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Lecture 5 att+identity
 

Lecture 5 att+identity

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  • Meet John Watson (Left) and B.F. Skinner (Right)
  • A major test of developing theory of mind- understanding of I vs. you is using social referencing with gaze

Lecture 5 att+identity Lecture 5 att+identity Presentation Transcript

  • LearningandEarly IdentityDevelopment
  • 2 How do children learn?  Through active exploration?  Through direct teaching?  Through cultural exchange?560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 3 Learning Theory  Theorizes that development occurs primarily through experience  Emphasis is on environmental influences on development  Personality is learned rather than inherited560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • What is learning? 4  Learning is a “more or less permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of practice or experience”  Learning increases the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future  Watson described children as “lumps of clay” ready to be shaped by the environment560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 5Method of Development Classical Conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with a conditioned response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus: spanking naturally produces an unconditioned response – pain & crying When spanking is paired (immediately preceding or concurrent with) a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will being to take on the same properties as the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus: Dad’s red shirt produces fear and crying560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 6Method of Development Skinner focused on children’s spontaneous and active behavior and the results that it has on the environment Operant Conditioning occurs when a behavior produces a response that is reinforcing or not Increasing Behavior  Positive Reinforcement: results in an increase in future behaviors  Social reinforcers: attention, smiling, and praise  Tangible Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement: results in an increase in future behaviors  Escape from a negative response  Avoidance of a negative response560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 7 Summary of Learning Theory Development is:  Incremental Process: Development occurs in a quantitative manner that is continuous  Nurture is more heavily emphasized than Nature as the mechanism of development  Development is a mainly passive process - the individual is strongly affected by environmental contingencies  For the rest of class we will look at how the “self” develops  Consider the implications of Social Learning Theory on the development of the self560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Does all learning occur through 8direct experience?  No! Albert Bandura is most closely associated with the phenomenon known as Vicarious Learning (or social learning)  “no trial” learning  Models are observed by others who cognitively process the models’ behavior and its consequences  Miller and Dollard describe imitation as the most powerful learning process560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Example of Vicarious 9Learning  How does this relate to child learning and long term child, adolescent, and adult behavior outcomes?560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Self-development across 10 time  Self-awareness and identity develop across the lifespan in a gradual process  Precursors  By the end of the sensorimotor stage, as a child experiments with systematically acting on the environment, this marks the beginning of the “I” identity- that of being an agent  Joint attention and Social referencing  representational thought (memory of self over time)  Sense of self as unique and other  Rudimentary perspective-taking560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 11 The self-system  “I” – self recognition, the knowing of oneself as unique from others (rouge testand universality of this developmental process)  Social referencing also indicates the understanding of the difference between “I” vs. “you”  Self concept – observations of self as “Me”  Bowlby- concepts develop through referencing and comparing oneself with attachment figures560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Features of the developing self- 12 concept  By age 3  self-concept is based on concrete, physical descriptors  Gender  Race  Skin Color  Ethnicity  By age 7  more advanced self-concept that includes abstract, social, spiritual characteristics  Helpful  Friendly  Shy  Smart560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 13 Self-esteem  Self esteem – evaluation of one’s self-concept or attributes  Cooley – “the looking glass self”  Self-esteem comes from observing others’ appraisals/judgments of one’s attributes560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Self-control 14  Self-control is: 1. The ability to stop one’s own behavior 2. The ability to do something that is not preferred What is necessary for self-control?  Established identity  Judgment (ability to consider consequences)  External Motivation  Control of attention/impulses560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 15 Self-regulation  Self-regulation is: 1. A more flexible ability to engage in socially approved behavior (without an external monitor) 1.consider situational demands when making behavior decisions 2.to shift intensity, frequency, and duration of verbal and motor behavior given the situation  What is necessary for self-regulation?  Established perspective-taking  ability to consider broad social consequences  Internal Motivation  Self-consciousness- Having an emotional response to wrongdoing results from a recognition that “I” may have a different goal than “you”560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 16 Self-regulation  Why is regulation of one’s behaviors and emotions an essential developmental task?  Marshmallow Task  Shame, guilt, or embarrassment experienced when breaking a rule functions as a punisher that results in socialization and learning  Similarly, positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior increases self- regulation and social behavior  What are developmentally appropriate expectations for self- regulation?560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Conscience: The Beginnings 17 of a Moral Self  Internalization of Morals: process by which children adopt adults’ standards and rules as their own  Conscience: feelings of discomfort or distress when rules are violated  As early as age 2 children begin to show early signs of self-control and distress is a standard is violated  Often show “committed compliance”- eagerness to comply with parent(s)’ requests560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Parenting serves a self-socialization 18 function self-worth (Erikson) develops from:  Allowing toddlers to exert developmentally appropriate independence (autonomy v. doubt)  socializing a child about acceptable and unacceptable behaviors  This is primarily accomplished by parents through  Warmth – responsiveness and child-centered interactions  Control – restricting a child’s independence as needed560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Baumrind Parenting Styles and 19 child outcomes High Warmth Low Warmth High Control Authoritative Authoritarian Low Control Permissive Neglecting  Culture matters! How a child appraises the presence of warmth and control affects child outcomes560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Four Parenting Styles 20 Authoritative style – highly responsive and highly demanding. Create positive emotional climate for child, promoting autonomy and supporting assertiveness and individuality. Associated Outcomes:  Most positive  Self Regulation  High self-esteem  Socially successful560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Four Parenting Styles 21 Authoritarian style – low on responsiveness, but highly demanding. Do not create positive environment for child or encourage individualistic strivings. Tend to exercise control, making maturity demands and requiring conformity to rules. Associated Outcomes:  Well controlled behavior with authority figures  Less self-regulation when adult not present  less social competence with peers  Prone to bullying  More irritable, angry, conflicted560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Four Parenting Styles 22 (cont.) Permissive Style – moderately to highly responsive to child, but low on demandingnessExercise less control than other parents, putting fewer maturity demands on child. Associated Outcomes:  Impulsive  Low self-reliance and agency  Higher aggression560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Four Parenting Styles 23 (cont.) Neglecting-Uninvolved Style – low on responsiveness and low on demandingness. Invest little time or attention to child and largely parent centered in their concerns. Associated Outcomes:  Impulsive and uncontrolled behavior  Low self-esteem  Higher rates of behavior problems  Higher rates of internalizing problems560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Influence of temperament on 24psychosocial development  Children have differential susceptibility to parenting styles in early childhood just like in infancy:  Those with easy temperaments tend to respond similarly to parenting styles that have a range of warmth  Authoritarian  Authoritative  Those with difficult temperaments have better outcomes with parenting that is high in warmth  Authoritative560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Decreasing behavior 25 Extinction: Removal of reinforcement (positive or negative) that results in the gradual non-occurrence of previously established behavior  Power assertion: using loss of privileges to control behavior- Time Out  Love Withdrawal: using interactional consequences to control behavior – Ignoring Punishment: Addition of a negative stimuli that results in a decrease in future behaviors  Power assertion: using physical consequences to control behavior- Spanking Induction: Explaining why a behavior was not appropriate What do you think about using any/all of these behavior560management techniques? Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Parent Child Interaction 26 Therapy  Developed by Sheila Eyberg for children with disruptive behaviors and ADHD  Average 13 sessions  Designed for parents and children ages 2-8 Core assumptions  Disruptive behavior in children is a marker for poor outcomes in later childhood and adulthood  Parenting Styles affect child behavior  Maladaptive (coercive) parent-child interactions lead to increased disruptive behavior and family discord  Behavior change in children will occur in response to the interaction children have with their parents560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Changing Behavior to Change 27 Beliefs  Teach and Practice Child-Directed Interaction Skills  Parents learn effective communication and praising skills  PRIDE SKILLS  Praise  Reflect the child’s statements  Imitate the child’s play  Describe the child’s play  Enthusiasm  Parents also learn to ignore minor negative behavior  By doing practices, parents gather data on positive interactions with their children  Parents integrate this data into their view of their child and of themselves as parents  Behavioral rehearsal (and reinforcement) increases the chance parents will repeat these positive interactions in the future.560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • 28 Increasing effective behavior management Teach and Practice Parent-Directed Interaction Skills  Parents continue to use positive communication skills  Parents learn effective commands and effective responses to child behavior in the context of play  Commands are polite & direct  Commands are specific & state what is expected  Commands are age appropriate By doing practices, parents and children establish consistent routines560 Spring 2012 2/29/12
  • Application to Treatment 29  How might you use this information about self- development and the influence of social learning in working with younger and older children?  What does it mean for parenting?  What does it mean for teaching and counseling?  How might this information be used in social policy reform?560 Spring 2012 2/29/12