Teaching Writing through Genre Studies

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  • Meg\nIntroduce team.\n\nWe want our writers to write engaging beginnings that draw the reader in and paint a picture that appeals to the reader’s senses.\n
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  • Meg\nPrewriting\nWriting\nRevising\nEditing and Proofreading\nPublishing\n\nThen we had 2 consultants come to the district 3 times to train us in 6 trait writing: Ideas, organization, voice, sentence fluency, word choice, and conventions\nSome teachers took these ideas and ran with it. While others only took some and others decided their way was much better than all that.\n\nThroughout all this time in our district we were very project based. If it was October we wrote about bats and pumpkins so we could display them in the hall.\n
  • Meg/Christine\nThe district leadership team came to our reading specialist and said, we need to review writing.\nGiven the charge we went to the experts: Regie Routman, Katie Wood Ray, Nancy Atwell, and Ralph Fletcher. We bought their books and went to their conferences. \n\nWe learned to incorporate the gradual release of responsibility to writing. \nAn aha moment for me was at a presentation by Katie Wood. She had to write a foreword for a colleague’s book. She said the first thing she did was read other forewords. Immersion. Even great writers have to do it. \n\nOur students are writing within a genre study, not a writing workshop format. (encompasses best practices of writing)\n\nGenre vs. mode**\nAs teachers, we need to understand the difference between Mode and Genre. It’s easy to use these terms interchangeably, but they are in fact different.\nI feel that Katie Wood Ray has done a great job explaining this, \nExamples of mode are: Narrative, Expository, Descriptive, and Persuasive. \nWhereas Genre can have many words to describe it.\n\nGenre refers to the kind of writing that it is in the world, Katie Wood Ray uses the example of “What do you ask for when you are looking for something in a library or bookstore?” You probably wouldn’t say, “I’m looking for your section on expository writing?” (Mode) You would be more descriptive and say something like “I’m looking for an advice column on relationships, or articles on how to start a business.” (this is genre)\n\nGenre allows students to have a vision about their writing, mode does not.\n\n(When focusing our instruction on writing within a genre, students can learn to create multi-modal pieces of writing. Pieces can involve writing in more than just one mode, like using a combination of the 4 modes.) \n\n\n- Students need to find out what kind of writing they want to do, what kinds of writing is out there in the real world.\n- Understanding various genres of writing helps students have/create a vision for what their writing can look like. \n- For students to realize their possibilities and what kinds of writing they can do, they need to jump into a study of that genre. \n- After being exposed to different genres, students will begin to notice its characteristics, notice the author’s craft, structure, and its form. Understanding those characteristics will assist them in organizing their thoughts and put them down on paper in a way that makes sense or follows the kind of writing within that genre. \n\n- They will also grow more confident with different kinds of writing through a genre study.\n- One way to expand their confidence, is by revisiting certain genres over time, throughout the grade levels. \n\n\n
  • Sarah\nReading and writing instruction in our district is based on gradual release of responsibility. The gradual release of responsibility scaffolds student learning in response to their needs by providing a shift from total teacher control and direction to complete student control and independence. It’s a learning theory that can be applied to all learning opportunities across content areas and across the curriculum. This gradual release of responsibility is achieved through the components of Balanced Literacy including demonstration, shared practice, guided practice and independent practice. \n\nI do, You watch, I do, You help, You do, I help, You do, I watch.\n\nBalanced Literacy helps teachers think about the levels of support students need in learning a new skill, strategy, or task. The degree of assistance the learner requires to be successful determines how we structure our teaching. We can’t skip a column in the model when we teach. We can’t expect a child to independently play a piece of music just after it has been demonstrated.\n\nGradual release has implications for the classroom in regards to 1) Grouping: whole, small group, partners, individuals, 2) Materials: wide range of texts at varying instructional levels, 3) Metacognition: scaffolding students to think about their thinking with varying levels of support. \n\nTeaching writing through genre units gradually releases students to be independent writers.\n\n\n
  • Sarah\nA genre unit begins with assessment of what the students already know in a genre. The assessment then guides the remainder of the genre unit. What the students already know affects your focus, mentor texts or mini-lessons within the unit. \n\nAt the beginning of the genre unit, start by simply asking the class “What do you know about memoir or personal correspondance, or editorials, whatever is the genre?” and make a list of their responses. After you chart what they know, compare the class’s prior knowledge to how you’ve defined the genre. Part of planning for a genre unit is defining the genre so you yourself have a clear definition of the genre. Our district uses Fountas and Pinnell’s The Continuum of Literacy and Learning to create consistent definitions across the schools. By comparing what the students know and the definition of the genre, you know what to explicitly teach and focus on for minilessons and conferences.\n\nTalk about picture, blue is assessment part.\n
  • Sarah\nAfter assessment, read published examples of the genre and immerse students in what the genre looks like. Immersion is the core of a genre study. It exposes students to quality examples of the type of writing they will be doing. Writers need to see what they are expected to write. Immersion connects reading with writing. Isn’t it common for your best writers to also be your best readers? Student writing is only as good as the literature they are exposed to so the better you immerse your students, the better they will write. We learned through Regie Routman that teachers too often rush through the demonstration and shared writing phases of the gradual release model in many subjects, but time spent in in these phases has big payoffs and frontloads so students are more successful when it comes to guided and independent writing. The more they understand what they are expected to write, the better they will write.\n\nFor vision, after students read in the genre, add characteristics they notice to the chart you started during assessment. Katie Wood Ray suggests reading a stack of books to the class to get an overall definition of a genre (What does this type of writing do in the world? How is this writing different than other kinds of writing in the world?). Then go back to one of the texts to take a closer look (How is the piece organized? How has the writer focused this piece?). During immersion, the definition of the genre will begin to emerge as you chart the characteristics identified by the students. The chart will be added to throughout the study as students notice additional aspects of the genre. The students will learn much more in this collaborative process of building a definition than they would if the teacher had just given it to them at the beginning of the unit.\n\nThroughout the genre unit, the characteristic chart is important to stay visible because it reminds students of what to include in their own writing. Although heavy immersion usually occurs at the beginning of the unit, it is important to continue the process throughout the entire unit. While students are drafting, stop to read another example before sending your class off to write one day or read a mentor text to illustrate a point in one of your mini-lessons. \n\nThe characteristics chart can also be used as an assessment tool or rubric after pieces have been published.\n
  • Sarah\nImmersion naturally occurs as part of the writing block, but can happen across the curriculum, in content areas, during reading, or as part of read aloud. Reading some text aloud is important, but not all pieces need to be read aloud. Students can read mentor texts in small groups, with partners or individually. Some of the reading can be done as homework. You can ask students to find an example of the genre you are studying and bring it into class to share so they are searching and taking notice of genre characteristics and reinforcing the reading/writing connection.\n
  • An alternative to charting on chart paper is electronic charting on mindmeister.com. The students each have their own laptop and as they read and notice characteristics, they add them to the web that is projected through the teacher’s computer.\n\n
  • Part of planning for a genre study is gathering examples of the genre. Show examples of mentor stacks.\n\nKatie Wood Ray writes that you want your students to be able to answer the question, “What have you read that is like what you’re trying to write?” \n\nYou want them to respond with:\n\nI’m writing a list article like I see in Real Simple.\nThis is a review of the new Black Eye Peas CD like you would read in Entertainment Weekly.\nThis is a memoir that would work well as a picture book like a Patricia Polocco book.\n
  • Renee-An active demonstration of the teacher's own composing and thought processes is extremely powerful, he or she models on a projector, whiteboard, or chart paper thinking aloud about what word will come next or how to make a sentence more vivid for the reader. He or she might say something like “I am going to be thinking out loud before I write and as I write my story. I am doing that so that when you write you’ll know what kind of thinking writers do.” The students should be shown how the teacher rereads and reworks parts and asked what they noticed as the teacher went through the process.\n-He or she should also demonstrate topic choices as well. How did the idea for a topic start? Actual writing models can be brought in from their daily life (emails, thank-you... Teachers can also share what they have read in the world that is like what they are trying to write.\n-Focus on content first-Whole Part Whole Strategy-Start with author texts and demonstration of a genre by the teacher. Next, plan ways to highlighting specific textual features that help students form generalizations about language and text that they can apply to their own independent efforts to read and write. Next, have students practice what they have learned by creating their own genre text.\nA second grade teacher models for her class. Note how she shares her thoughts and rereads what she has written. \n\n
  • Renee\nIn district 96 we have a Wiki where we post ideas for publishing or sharing a piece-writing contests, thank you notes, digital storytelling, blogging, podcasts to share on class webpage, persuasive letters that are really going to be mailed. Identify specific audience or reason for writing.\n Increases pride and effort in work.\n Students spend more time revising and editing.\n \n Mem Fox(1993) says, “Whenever I write, whether I’m writing a picture book, an entry in my journal, a course handbook for students, or notes to the milkman, there’s always someone on the other side.\n\n\n
  • -Often because of time constraints teachers skip the shared practice piece and guided practice pieces. This is the students opportunity be “hands on” or interactive. -After using PC’s most of my life, I had to learn to use Mac software for my new job. When software was introduced quickly in lecture style I often forgot how to use it by I had to sit down and in my own program. When I got to actually experiment with the programs during technology training I retained much of the information. We need to give students an opportunity to help us write in a genre and allow for guided practice before they are expected to independently write.\n-imbed mini-lessons which include lessons on grammer and editing into modeling and shared practice. ce.\n
  • Christine\nPlanning to write is not meant to be laborious or very time consuming, we don’t want students to be exhausted before they even begin. We need to be realistic about how we plan before we actually write. As teachers of writing, we have to ask ourselves, “How do I plan before I write? What are things that I do as a writer?” and go from there. \n\nAt this stage in the writing process, students still need support and guidance from their teacher, through shared demonstration (shared writing) and guided practice. One thing that good writers do before they begin to write is.. brainstorm \n\nFocusing on Brainstorming \n- Before deciding what to write, we brainstorm possible ideas, and ask ourselves “what do I want to write about? What is my purpose for writing?” Students should do this as well. \n- They need to see how the teacher brainstormed possible ideas- doing a think-a-loud in front of the class is a great way to show this. or Having public in-depth conversations with one or two students. \n - By observing the teacher, Students will learn what it means to brainstorm, and what it looks/sounds like........ \n- Students can share their ideas with the teacher, classmates, and of course within themselves. \n-Students need to discuss their ideas with people around them. Reading and writing is a social activity. Students should be talking about their ideas alot, it is a way for them to think through some of their possible topics. Students start planning their piece by talking about it first. \n-Jotting down ideas in a writer’s notebook is a simple way to keep track of these ideas. Ralph Fletcher’s book- A Writer’s Notebook is a great resource for looking a bit more into writer’s notebooks.\n\nLooking more closely at choice \n - Following a genre study does allow students to choose what they are writing about. - It is their choice, but choice with direction. \n- We want students to have choice in what they are going to write about.\n- This requires them to take more responsibility for their work, they will be more motivated to want to write because it was their personal choice. \n - When discussing with students about their possible topics, it’s necessary that we think out loud while helping them. This way we are modeling how we choose a topic that is just right. We aren’t just saying, “Yes that’s a great choice.” or “No it’s not.” We are explaining our thoughts and reasons why with them. \n\nAnother aspect in planning to write is gathering research\n- depending on what genre you are focusing on, some research may be involved\n - Gathering research can refer to collecting information about a particular topic in which the student is unfamiliar, like a particular person, place, or event.(i.e. Feature Article) OR gathering research can refer to topics that they are familiar with, like a specific moment in their life(i.e. Memoir/Slice of Life)\n- similar with other aspects of the writing process, students benefit from observing how their teacher gathers appropriate resources and how to research their chosen topic. through (guided practice.)\n- Students need to ask the question, “What do I need to know about this topic in order to begin writing about it?” and go from there. \n -The more students gather writing around their topics, the more they will have to work with when they begin drafting.\n\nAll of these: Brainstorming, jotting down ideas, discussing with others, choosing an appropriate topic, and gathering necessary research- Are things that good writers do, and these are things students should be doing as well before they write. \n\n
  • Christine\n-Students should be writing everyday for an extended amount of time every day, it helps build their stamina\n- They are writing for an authentic audience and purpose in mind. \n-In district 96 we have a Wiki where we post ideas for publishing or sharing a piece-writing contests, digital storytelling for kindergartners, blogging, podcasts to share on class webpage, letters that are really going to be mailed, pen pals. \n- After students begin to write, teachers are continuing to immerse students. it’s not something that is just finished once they begin to write. \n-Social studies and science are perfect times to immerse students in literature. Immersing throughout the content areas. \n- Student should know how, and when to seek help and find resources to guide them once they begin to write. They can re-read books used in Read Alouds, to look for ways to create leads, endings, details, or organization.\n\n
  • Maria\nThere are 2 types of writing conferences to have with students: revision (which focuses on content) and editing (which focus on grammar, spelling, punctuation). In both of these conferences the first thing the teacher will do in the conference is celebrate what the student has done well. The student should read the piece of writing to the teacher first and the student should be holding the pen. If a student needs a suggestion, it should be written on a sticky note vs. the teacher writing the suggestion in pen on the paper.\n\nIndividual conferences are one-to-one between teacher and student. They are only effective if the teacher asks real questions about the student’s thinking process and ideas, rather than just telling the student what to fix. \n\nPeer conferences-a student conferences with another student about their writing. Research has shown that peer revision is not as effective as peer editing. Peer conferences requires training students to work together constructively and meaningfully.\n\nRevision Conferences: Revision means literally to see again. We want students to revise with a mindset of will my writing make sense to my readers? When students write for real audiences that matter to them. An awareness of audience sensitizes writers to their readers and encourages revision. \nOnce a student has completed a first draft, revision conferences are always done before editing. Teachers need to help the student with precise language, unnecessary words, confused meaning, and clear organization. The teacher are not revising and editing simultaneously. It’s difficult to work on content and editing at the same time. Writers can experience writer’s block and lose concentration when editing becomes too much of a focus.\n\n\n
  • Sarah\nWhole Class Share is a formal conference done publicly, one student in front of the class. The teacher is doing exactly what he or she would do in a one-on-one conference; the only difference is that all the students are looking on, listening. Having students “listen in” pays huge dividends, because everyone is being shown effective conference strategies and procedures. All students are learning about their own writing through the work of one student.\n\n
  • Maria\nEditing Conferences: Editing is concrete and more noticeable so, typically teachers feel comfortable to discuss this part when conferencing with students. \nOnce students have done their best job with the content of writing, you can move on to editing. An editing conference is about the final clarity and correctness of writing. A conference with a student should be no longer than 5 minutes for a two page paper. The teacher should edit for the student only what the student cannot do. When students write with a valued reader in mind, they are likely to take conventions seriously.\n\nThe K-8 teachers brainstormed a nonnegotiable editing expectations list for each grade level. This is a list of editing expectations that are appropriate for students to apply to their own writing. Each year, teachers create a nonnegotiable list for writing with their classes. Once the list is developed and posted in the classroom, the editing responsibility lies more on the student. When a teacher has an editing conference with a student and notices that the student has not done all he or she could do from the class expectations then the student should go back to the editing list and continue editing. When a teacher established well-defined editing expectations with the students it requires students to do most of the editing work themselves.\n\n\n
  • Maria\n\nMini-lessons are explicit teaching opportunities that are crucial for students to become more proficient and independent as writers. This lesson is a teacher’s forum for making a suggestion, raising a concern, exploring an issue, modeling a technique, or reinforcing a strategy. Mini-lessons typically arise when the teacher has conference with a student or has read a students writing sample. In mini-lessons we teach into our students in intentions. As teachers we need to carefully pay attention to what the writer is trying to say, and help them say it. Mini-lessons can focus on content or grammar. They can be a lesson for an entire class, individual, or small group. Mini-lessons can and should take place any time students are writing-as part of your demonstration, teaching, during shared writing. It is not a lesson that you may use at the beginning of a writing class.\n\n
  • Maria\n\nHand Over More Responsibility to Students-Our overall goal with students as writers is to have them monitor their own writing and problem solve independently so they can draft, rewrite, revise, publish, and edit mostly on their own. Shifting the responsibility of conferences to students is a gradual process but a necessary one. We don’t want students to rely on our next moves. Ultimately, we want students to become their own best critics and hold internal conferences with themselves. Like all good teaching and learning, it’s a process that requires explicit teaching along with ongoing support, guidance, and practice.\n\n
  • Maria\nIn district 96 students are writing for an audience and purpose so, it is important to publish pieces for your audience. In preparation for sharing with an audience, the teacher and students will need to decide when a piece of writing is “finished”. Students can choose to present a final draft by recopying in their neatest handwriting, typing, illustrating (if appropriate) or binding their writing. In the younger grades, students may sometimes do “informal publishing”. This means publishing a students work exactly how they wrote it. Typically this would be most appropriate for kindergarten and first grade. Expecting the emerging writer to publish and correct spelling and grammar is not realistic.\n\n
  • The teachers in our district determine how their class will publish the piece when planning the genre unit. Students publish pieces in different formats in order to share with their audience. Students create podcasts of their writing and then publish it to a web page for classmates and parents. Students may create a keynote of their writing piece. A class may have a class book with all the pieces where students take home the book and share with their families. \n\nWhen celebrating a genre unit, the students see themselves as readers and writers. Likewise, the teacher will acknowledge the students as authors. In a celebration, students can share their work with their classmates, adults, other peers, and any invited members of their community. Students take their edited draft and refine it for publishing. In bringing closure to any genre study, publishing and celebrating honors everyone’s hard work and makes the writing public.\n\n\n
  • After publishing, writers step back and reflect on the process and how it went. In district 96, students will be writing reflections at the end of 3 units of study. The writing reflection gives the student an opportunity to self-evaluate themselves. The reflection also gives the student the opportunity to create new writing goals for future writing projects. The writing reflections will go into a portfolio with the published piece. In grades K-5, the students currently have a portfolio folder. In grades 6-8, students have an electronic folder portfolio. The purpose behind the portfolio is for students to see how they grow and change as writers. Students should see how their writing quality has improved over time. These portfolios should not be confused with a collection of “Best Work”. It is meant, instead, as a record of the writer’s journey.\n\nOnce students have been taught to successfully write in a genre. Students should be encouraged to write more. Independent practice occurs once the teachers have taught students how to write successfully in a genre. Independent writing practice is key for the students to acquire the skills to be confident and successful. Just as it is necessary for students to a great deal of reading to become a competent reader, so it is with writing.\n
  • Meg\n
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  • Sarah\nWe hope you leave today with what matters most in writing to create a community of learners that love writing in your classrooms and schools.\n\nFocusing on what matters most creates successful, independent writers.\n\nWe’re leaving you today with the words of a 6th grade writer that illustrates just how effective writing instruction is that incorporates these best practices.\n\n
  • Questions\n
  • Teaching Writing through Genre Studies

    1. 1. Teaching Writing Through Genre Studies Riverside District 96 Literacy Support Team
    2. 2. Session GoalsTo focus instruction on what matters most inwriting.To plan and implement a genre study.To create a yearlong scope and sequence.
    3. 3. Riverside Public Schools District 96 Riverside, Illinois 5 schools: 4 elementary 1 middle school
    4. 4. 2009-2010Reading ISAT Results
    5. 5. Before Genre UnitsThe district writing program was very formulaic.Our focus was ISAT driven.We followed the 5 step writing process.Writing assignments were project based.
    6. 6. Why Genre UnitsReading and writing is a reciprocal process.Encompasses best practice in writing.Exposes students a variety of writing.Gives opportunities for students to develop anddeepen their understanding of a genre over time.
    7. 7. Gradual Release of Responsibility
    8. 8. Genre Unit: AssessFind out what studentsknow about a genrebefore begin unit.Use their responses toguide unit.
    9. 9. Genre Unit: Vision Immerse students in a genre with quality mentor texts. Build definition of genre together by listing characteristics.
    10. 10. Genre Unit: Vision
    11. 11. Genre Unit: Vision6th Grade Free Verse Poetry Chart
    12. 12. Genre Unit: Vision Viewer :: Kodak ynamics Format D Yorker The New ew Yorker overed in N d she disc I knew what The d if Mrs. w as a wor re an Im not su ly read it, n. rs. magazine. en, but Mrs. Byer en a fine publicatio hanks, M th was back it, it must have be Fina l Word: T r you are Byerly re ad would be the class y of us what we gin, she hereve al part of Byerly, w an Befo re the form ord out loud, ask e word at the w discuss th have would say ht mean, and then t. We would then ig en | think it m in her elem . 8:28:37 PM e was 2/8/2011 length. Sh word in a sentence Updated TODAY to use the weeks n, a few W ilson , USA lighted whe ly try to use the By Craig the other beyond de tual radi o talk show I had to stay An d she was in class would ac ldnt work, but est on a a, so eone later, som ersation. It often wou I was a gu host was in Arizon e. I got to talk nv red. night. The 0. But that was fin er lf. Cheap lled word in co re. You remembe :3 a ha ca yone up until 10 f for an hour and ee even. He ca she didnt what ever el Fr I never did e about mys y, thats for sure. etted that d thank th erap I have often regr l do — go back an life. Send a than th should al e in your me. says we a differenc ho made k. teacher w spea so to hen I valentine, was old w ean, she gone. I m . Mrs. By erly is long . I bet she was 45 gh school you, I love was in hi say thank wherever ething ? Id pe If I coul d say som ines Day, and I ho er never py Valent New York you, Hap bscriptions to The su you are, Wilson I got expire. By Craig and how . r FAQs. wspapers was atoday.com s , visit ou itor lo t about ne fore I knew it, I e way. ilson@us permission s Ed e talked a writing, and be g th E -mail cw reprints & contact Standard er, send W ed me al on n about in interested e people who help r word. High scho ol informatio and clarifications, in the ne wspap th For more ctions ideration one numbe r, listing all , for lack of a bette essor or two. One d To report corre r publication cons Include name, ph to M y mentors co llege prof e he even slappe . Jones . Fo rs@usatoday.com our corrections, go achers. A Onc en Brent to lette To view English te editor who cursed. up on Google.) Ev comments e for verification. it crusty city pica pole. (Look spurred m e on. at city and st satoday.com . s gs me with hi in Saratoga Sprin corrections .u a neighbor /English ment hool Latin Advertise ly, my high sc early on. Mrs. Byer most influence But it was e ho had th teacher, w st years hing — la to ation -bas in point — its nice a of educ In this er Superman a case ways been great Waiting for e ha ve al just ha ve to d that ther ill be. You find one. be reminde d there always w an ht time to teachers e at the rig right plac in be in the right there standing erly was Badge of y. Mrs. By Crane s The Red I was luck Stephen e, front of m her hand. in with Courage aring them e loved sh alk into her class ds, and sh w She loved wor ery few weeks Id of the ts. Ev e corner re. her studen scribbled up in th seen befo Id never and there, would be a word blac kboard, either . ly hadnt, Often it Mrs. Byer shed say. r reading, e acro ss it in he She cam
    13. 13. Genre Unit: ModelTeacher models how thegenre works by thinkingaloud.Model about the same lengthas you expect your studentsto write.Avoid taking writingsuggestions from the class.
    14. 14. Genre Unit: Model Even the youngest children realize that booksare written for them to read or hear. They arethe audience. But many students believe that theteacher is the only audience for their writing.The writer needs to know who the audience is inorder to convince the reader to continuereading. Rebecca Olness
    15. 15. Genre Unit: Shared PracticeStudents participate and share ideas whileteacher writes.Refer to genre chart and add characteristics.Imbed mini-lessons into modeling and sharedpractice.
    16. 16. Genre Unit: Plan to WriteBrainstormChoiceGather research
    17. 17. Genre Unit: Write Dedicate time every day for writing. Immerse and write throughout the curriculum.
    18. 18. Genre Unit: ConferenceFormat (individual, whole class,or peer)Revision (focus on content)Editing (focus on grammar,spelling, and punctuation)Mini-lessons (explicit, focusedlessons)Hand over more responsibilityto students.
    19. 19. Genre Unit: ConferenceFormat (individual, whole class,or peer)Revision (focus on content)Editing (focus on grammar,spelling, and punctuation)Mini-lessons (explicit, focusedlessons)Hand over more responsibilityto students.
    20. 20. Genre Unit: Conference Editing Expectations 3rd period • Spelling ◦ Run spell-check ◦ reread (out loud) at least 3-4 times ◦ look for things that make sense ◦ ask someone else to read it over ◦ check your homonyms (they’re/their/there) (your/you’re) (whether/ weather) (to/too/two) etc. ◦ use dictionary/thesaurus ◦ Google proper nouns ◦ go back to any resources you used • Check for typos • Apostrophes in contractions (don’t, can’t, won’t) • Commas in a list of 3 or more items • Capitalize 1st word in sentence • Capitalize “I” • Capitalize people’s names, specific places (countries, cities, etc.) [proper nouns] • Capitalize titles • Period, question mark, exclamation mark at the end of every sentence ◦ question mark with a question ◦ exclamation mark shows excitement (use sparingly) • Indent paragraphs • Poems are written in stanzas & lines • Prose (all non-poetry) is written in sentences & paragraphs • Punctuate dialogue correctly2nd Grade 6th Grade
    21. 21. Genre Unit: ConferenceFormat (individual, whole class,or peer)Revision (focus on content)Editing (focus on grammar,spelling, and punctuation)Mini-lessons (explicit, focusedlessons)Hand over more responsibilityto students.
    22. 22. Genre Unit: ConferenceFormat (individual, whole class,or peer)Revision (focus on content)Editing (focus on grammar,spelling, and punctuation)Mini-lessons (explicit, focusedlessons)Hand over more responsibilityto students.
    23. 23. Genre Unit: CelebratePublish (with attention to audience and purpose,content, accuracy, form, style, and presentation)Share (intended audience)Reflect (self-monitor, self-direct, and self-evaluate toimprove writing quality)Independent Practice-Encourage students to write!
    24. 24. Genre Unit: Celebrate Slice of Life Sto ries http://ce Slice of ntral1.d Lif istrict96.o Stories e The 3r rg /~rossc/R d Grad oss_Ho listene ers wor me/Slic d to ma ked ver e_o ny grea y hard writing t books studyin WELC charac written g the cr OME! writing teristic by pub aft of m memoir s that m lished emoir w ABOUT s (or as ade the author riting. MRS. R we’ve c se mem s and d They alled th oirs gre iscusse OSS em ‘Sli at. Stud d the u CLASS CULTU ce of L ents trie d their nique READIN PHOTO RAL H ife’ sto ries). E hand a G, WRITIN ALBUM ERITAG njoy! t MATH G , SPEL 3RD G HARIN ES WEBS LING W RADE G PRE ITES EBSIT NEWS SENTA SCIEN ES S LETTE TIONS CE WE LICE O RS BSITE F LIFE S SO STORY CIAL S PODC TUDIE ASTS S / GE OGRA PHY W EBSIT ES 1 of 1 pre
    25. 25. Genre Unit: Celebrate
    26. 26. Yearlong Curriculum: Genre Scope and Sequence Poetry: Simple Memoir: Literary Nonfiction: Counting/ ABC/ or Friendly Teacher Choice:K Free-verse Personal Narrative Class Book Pattern Books Correspondence (letters, notes, cards, •Procedural How-to •Lists (Narrative) (Expository) invitations, emails) Poetry: Simple Memoir: Literary Nonfiction: Procedural How-to Friendly Teacher Choice: Free-verse Personal Narrative Class or Individual Correspondence •Counting/ ABC/ or Pattern1 Book (letters, notes, cards, Books invitations, emails, (Narrative) (Expository) pen pal letters) Poetry: Simple Memoir: Literary Nonfiction Reviews Folk Tale or Fairy Teacher Choice: Couplet, Haiku Personal Narrative Individual Book Tale •Friendly Correspondence2 (letters, notes, cards, invitations, emails) (Narrative) (Expository) (Persuasive) •Fantasy Short Story Poetry: Memoir: Slice of Life Literary Nonfiction: Persuasive Letters/ Realistic Short Story Teacher Choice: Test Writing Free-verse, Feature Article Petitions •Friendly Correspondence Preparation Cinquain or (letters, notes, cards,3 Diamante invitations, emails) •Procedural How-to •Expository Nonfiction Poetry: (Narrative) Memoir (Expository) Literary Nonfiction: (Persuasive) Reviews Fable, Tall Tale or •ReviewsChoice: Teacher4 Haiku, Ode Brochure Legend •Expository Nonfiction •Biography (Narrative) (Expository) (Persuasive) Poetry: Reflective Memoir Literary Nonfiction: Expository Nonfiction Persuasive Essay or Teacher Choice: Test Writing Limerick, Free-verse Web Page or Wiki Commentary •Biography Preparation5 •Myth or Legend •ABC Books •Folk, Fairy or Tall Tale (Narrative) (Expository) (Expository) (Persuasive) •Adventure Short Story
    27. 27. Yearlong Curriculum: Genre Scope and Sequence Poetry: Reflective Memoir: Literary Nonfiction: Persuasive Essay, Myths Teacher Choice: Test Writing Free-verse Slice of Life List Articles Commentary, Letter, •Business Letters Preparation Commercial •Reviews6 •Expository Nonfiction •Literary Nonfiction: Feature Article Poetry: (Narrative)Memoir Reflective (Expository) Literary Nonfiction: (Persuasive) Persuasive Essay/ Historical Short Story •Independent Piece Teacher Choice: Free-verse, Ballad or Article Based on Political Cartoon •Monologue Contest Sonnet Interviews •Expository Nonfiction:7 Compare/Contrast •Animal Fantasy: Children’s Book Poetry: (Narrative)Memoir Reflective (Expository) Expository (Persuasive) Persuasive Editorial Hybrid Text •Independent Piece Teacher Choice: Test Writing Ode, Parody Nonfiction- Science or •Speeches Preparation8 Fair Report Commentary •Informative How-to •Oral History (Narrative) (Expository) (Persuasive) •Independent Piece
    28. 28. Yearlong Curriculum: Memoir Expectations Reflective Memoir Simple Memoir-Autobiography • Use small experiences to communicate a bigger messageK • Several sentences • Uses 1st person for strong voice • Understand that writers tell stories from their own lives 5 • Write an engaging lead that captures the interest and foreshadows the content • Understand a memoir as a brief, often intense, memory of an event or person with reflection Reflective Memoir- Slice of Life Simple Memoir-Autobiography • Write with imagery so the reader understands the feelings of the writer1 • Paragraph • Engaging beginning and satisfying ending • Tell events in order they occurred 6 • Understand that a memoir can take different forms (story, poem, vignettes, slice) • Use dialogue in a way that reflects setting and attributes of self and others Reflective Memoir Simple Memoir • Develop character (self) and show how and why they changed2 • 2 or more paragraphs • Reveals something about self or life • Describe a setting and how it is related to writer’ 7 • Describe and develop a setting and explain how it is related to the writer’s experiences • Write and ending that communicates the larger meaning of the memoir Memoir- Slice of Life Reflective Memoir • Multiple paragraphs • Experiment with different time structures (single day, flashback)3 • Tells details about the most important moments and eliminates unimportant details 8 • Create a series of vignettes that together communicate a message • Select small moments or experiences and share thinking about them in a • Use dialogue as appropriate to add to the meaning of the story way that communicates larger meaning Memoir • Write a personal narrative as a small moment and show how author Complete grade level expectations can be found in4 changes • Experiment with literary language (powerful nouns and verbs, figurative language) The Continuum of Literacy by Fountas and Pinnell. • Understand the memoirs have many characteristics of fiction
    29. 29. What Matters MostTime ImmersionGradual Release of ModelResponsibility Whole-Part-WholeAudience andPurpose ConferencesChoice ExpectationsStamina Celebration
    30. 30. Works CitedCalkins, Lucy. 1994. The Art of Teaching Writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Fountas, Irene C. and Pinnell, Gay Su. 2007. The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades K-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Su Pinnell. 2001. Guided Readers and Writers: Teaching Comprehension, Genre, and Content Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Olness, Rebecca. 2005. Using Literature to Enhance Writing Instruction: A Guide for K-5 Teachers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Ray, Katie Wood. 2006. Study Driven: A Framework for Planning Units of Study in the Writing Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Routman, Regie. 2005. Writing Essentials: Raising Expectations and Results While Simplifying Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Strickland, Dorothy S. “Whats Basic in Beginning Reading? Finding Common Ground." Educational Leadership 55 (1998): 6-10.Wallace, Brenda and Susan Radley Brown. 2008. Genre Studies in the Writing Workshop. Noyce Foundation.

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