      • Red Hat splits into 2 versions
        • RHEL - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support
        • Fedora – their home version with no support
    • 2003
      • Novell buys SuSE Linux for $210 million
      • IBM is now the most powerful backer of Linux.
        • To counterbalance the world of Linux they make a 50 million dollar investment in Novell.
        • SuSE becomes the major enterprize competitor to Red Hat.
        • SLES - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support
        • opensuse – their home version with no support
  • Using Linux
    • Original Linux Kernel uses Command Line Interface
    • CLI ( Command Line Interface )
      • Universal Interface ( Administrative tool )
      • Hard to learn
    • GUI ( Graphical User Interface )
      • Looks different on each version of linux
      • All are great customizable desktop’s with good looking desktop
      • Easy to adopt and control by users
      • Easy controls and applicable tools
      • Easy use of Multimedia contents
      • Great opensource GUI applications available
  • The command line
    • Common environment available in all distributions.
    • Works about 95% the same in all distributions.
  • CL Interface is not new ! Windows The DOS Prompt Linux The BASH Shell
  • Linux GUI Environments
    • Most distributions ship with a GUI
    • But they can be very different from each other.
    • There are competing GUI environments in Linux:
      • GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
      • Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE)
    • But the Core component of a linux GUI is called X Windows
      • XWindows is the just the engine on which a desktop manager runs and supplies the GUI desktop.
    • The GUI environment is created by X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment
  • June 6, 2009 suse
  • GNOME Desktop A Linux graphical user interface
  • KDE Desktop
  • KDE Desktop
  • GNOME Web Site Http://
  • Today many b usiness environments are commonly using Linux servers to provide their Networking Services
    • Network Services are all available
    • And most are inbuilt
      • Roaming user profiles
      • Shared network locations for file sharing
      • Network Printing
      • Mail
      • Web
      • Proxy
      • DNS
      • DHCP
      • FTP
      • Firewall
  • Desktop applications
    • Linux also has many applications available
    • Many of them are inbuilt applications
    • Word processing (OpenOffice, Koffice)
    • Programming (C, C++, Perl, Python, Java, PHP)
    • Graphics (GIMP)
    • Web browsers (Mozilla, Konquerer)
    • Email (Evolution, Mozilla, KMail)
    • Audio (amarok)
    • Games (MAME)
      • See for lots of opensource software
      • All available as opensource applications.
  • Openoffice
    • Many companies are now using linux on their desktops as their Office productivity suite:
    • Openoffice supplies the following inbuilt applications
        • Writer = word processing
        • Calc = spreadsheets
        • Impress = slide show’s
        • Base = database
  • Linux ends the monopoly…
  • Linux Today
    • 2008
    • Linux has gone fully mainstream !!!
    • Today Linux has grown from being a hacker / home developed OS to being accepted world wide.
      • It is highly regarded and runs many many major enterprises.
      • Many sites are now also using it on their client machines.
      • Linux currently has an estimated user figures ranging from 20 to 30 million.
      • And growing!
  • Linux Tomorrow!
    • Many countries / governments are going fully opensource
    • Especially in the developing countries
    • USA government is moving towards opensource
    • USA regularly holds conferences with the opensource community to discuss the impact that the opensource community has on the use of future IT.
    • All the major opensource IT companies are involved
    • First - Microsoft chose to ignore opensource.
    • Hoped it would go away – Then tried to make it go away!
    • But now even Microsoft attends the conferences.
    • Microsoft has even be known to have a stand at the Linux Trade Shows
  • How FOSS is changing things
    • Now lets watch this documentary
    • The International Open Source Network (IOSN), UNDP Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP), International Development Research Centre of Canada and UNESCO have participated in the production of a documentary.
    • It investigates how developing countries are using FOSS applications and includes stories and interviews from around the world.
    • This 40-minute version of The Codebreakers is now available for free download online.
    • The Codebreakers is now available under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 license .