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A study on advertisers A study on advertisers Document Transcript

  • DECLARATIONI , Mr. Segu Riyasudeen S hereby declare that this Project Report titled“A STUDY ONADVERTISERS” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the“International Executive MBA in Project Management “ is my original work and it hasnot formed the basis for the award of any other degree .Sudhir BhilarePlace :MumbaiDate:01-05-2013ABSTRACT
  • The project report titled “A STUDY ON ADVERTISERS’ PERCEPTIONABOUT INDULGE (A WEEKLY SUPPLEMENT)”along with “THE NEWINDIAN EXPRESS .” This research is done in order to study the brand image createdby indulge, a weekly supplement along with The New Indian Express. In this projectreport the introduction covers tells about the advertisers’ perception. The need of thestudy and scope for the study.The study was done by personal interview and questionnaire method with asample of 30 advertising clients of The New Indian Express. The population is chosenon volume of advertisement basis. The total volume of advertisements for four monthperiod is 10287 column centimeter.INDULGE is a fully passionate lifestyle supplement for the Chennai market.The finding of the study reveals that advertisers perceive the product as an attractingproduct that depicts the new trend wave of Chennai market. There are few limitationsin the study. The suggestion given to the company is to increase the circulation of theproduct.
  • CHAPTER – I:INTRODUCTION:1.1.INTRODUCTIONPERCEPTIONPerception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both therecognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Throughthe perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of theenvironment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience ofthe world around us; it allows us to act within our environmentPerception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation toproduce a meaningful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate,relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose,tongue, or skin. Perception, on the other hand, better describes ones ultimate experienceof the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input. In practice,sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of onecontinuous process.Perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory stimulation is translatedinto organized experienceThe perceptual process is a sequence of steps that begins with the environment and leadsto our perception of a stimulus and an action in response to the stimulus.
  • History of AdvertisingAdvertising as a discrete form is generally agreed to have begun with newspapers,in the seventeenth century, which included line or classified advertising. Simpledescriptions, plus prices, of products served their purpose until the late nineteenthcentury, when technological advances meant that illustrations could be added toadvertising, and color was also an option.An early advertising success story is that of Pears Soap. Thomas Barratt marriedinto the famous soap making family and realized that they needed to be more aggressiveabout pushing their products if they were to survive. He launched the series of adsfeaturing cherubic children which firmly welded the brand to the values it still holdstoday. he took images considered as "fine art" and used them to connote his brandsquality, purity (i.e. untainted by commercialism) and simplicity (cherubic children). He isoften referred to as the father of modern advertising.World War I saw some important advances in advertising as governments on allsides used ads as propaganda. The British used advertising as propaganda to convince itsown citizens to fight, and also to persuade the Americans to join. No less a politicalcommentator than Hitler concluded that Germany lost the war because it lost thepropaganda battle: he did not make the same mistake when it was his turn. One of theother consequences of World War I was the increased mechanization of industry - andhence increased costs which had to be paid for somehow: hence the desire to create needin the consumer which begins to dominate advertising from the 1920s onward.ADVERTISERS’ PERCEPTIONAdvertiser Perceptions provides media company executives with essential insightnecessary for increasing ad sales, market share and competitive advantage.
  • DEFINITION - ADVERTISINGAdvertising is• paid for• a way of promoting products, services or information• a form of communication (between manufacturer and consumer)• a physical commodity• an integral part of pop culture• an important economic force• a part of our urban landscapeAdvertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuadepotential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product orservice. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19thand early 20th centuries
  • 1.2.Need of the study: News paper industry get major part of their revenue through advertising This study is about advertisers’ perception on advertising in INDULGE. These studies to know the impact of indulge advertising and the brand imagecreated by the INDULGE among advertisers Findings of the study helps the new Indian express to know whether they will getrepeated advertising from their existing advertiser client and to know theirsatisfaction level.
  • SCOPE OF THE STUDYThis study undertaken for The New Indian Express aims to study and identify thepotential advertisers.This has been done by preparing a questionnaire which contains questions putforth to the respondents which would help is analyzing the willingness level ofadvertisers in advertising in INDULGE, a weekly supplement along with The New IndianExpressThis study would help in identifying the reason for advertisers advertising inINDULGE, a weekly supplement along with The New Indian Express. . All this wouldhelp in giving suggestion to The New Indian Express in improving INDULGE therebysatisfying their corporate and retail clients
  • 1.4 Objective of the study:• To study the brand image created by THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESSamong advertisers.• To find out the reason for choosing Indulge of THE NEW INDIANEXPRESS• To study on advertiser’s perception about indulge (a weekly supplement)along with to THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS.
  • 1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:INTRODUCTION:Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem isto how research is done scientifically. It consists of the different steps that aregenerally adopted by the researcher to the study his research problem along with logicbehind them. It is necessary to the researcher to develop certain tests.1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:Research design is a plan to answer whom, when, where, and how the subjectunder investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The typeof research design involved in this study is descriptive research studies.DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STUDIES:Descriptive research studies are those studies, which are concerned withdescribing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, where as diagnosticresearch study determine the frequency with which something occurs or its associationwith something else. The studies concerning whether certain variables are associated areexample of diagnostic research studies. As against this, study concerned individual,group or situation are all example of descriptive research studies. Most of the socialresearch studies come under this category from the point of view of the research design.
  • 1.5.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD:The required data was collected by both the primary and secondary sources.The data objective are describe from the research objectives and theirdetermination rests mainly on the research to translate what the decision marker wantsinto specific descriptive of the needed data.Primary: The primary data was collected from the, THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS(MADURAI) LTD., users at Chennai. The Respondents were met personally attheir establishments and questionnaire has been given to them and answeredquestionnaires were collected back. Primary data is the data gathered for the first time by the researcher by usingquestionnaire.Secondary data: Secondary data, on the other hand, is those which have already been collected bysomeone else and which already been passed through the statistical process. Secondary data pertaining to this study was obtained from company documents,broachers, departmental information’s websites etc.1.5.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS:
  • Instrument : Questionnaires (personal administered)Instrument Design : Both open end enclose endedQuestion and used in questionnaires.Questionnaire DesignA well structured questionnaire was used for this study. The types ofquestions used in the questionnaire were open-ended, multiple-choice andDichotomous questions.1. Open-end questions are questions, which are entitled to give a freeresponse to their choice.2. Multiple-choice questions are question, which contain a list of answerand permit the subject to select the best answer.1.5.4 SAMPLING:Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from thepopulation, so that a study of sample and an understanding of its properties orcharacteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties orcharacteristics to the population elements.SAMPLEING PLAN: Sampling technique : Cluster sample Sample size : Sample size chosen here for this studywas 30 as suggested by the company Sample unit : Advertisers in Chennai market
  •  Time Dimension :period on 26thJune 09 to 31stJuly09SAMPLE DESIGN:A Sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from given population.It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selection itemsfor the sample. Sample may as well lay down the number of items to be included in thesample namely, the size of the sample.Probability sampling:Make a specific mention of it in the thesis. So that the conclusions would beevaluated accordingly. probability sampling refers to the sampling process in which thesamples are selected for a specific purpose with a pre-determined basis of selection. Thistype of samples is also required at times when random selection may not be possible.Therefore the reliability of conclusions based on this type of sampling is less. Whenevera researcher uses this type of sampling.Cluster Sampling:Cluster sampling method suggests, the samples are selected at different stages. Inthis method, the population is first divided into different stages. Then from the firststage, a few items are selected at random based on a specific feature or characteristic.From these in the second stage, a few elements are selected at random possessing, hecharacteristic. From which in the third stage a few are selected at random satisfying thecharacteristic and so on to finally make the necessary selection of samples. All thesamples selected at random at different stages will posses the common characteristic orwill be homogeneous on some basis.Cluster sampling involves arranging elementary items in a population intoheterogeneous subgroups that are representative of the overall population. One suchgroup constitutes a sample for study.
  • SAMPLING SIZE:The total numbers of respondents are termed as sample size. The samplesize for this analysis is 30 respondents.SAMPLING UNIT:Sampling unit is that of “who is to be surveyed”. The survey is on advertisersof THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS (MADURAI) LTD.PERIOD OF STUDY:The research is carried out for one month (26-01-13 to 31-02-13).1.5.5 SATISTICAL TOOLS:The collected data has been subjected to analyses by unit’s appropriatetools, percentage, chi – square.The information gathered analyzed by using the following appropriate toolsuch as: Percentage Analysis Chi – Square testPercentage Analysis:Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. It is used to make comparisonbetween two or more series of data. They can be used to compare the relative
  • items, the distribution of two or more series of data since the percentage reduceeverything as common base and allow the meaningful comparisons to be made.Percentage refers to the special kind of ratio percentage are used inmaking comparison between two or more series of data. Percentages are used todescribe relationship.FORMULA:No. of respondentsPercentage (%) = _________________________ X 100Total respondentsBar chart and Pie charts are used to explain the tabulation clearly.Chi – Square test:This test is one of the simplest and most widely used non – parametric inStatistical work, when certain observed values of the variable are to be comparedwith the expected value.The chi – square is computed on the basis of frequencies in a sample andthus the value of chi – square. So, obtained in a statistic chi – square is not aparameter as its value is not derived from the observations in population, Hencechi – square test is a non – parametric test. Chi – Square test is not concerned withany population distribution and its observation.The chi – square test was first used in testing statistical hypothesis by karlperson in the year. 1900 it is defined as,n (Oi – Ei) 2Chi – Square = Σ -------------
  • i =1 EiWhere,Oi = Observed frequency of ith eventEi = Expected frequency of ith eventCHAPTER 2: PROFILES2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILENews paper marketSurvey results find that traditional journalistic values remain important at market-oriented newspapers, though senior editors tend to report more interaction withdepartments outside the newsroom - including the advertising department.In a market-oriented business, the customer is unquestionably king. Thesuccessful market-oriented firm identifies a potential market opportunity, selects a groupof customers that it wants to serve and develops a strategy for efficiently meeting thewants and needs of those customers. The central business assumption is that long-runsuccess depends on a strong, organization-wide focus on customer wants and needs.1During the last decade, as the business environment has become morechallenging for daily newspapers,2 many of them have adopted a stronger marketorientation. They have concentrated both on learning what their two customer groups -advertisers and readers - say they want and need from a newspaper, and on finding waysto meet those wants and needs. In newsrooms, this has brought changes to the news-making process.
  • Rather than relying strictly on journalists expert judgment to decide what topublish in the newspaper, newsroom managers have encouraged reporters and editors topay more attention to perceived reader interests. They also have asked reporters andeditors to shape content to more closely conform to those reader interests.3 This practicehas drawn praise and criticism. Supporters have argued that it will help save dailynewspapers from irrelevance and, perhaps, extinction.4 Critics have disparaged it. 5 Theyhave charged that market-oriented news organizations:De-emphasize serious content in favor of frivolous, entertaining information.Undermine the ethical fire wall between an organizations news and business operations.Fail to live up to social obligations to disseminate the kind of public-affairs informationessential to a democracy.This article examines those assertions as it explores what it means for a newsorganization to be market oriented by asking these questions:The answers to these questions are based on a 1996 national survey of 406 senioreditors at 182 general-circulation U.S. daily newspapers. This survey differs from earlierquantitative research on market-oriented journalism in that the sample is larger and thequestionnaire more comprehensive than most other studies of this subject. In addition, thenational sample allows the findings to be generalized to all U.S. general-circulationdailies, whereas much of the earlier research has had a statewide or regional focus. Thefindings reported here should convey a fuller sense than previously published work ofwhat it means to be a market-oriented daily newspaper in the mid-1990sAdvertisers Media Selection in Small Newspaper Markets.As the market becomes continually more competitive for advertising dollars,newspapers need to develop more sophisticated sales strategies.(1) Yet, due to personnel limitations and other economic considerations, smallernewspapers may find compiling data and developing sales strategies to be daunting tasks.
  • Some relief is granted by the typical advertisers in small communities -- local merchants.They may not demand data that is as sophisticated as that required in larger marketsbecause the vast majority of advertisers in smaller markets are not very knowledgeableabout market conditions.(2) This does not absolve newspaper sales personnel from knowing theiradvertisers. In writing about the relationship between national advertisers and a samplecomprised mostly of larger dailies, Daniel Stout concluded that when a salespersoncomes to understand the factors that influence the advertiser, "the skills of that person areenhanced."(3) The same could be said about the relation ship between advertisingrepresentatives at smaller newspapers and their clients. Even in those markets, assalespeople develop better skills, they may increase the ad revenues that will help fund animproved news product.Newspapers in ChennaiThere are a number of newspapers that are published from Chennai city. Some of thewidely read newspapers in Chennai are:• The Hindu: The Hindu is one of the premier English dailies not only in Chennaibut also in India. The newspaper was founded in the year 1878 and was publishedon a weekly basis. However, the newspaper was made a daily in the year 1889.The English daily employs the advanced technology for page designing andprinting. The paper is rated among the 10 best papers of the world.• The New Indian Express: This is another English daily published from Chennai.The newspaper was established in the year 1932. The newspaper is publishedfrom Karnataka, Kerala, Coimbatore, Kochi, Hyderabad, Bangalore and AndhraPradesh.• The Deccan Chronicle: The Deccan Chronicle is the fourth largest Englishlanguage daily in India. The daily is published from Tamil Nadu and AndhraPradesh. The cartoon strips featuring on the cover page and inside pages of thenewspaper are its main characteristic. It is the largest circulated daily inHyderabad.Some of the regional newspapers published in Chennai are Dinamalar, Thanthi,Dinakaran, Ananda Vikatan, Dinamani, Viduthalai.Role of Indian Newspaper
  • Newspapers and newspaper advertising has been the mostimportant tool in shaping the growth and development of any society in the modernworld. More than anything, they have been very instrumental in bridging thecommunication gap between people that contributes to the air of awareness in a society.Since the very first day that the oldest newspaper in the world had madeits appearance, there has been seen progressive changes that have catapulted the Status ofevery society to new levels of evolution from time to time. The newspaper industry inevery country stands out as an influential body contributing to the development of themodern society by acting as one of the most potential platformfor exchange of thoughts and opinions. Moreover, by covering a wide arrange of topicsthat are relevant to the daily lives of the people in a society, it promulgates the identity ofthe society, and acts as the dispenser of public opinions. One of the most crucial tasks ofthe newspaper industry is its contribution towards the economic and industrialdevelopment of a country throughits assimilation of the people’s voice.The Indian newspaper industry has passed various stages of evolution toreach the status that it enjoys today – that of a leading press arena in the world. There arehundreds of newspapers that reach out to the people of this vast country in enormousnumbers every morning. A typical Indian daily newspaper is the staple diet for a typicalIndian, bringing him/her news from all over the globe. Since daily newspapers succeed inattracting more readerships, an Indian daily newspaper is the order of the morning foreager news hungry readers across the country. By garnering an increasing number ofsubscribers in the form of readers, newspapers clearlyreflect the individuality of a reader and the country as well. The growth in the circulationof newspapers in the country results in the overall economic prosperity of the country,elevating it to higher levels. An Indian daily newspaper strikingly plays a significant rolein the structural shaping of the country’s economical development. In fact, the newspaperindustry of any country for that matter spreads knowledge and awareness amongst thepeople by propagating itself as a medium for a wide area of topics such as politics, sports,social issues, medicine, entertainment, advertising and marketing and so on. Thesefactions gel between each other on paper to rope in prosperity for a country by cashing ineconomicprosperity.Newspaper Industry in IndiaNewspapers shape the nation and it holds true for India as well. Evenbefore India got independence, newspapers played a major role in spreading the issue ofindependence. Today, India has over 300 big newspapers, besides hundreds of mediumand small-sized ones. And the number is increasing almost everyday as existingnewspapers bring out new editions apart from new players joining the bandwagon. Morerecently, Metro International, Sweden is in talks with ABP group to launch their daily‘Metro’ in India. The negotiations are on and very soon the deal would be done.Similarly, UK based Associated Newspapers and India Today Group have entered into a
  • joint venture to launch the ‘Daily Mail’ in India. With such international newspapersforaying into the Indian market, the future of the newspaper industry at large, lookspromising. Little doubt then that Ifra is set to hold its popular event IfraExpo for the firsttime in India.There was a time when select group of newspapers were ruling a particular regionand they all were self-contained and did not wish to foray into other regions. Forexample, Hindustan Times was confined to Delhi region, The Hindu in Chennai region,while Tribune was dedicated to Ambala (later Chandigarh), Anandabazar Patrika wasconfined in West Bengal and Bhaskar in Gujarat and so on.The Indian Express group launched its Marathi daily ‘Loksatta’ in Bangalore andHyderabad. Deccan Chronicle Holdings Ltd launched the Chennai edition of DeccanChronicle and they are now planning to bring out a Bangalore edition as well. HT MediaLtd launched a new edition in Kolkata and lately in Mumbai. They also relaunched HTNext, targeted at students of age group 12 to 16 years with its new campaign ‘I am next’.Business newspapers have also branched into new editions in newerterritories. Financial Express, the business daily, launched its Pune edition while BusinessStandard launched its Bhubaneshwar edition. Another business newspaper (20 pagescolour and 4 pages black-andwhite) launched was ‘Mint’ from the Hindustan Timesgroup in Delhi and Mumbai. After these two cities, HT Media plans to launch Mint inKolkata and Chandigarh, giving competition to Economic Times from Times of Indiagroup. DNA Money launched its Ahmedabad edition for the Gujarati businessmen andalso a stand-alone Mumbai edition, even though it continues to be available as asupplement along with the main paper ‘DNA’ in Mumbai. DNA Money is planning tobring out its Jaipur edition as well. The Times Group has launched a Gujarati languageedition of The EconomicTimes.It’s really surprising that how fierce competitors join hands to form new strategies- first it was in collective marketing campaigns and now a joint newspaper as well. As anew marketing alliance, Business Standard has tied up with Desh Pardes Ni AajKaal, aGujarati evening newspaper, for advertising combination. This step has been taken togrow the circulation of Business Standard in Saurashtra and Kutch regions.RECENT ISSUES IN NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY
  •  The print media industry is saying it is not as bullish as it was last yearHindustan Times and Times of India jointly launched a newspaper ‘Metro Now,’a morning tabloid targeted at the age group of 18-30 years. Metro Now is published byMetropolitan Media; a 50:50 joint venture between HT Media and The Times of Indiagroup. Even though the tabloids have not been very successful in the past, specially inDelhi, but this market is now set to experience world-class changes as three majortabloids are lined up for Delhi region alone - first it was Metro Now and recently MidDay group has relaunched its afternoon tabloid ‘Mid Day Delhi’ on the same contentlines as ‘Mid Day Mumbai.’ Both the newspapers are targeted at the young readers whoare regularly on the move. Besides, the Times of India group is set to launch BangaloreMirror, another tabloid for the IT city Bangalore. In terms of adopting new technologies,the newspapers have realized that customer is the king and amidst so many choices,readers would go for newspapers that are more reader-specific, content-rich and givevalue for money. The blackand- white technology is becoming passé whether it is amobile phone or a newspaper. Today, readers prefer all-colour editions and more andmore newspapers have come out with all-colour editions. This has necessitated thenewspaper publishers to opt for CtP technology, which by default has improved the printquality and reduced the waste percentage. Besides, the newspapers are also going in formakeover of their publications, in terms of layout, font and sometimes even masthead.For this, they are spending substantial money and are even taking help of internationaldesigners. The cut-off size 546 mm is preferred over 578 mm, which has resulted insavings in newsprint cost. The price of the newspapers also dwindled and somenewspapers even went to the extent of offering their newspaper at Re 1 only. The newlylaunched Metro Now newspaper is also offered for a cover price of Re 1 only andprovides 40 pages in colour and 8 in black-and-white.Top newspapers in India are now opting for high-speed web presses likethat of Goss, MAN Roland, Mitsubishi and mailroom systems from Ferag and MullerMartini. However, the majority of newspapers are continuing their production onindigenously produced equipment. With this impressive growth in the industry, it is hightime that the highend manufacturers from developed countries may enter into India eitherin collaboration with local manufacturers or independently to tap the growing demand.Infact, a little bird has informed that a leading foreign manufacturer is in talks with alocal web press manufacturer to jointly set up a new manufacturing facility in India. Itwould indeed be a major step in this industry and the effect would be for all of us to see.Quality has become an important factor in the industry and Indian newspapers arecontinuously investing in quality control equipments. The demand for automaticregistration control systems has increased to the extent that leading manufacturer QI Newsprint prices have increased 50% in the last 6 months Indian Newspaper Society has advised its member-publications to reduce their newsprintconsumption by 20% To tide over the crisis, INS members are pressing for a 30% increase in governmentadvertising rates Newspapers may see a 10% drop in ad volume
  • Press Controls is planning to come up with manufacturing activities in India.2.2 COMPANY PROFILE:The New Indian Express is a newspaper with its head office based in Chennai insouth India. It was started in 1932 as the Indian Express, under the ownership ofChennai-based Veradharajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of the then ownerRamnath Goenka, the Goenkas family split the group into two separate companies. Thenorthern editions, headquartered in Mumbai, retained and renamed Indian Express intoThe Indian Express title, while the southern editions became The New Indian Express.The two newspapers used to share articles till early 2008, but they are now very muchdifferent corporate entities. The newspaper is known for its intrepid and anti-establishment tone.Express Network Private Limited was incorporated on 13.8.99 under the IndianCompanies Act, 1956. The company was promoted by The New Indian Express Group.The objects of the company include, among other things, carrying on the businessof network and software.Express Network Private Limited and Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd., comeunder The New Indian Express Group of Companies. The major organisation in theGroup is Express Publications (Madurai) Limited; it brings out the prestigious Englishlanguage newspaper The New Indian Express from 21 centres spread over the foursouthern states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and also Orissa.Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd is also the publisher of two vernacularnewspapers. These are Dinamani in Tamil and Kannada Prabha in Kannada. The Groupalso publishes the following magazines: Cinema Express (Tamil), Malayalam Vaarika(Malayalam) and Tamilan Express (Tamil).Express Publications (Madurai) Limited , (formerly Indian Express (Madurai)Limited) was incorporated on 11th April 1959 under the Indian Companies Act, 1956 and
  • has its Registered Office at Express Garden, 29 Second Main Road, Ambattur IndustrialEstate, Chennai 600 058.Express (Madurai) Group is an independent Group, Publishing Newspapers andPeriodicals in the States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa andUnion Territories of Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Enam and Lakshdweep.The Companys publications include Dailies viz.• The New Indian Express in English (the southern editions of The Indian Expressrenamed as "The New Indian Express", effective from 28-12-98),• Dinamani in Tamil,• Kannada Prabha in Kannada.HistoryIndian Express was started in 1932 at Chennai by an Ayurvedic doctor and IndianNational Congress member Varadarajulu Naidu, publishing from his “Tamil Nadu” press.But soon under financial difficulties, he sold it to S Sadanand, founder of the The FreePress Journal, another English news paper.In 1933, The Indian Express opened its second office in Madurai and launched theTamil edition Dinamani. Sadanand introduced several innovations and reduced the price,but was later forced to sell part of the stake in form of convertible debentures to RamnathGoenka due to financial difficulties. Later, when his The Free Press Journal further wentinto financial crunch in 1935, Sadanand lost the ownership of Indian Express after a longcontroversial court battle with Goenka, where blows were exchanged between some ofthe parties. Finally, a year later, Goenka bought the rest of the 26 per cent stake fromSadanand, and the paper came under Goenkas control who took the already anti-establishment tone of the paper to greater heights. Also at that time it had to face stiffcompetition from a well established The Hindu and the Mail besides other prominentnewspapers. In late 1930s the circulation was no more than 2000
  • In 1939 it also bought out Andhra Prabha, another prominent Telugu Daily. Laterit gained the name Three Musketeers for the three dailies. In 1940 the whole premiseswere gutted by fire. The Hindu, its rival, helped considerably in re-launching the paper,by getting it printed temporarily at one of its Swadesimithran’s press and later offering itsrecently vacated premises at 2, Mount Road later to become the landmark ExpressEstates.This relocation also helped the Express obtain better high speed printingmachines, while some claimed the Goenka had deliberately set fire to escape financialembarrassment.In later years, Goenka started the Mumbai edition with the landmark ExpressTowers as his office when the Morning Standard was bought by him in 1944. Two yearslater to become it became the Mumbai edition of The Indian Express. Later on, editionswere started in several cities like Madurai (1957), Bangalore (1965) and Ahmedabad(1968). The Financial Express was launched in 1961 from Mumbai, Kannada Prabha(Kannada Daily) from Bangalore in 1965 and a Bangalore edition of the Telugu DailyAndhra Prabha, and Gujarati dailies Lok Satta and Jansatta in 1952, from Ahmedabadand Baroda.The Delhi edition started was when the Tej groups Indian News Chronicle wasacquired in 1951, which from 1953 became the Delhi edition of Indian Express. In 1990it bought the Sterling group of magazines, and along with it the Gentleman magazine.After Goenkas demise in 1991, two of the family members split the group intoIndian Express Mumbai with all the North Indian editions, while the Southern editionswere grouped as Express Madurai Ltd with Chennai as headquarters.The New Indian Express daily is published from the following cities:• Bangalore• Belgaum• Bhubaneswar
  • • Chennai• Coimbatore• Hyderabad• Kochi• Kozhikode• Madurai• Shimoga• Thiruvananthapuram• Tiruchy• Vijayawada• Visakhapatnam.Express Network Private Limited is subsidiary company of Express Publications(Madurai) Limited. It has been granted licence by Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd. touse the under mentioned websites registered in its name:www.indiavarta.comwww.newindpress.comwww.dinamani.comwww.kannadaprabha.comwww.andhraprabha.comwww.apweekly.comwww.cinemaexpress.comwww.malayalamvarikha.comwww.tamilanexpress.com
  • The Companys publications include Dailies viz.• The New Indian Express in English (the southern editions of The Indian Expressrenamed as "The New Indian Express", effective from 28-12-98),• Dinamani in Tamil,• Kannada Prabha in Kannada.In adition to dailies, the company also brings out magazines.• Cinema Express (Tamil)• Malayalam Vaarika (Malayalam)• Tamilan Express (Tamil).Its various supplements, which appear on a weekly or fortnightly basis, include• The new Sunday express (Sunday)• i.witness and i.witness 2 ( Sunday magazines)• Zeitgeist (Saturday)• Indulge (Friday)• Expresso ( daily-Chennai)• City express
  • CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE SURVEY:3.1.CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL REVIEWAdvertising Perception Survey ExpertsDefinition: Advertising Perception Survey - In the context of litigation, an advertisingperception survey is a study commissioned by a challenger seeking to show that acompetitors advertising contains implied messages that are false or misleading.WhatAdvertisersThinkThe largest multi-client study of media decision makers in the world, TheAdvertiser Intelligence Reports (AIR) provides media executives with the plans andopinions of more than 1,500 advertising decision-makers (agency and marketer), bymedia decision making responsibility, across twelve major advertising categories, aboutmore than 300 leading online, print and television media brands.Key Measures and Trends by leading Online Media Brands, Magazines, NationalNewspapers and Television Networks include:• Advertising Consideration• Advertising Plans• Media Selection Criteria• Perceptions of Media Brands by Selection Criteria• Perceptions of Marketing Effectiveness• Perceptions of Sales Coverage• Perceptions of Salespeople
  • • Advertiser Satisfaction• Plans to Increase, Decrease and Maintain Ad SpendingMeasured Advertising Categories Include:• Entertainment• Finance• Home Furnishings and Appliances• Liquor, Beer and Wine• Pharmaceuticals and Health Care• Retail• Technology and Consumer Electronics• Toiletries and Cosmetics (Beauty)Advertiser Perceptions: Optimism down for 2008The forecasts predicting an upswing in online advertising and an increase inbudgets may have been a bit off, at least for the first six months of 2008. According to themost recent Advertiser Perceptions survey, advertising executives have doubts about theonline spend increasing at high rates this year.The survey found that 76% of advertising executives not feel that online adbudgets will increase; a decrease of 3% over the last survey. About 21% of executivesfeel budgets will stay the same.Online budgets arent the only ones to suffer. According to the survey 16% ofadvertising executives and media buyers expect the share of radio advertising to increase;in the spring of 2007 26% of marketers expected radios ad budget to increase.Broadcast television has also seen a decrease. Only 22% of executives expectbudgets to increase in the broadcast arena compared to 29% in spring 07.
  • Magazines and newspaper budgets are also expecting a decline (24% and 37%respectively). Outdoor advertising budgets could see a 22% decline. Meanwhile mobile isalso expected to slide a bit, from 55% expecting an increase to 48%.PERCEPTIONFred luthans opines, “Perception is an important meditating cognitive processthrough which person make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are facedwith.”Stephen. P. Robbins defines perception as “a process by which individualsorganize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to theenvironment.”Perception is the process through which information from the outsideenvironment is selected, received, organized, and interpreted to make it meaningful toyou. Perception refers to interpretation of sensory. In other works sensation involvesunderstanding what the stimulus means.Characteristics of the perceiver:The characteristics of the perceiver include such factors such as needs, values,experience and attitudes. A persons needs, habits, impacts of past experience ethics andpersonality all influence the perceptual process.Characteristics of the perceived:It may defy logic and objectivity but perception about others are influenced bytheir physical characteristics such as appearance, facial expression, age, gender, mannerof communication as well as personality traits and other forms of behavior.
  • Eg. When we see persons to be assertive and confident we assume him to be anexecutive or leader.Perceptual Selectivity:Perceptual selectivity refers to the tendency to select certain objects from theenvironment for attention such that these objects are consistent with our existing beliefs,values and needs.Advertisement:Definition:“Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of goods services orideas by an identified” – AMAADVERTISERAdvertising is a form of communication used to help sell products and services.Typically it communicates a message including the name of the product or service andhow that product or service could potentially benefit the consumer.“Advertiser” means a person, firm or company whose products, goods orservices are the subject matter of the Advertisement. The manufacturer, ServiceCompany, retailer, or supplier who advertises their product or service.The advertiser is commonly interpreted as a commercial organization which has theparamount objective of making profits out of its business activities. Profits are usuallygenerated through marketing or trading activity, apart case, marketing has a role to playas the yield for investments in other companies and assets will, in turn depend on themarketing activity of the latter. The communication logic will, however, also apply to
  • the types of advertisers which may have a societal or political objective. Advertising forfamily planning, road safety and the like, and election campaigns are no different in thisrespect.NEWSPAPER ADVERTISINGThe bulk of newspapers revenue comes from advertising - the contribution fromsales is small by comparison. On average, a newspaper generates 80% of its revenue fromadvertising and 20% from sales. The portion of the newspaper that is not advertising iscalled editorial content, editorial matter, or simply editorial, although the last term is alsoused to refer specifically to those articles in which the newspaper and its guest writersexpress their opinions.Newspapers have been hurt by the decline of many traditional advertisers.Department stores and supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages ofnewspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much less likely to do sonow. [Additionally, newspapers are seeing traditional advertisers shift to new mediaplatforms. The classified category is shifting to sites including Craig list, employmentwebsites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many types of digital contentincluding websites, rich media platforms, and mobile.In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most commonlyrecognized as an opposite-editorial which third-parties pay a fee to have included in thepaper. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques.Newspaper trendsNewspaper flourished for decades in the face of radio, television, and the internet.However, advances in web syndication and news aggregation online are placing seriouspressures on the current model of newspaper distribution and ad placement.
  • Need for Advertising:The question often asked is: ‘why does a developing country like India needadvertising’Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer informationwhich enables him or her to compare and choose from the products and servicesavailable. Advertising enables consumers to exercise their right of free choice.Advertising being a necessary means of communication is an inseparable part offree speech. Any restriction on the right to recommend legitimate goods, services r ideasin public will diminish the fundamental right of the freedom of speech.Advertising is the promotion of a product or service and is extremely pervasive incontemporary society. To maximize sales, companies will pay a premium for wideexposure through the mass media. Advertising space is common, but not restricted tothese realms; billboards, public transportation, movies (product placement), schools,clothing, even bathroom stalls carry ads and the industry is constantly finding new waysto advertise.NEWSPAPER ADVERTISINGThe newspaper is a product borne of necessity, invention, the middle class,democracy, free enterprise, and professional standards.Pre-history "newspapers" were one-to-one in nature. The earliest variation on anewspaper was a daily sheet published in 59 BC in Rome called Acta Diurna (DailyEvents), which Julius Caesar ordered posted throughout the city. The earliest knownprinted newspaper was in Beijing in 748.In 1451, Johannes Gütenberg uses a press to print an old German poem, and twoyears later prints a 42-line Bible -- the significance being the mass production of print
  • products, ushering in an era of newspapers, magazines, and books. By 1500, the genesisof a postal system can be seen in France, while book publishing becomes popularthroughout Europe and the first paper mill can be found (England).The rise of the middle class transformed newspapers in the 1800s. A penny(US$0.01) buys a New York newspaper in 1833, opening up the first mass market fornewspapers. In 1847, the telegraph is used as a business tool, transforming far-awaystories. In 1873, an illustrated daily newspaper can be seen in New York. In 1878 the firstfull-page newspaper advertisements appear, and in 1880 the first photographs are seen innewspapers, using halftones.With the basic technical groundwork for the modern newspaper in place by thelate 19th century, the story of newspapers in the 20th century was about professionaldevelopment and adaptation to changing consumer and media markets. The story alsoinvolved an evolving business model that rode an ever-growing wave of mass-marketadvertising. Increased profitability and higher revenues attracted publicly ownedcorporations interested in buying newspapers from descendants of company founders,while simultaneously exposing newspapers to the whims of cash- and profit-hungry stockmarkets.By 2000, newspapers were juggling priorities: fragmentation of newsconsumption, fragmentation of advertising investments, the advantages anddisadvantages of being a mass medium, balancing the wants of the marketplace with thecompanys duty to provide the needs of the marketplace, a journalistic backlash againstindustry changes, the sheer physicality of ink-on-paper production and distribution versusdigital distribution, increasing profit pressure surrounding the core print product, andextension of the companys core brand into other profit centers.
  • Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuadepotential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product orservice. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19thand early 20th centuries.Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those productsand services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image”. For thesepurposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factualinformation. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television,radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags, billboardsand mail or post. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of acompany or other organization.Organizations that frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sellswhat is not, strictly speaking, a product or service include political parties, interestgroups, religious organizations, and military recruiters. Non-profit organizations are nottypical advertising clients, and may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as publicservice announcements.Money spent on advertising has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2007,spending on advertising has been estimated at over $150 billion in the United States and$385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $450 billion by 2010.While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not withoutsocial costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become soprevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as beinga financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising is increasingly invadingpublic spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. Inaddition, advertising frequently utilizes psychological pressure (for example, appealing tofeelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.ADVERTISING IN INDIA
  • Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those productsand services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image". For thesepurposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factualinformation. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television,radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags, billboardsand mail or post. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of acompany or other organization.3.2 LITERATURE REVIEWS.NO REFERENCES RELATED LEARNING1 Advertiser perception of theinternet as a marketingcommunication vehicle: CasestudybyKhalid Alrawi and Walid AlrawisourceAfrican Journal of MarketingManagement Vol. 1(2) pp. 062-069 May, 2009Available onlinehttp://www.academicjournals.org/ajmm©2009 Academic Journals• The overriding finding ofthe study is that the scope of Internet usageas a mediais affected by managements perceptions ofthe effectivenessof their websites as marketing tools.• The researcher’s recommendation in thiscontext is thatfirms should develop and evaluate a web-based methodologyfor evaluating the effectiveness ofpromotionalwebsites
  • 2 The public’s perception ofadvertising in today’sSocietybySally Ford-Hutchinson andAnnie RothwellSource:The Thinking Shop9 Kenneth CrescentLondonNW2 4PS• Advertising is everything with a name onit• Life without advertising would be dull• Advertising is an indicator of businesshealth• ‘Clever’ advertising is good advertising• Advertising is all -embracing :The allembracing concept of advertising was awidely held one although the olderrespondents (anyone over the age of 25)3 CHILDRENS’ PERCEPTIONON TV ADVERTISINGA CASE STUDY OF 3RDGRADERS IN SWEEDENBY: MARIA ERRSONULRIKA KOBINSOURCE: Lulea university oftechnologyBachelor thesisMarketingDepartment of businessadministration and socialsciencesDivision of indusialmarketing and e-commerce• The findings of this studty reveals thatchildren are affected by tvadvertisements and more they watch themore they are affected.• They are highly influenced by peers.• Furthermore, their behaviour towardsparents and pester more are also affectedby their viewing of advertisements.• The most memorable commercialadvertisements for the children appearsto be the ones using humours andcelebrities. Furthermore children abilityto distinguish between reality and fictionis possible for this age group.4 Brand Perception & BrandEquity of Baby AccessoryProducts in Working Moms’• working moms who were using differencesbrand would beperceived their brand with difference ways.
  • PerspectivebyPhusit Wonglorsaichon* andPaitoon SathainrapabayutsourceInternational Review ofBusiness Research PapersVol. 4 No.1 January 2008Pp.385-395• Working mom who were using Pigeonperceived that Pigeon was innovating, Aventwas modernizing and Chicco was safety fortheir babies.• These results were based on marketingcommunication programs that have beenimplementing from each brand inorder to create their brand characteristic andbrand differentiation from otherplayers.5 CORPORATE BRANDIMAGE: ANTECEDENTS,MEDIATING ROLE ANDIMPACT ONSTAKEHOLDERSEXPECTATIONbyPrathab oburaiYLR moorthiChew kok waiMichael j bakerSource:INDIAN INSTITUTE OFMANAGEMENT,AHMEDABAD• Corporate brand image is impacted mostby the brand awareness constructgeneral expectation construct have lessimpact• Corporate brand image on its own is asignificant predictor of specificexpectations• Corporate brand image mediates the bestof brand awareness6 Australian andTaiwanese AdvertisersPerceptions of InternetMarketing• With the Internet being a relatively newcommunication medium, the perceptionsof advertising agencies on the use andfuture of Internet marketing hasimportant implications for companies
  • Source:University of New SouthWalesusing these agencies to develop theiradvertising strategies.• This research investigates the perceptionof advertisers towards the use of theInternet as a communication medium7Newspapers and Their OnlineEditions:Factors that InfluenceSuccessful IntegrationbyBonnie Bressers and RobertMeeds• Because of the inherent culturaldifferences between traditionalnewspaper staff and online staff, industryanalysts have suggested that onlineworkers struggle for respect from theirnewsroom counterparts.• The perception of the relative equality ofstatus between the print and online staffswas not a significant predictor of levelsof integration, but it was positivelyassociated with managers’ reports thatobjectives have been met, suggestingthat policies and practices aimed atequalizing perceived levels of statusbetween the two groups would bedesirable.8 Selling Newspaper Advertisingon the web:A Case Study of the NewspaperAdvertising Website in AChinese Press GroupBy• The original idea of developing anewspaper advertising website is toprovide access to the latest, mostrelevant multimedia sales presentationand data.
  • Qiping Hu, M.A.Master StudentSchool of JournalismUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbia, MO 65211• Links to databases, computational toolsand forms for placing orders could alsobe on the website. Additionally,interactivity based on the websitebetween the sellers and buyers is alsoprojected.• Despite differences between the businessmodels between China and America, thetwo studies have found some commonvalues of the NAW.• But even the leading Chinese newspapertended to be more conservative about theelectronic ordering and databasefunctions.9 Advertiser Perceptions: CrossMedia Builds Purchase IntentBY:Report by research firmAdvertising Perceptions• The study found consumers expressed astronger intent to buy a particularproduct after they had been exposed toads for it on more than one medium.• That finding could lend strong support tomedia buyers looking to justify cross-media ad spend, especially since "intentto buy" is considered an important wayto measure a campaigns success.10 Advertisers Media • when a salesperson comes to understand
  • Selection in SmallNewspaper MarketsByKen Smith; NewspaperResearch Journal, Vol. 19, 1998Journal Article Excerptthe factors that influence the advertiser,"the skills of that person are enhanced."• The same could be said about therelation ship between advertisingrepresentatives at smaller newspapersand their clients.
  • CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:4.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS:TABLE NO. 4.1:INDULGE REMAINS ABOUTResponses Respondents percentageMasthead - -Supplement format 12 40Color spread 12 40Content 5 16.5Specific topic/writer 1TOTAL 30 10040 4016.53.5051015202530354045SupplementformatColor spread Content Specifictopic/writerpercentage -INFERENCES:From the above table it is found that 40% of advertisers remains about thesupplement format of the INDULGE whereas another 40% reminds about the colorfulspread , 16.5% of them remains about the content and remaining a meager 3.5% ofadvertisers remains about the specific writer of indulge
  • TABLE NO:4.2 :The best of Indulge :Responses Respondents PercentageNews spread 6 10News items in every week 4 23Columnist 2 8New product launches 11 40Interesting read as awhole7 19TOTAL 30 1002013.56.536.523.50510152025303540News spread News itemsin every weekColumnist New productlaunchesInterestingread as awholeINFERENCES:From the above table it is found that maximum of 36.5% of advertisers likes thenew product launch information in indulge, whereas 23.5% advertisers opinion is thatindulge is a interesting read as a whole.
  • TABLE NO:4.3 :Perception of Indulge.Responses Respondents PercentageGreat product - -The right fit 5 16.6A new trend wave 15 50Informative 8 26.6Another supplement 6.6TOTAL 70 1000%17%49%27%7%Great productThe right fitA new trend waveInformativeAnother supplementINFERENCES:From the above table it is found that 49% of advertisers perceive indulge as a new trendwave for Chennai market, 7% of advertisers perceived as just an another supplement.
  • TABLE NO:4.4 :The look and content of the product.Responses Respondents PercentageExcellent 0 0%Very good 6 20%Informative 9 30%Colorful & interesting 7 23.3%Captures the changes 8 26.7%TOTAL 30 1000%20%30%23.30%26.70%ExcellentVery goodInformativeColorful & interestingCaptures the changesINFERENCES:From the above table it is found that maximum of 30% of advertisers opinionabout the look and content of the supplement is as informative.
  • TABLE NO: 4.5:Waiting for a grab of the product each week.27%20%53%YesNoBrow se through itINFERENCES:Responses Respondents PercentageYes 8 26.6%No 6 20%Browse through it 16 53.4%TOTAL 30 100
  • From the above table it is found that maximum of 53% of advertisers says thatthey browse through the paper whenever they see it whereas 27% advertisers say thatthey wait to grab the product and 20% of advertisers does not wait for the product.TABLE NO: 4.6:The improvement to be made in the product.Responses Respondents percentageContent 18 60%Layout 12 40%Paper quality 0 0%TOTAL 30 100Content60%Layout40%Paper quality0%INFERENCES
  • From the above table it is found that maximum of 60%of advertisers says thatcontent of the supplement need to be improved whereas 40% of advertisers says layoutneed to be improved.TABLE NO: 4.7:Look out for the product each week.Responses Respondents percentageAdvertisement 12 40%Information 16 53.4New life style products 2 6.66%TOTAL 30 10040%53.46.66%0%1000%2000%3000%4000%5000%6000%Advertisement Information New life styleproductsINFERENCES:
  • From the above table it is found that maximum of 36% of clients look outfor advertisement and information and minimum of 28% were looks out for new lifestyle products.TABLE NO: 4.8:Like to enhance brand equity through Indulge.Responses Respondents PercentageYes 14 46.6%No 16 53.3%TOTAL 30 10014161313.51414.51515.516RespondentsYesNo
  • INFERENCES:From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to enhancetheir product brand equity through indulgeTABLE NO: 4.9:Like to advertise in Indulge.Responses Respondents PercentageYes 14 46.6%No 16 53.3%TOTAL 30 100Yes47%No53%
  • INFERENCES:From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to advertisein indulgeTABLE NO: 4.10:Would like to continue the IndulgeResponses Respondents PercentageYes 14 46.6%No 16 53.3%TOTAL 30 10047%53%YesNo
  • INFERENCES:From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to continueto advertise in indulgeCHAPTRER – 5: CONCLUSION5.1 RESULTS AND FINDINGS1. It is found that 40% of advertisers remains about the supplement format of theINDULGE whereas another 40% reminds about the colorful spread , 16.5% ofthem remains about the content and remaining a meager 3.5% of advertisersremains about the specific writer of indulge2. It is found that maximum of 36.5% of advertisers likes the new product launchinformation in indulge, whereas 23.5% advertisers opinion is that indulge is ainteresting read as a whole.3. It is found that 49% of advertisers perceive indulge as a new trend wave forChennai market, 7% of advertisers perceived as just an another supplement.4. It is found that maximum of 30% of advertisers opinion about the look andcontent of the supplement is as informative.
  • 5. The maximum of 53% of advertisers says that they browse through the paperwhenever they see it whereas 27% advertisers say that they wait to grab theproduct and 20% of advertisers does not wait for the product.6. The maximum of 60%of advertisers says that content of the supplement need tobe improved whereas 40% of advertisers says layout need to be improved.7. The maximum of 36% of clients look out for advertisement and information andminimum of 28% were looks out for new life style products.8. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to enhance their product brandequity through indulge9. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to advertise in indulge10. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to continue to advertise inindulge
  • 5.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY The data for the project was conducted from the opinion of advertisers inmarket. Any bias in the opinion of false will impact on the findings of thestudy. The sample size was large as the advertiser markets were to beinterviewed while at work. Some of the answer given by the respondents may be biases. Few respondents were reluctant while answering the question due to theirbusy schedule. Time is a constraint because duration of project is one month. Some of the advertiser’s were hesitating to give whole- hearted opinionsdue to fear.
  • 5.4 SUGGESTIONS:• In this study observed that half and above of the respondents arementioned that the improvement have to be made in content of Indulge, sothe company can take effort to improve the content.• An advertisers feels that news spread can be increased in the indulge sothat many information can be seen.• Availability of the product is scarce, so the company can improve itscirculation
  • 5.5 Conclusion:The informative and interesting analysis of “Advertisers’ perception aboutIndulge in The New Indian Express Chennai ”, advertisers perception provides mediacompany executives insight necessary for increasing ad sales, market position andcompetitive advantage. And it helps to make more benefits to advertisers. To giveadvertising to advertisers for which one is highly expected.It is concluded that advertisers’ perception are the basic things, whichcould helpful to the company. Some suggestions are given in this project, where thecompany could look into the grey areas and try to rectify them, so that advertisers couldbe highly satisfied.