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Methods of Ineraction Analysis

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Lecture by: Pontus Engelbrektsson …

Lecture by: Pontus Engelbrektsson
Methods for Interaction analysis
Chalmers University of Tehnology, 2012

Published in: Design, Technology, Education

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  • 1. Methods for Interaction analyses Pontus Engelbrektsson pontus.engelbrektsson@chalmers.se
  • 2. Aim of the course The course focuses on methods and tools for the analysis phase of the product development process, i.e. the methodology usable in user centred product development in order to elicit, analyse and represent information about users and use for the development of technical artefacts. The aim of the course is that the participants shall develop further knowledge on how to plan and carry out a study for the elicitation of user requirements for a products content and form, as well as a study to evaluate different design concepts. This means that the participants shall develop knowledge on what aspects can influence the results of different types of studies.
  • 3. Organisation The course is organised with lectures, seminars and a project where central themes of the course will be put into practice. Most of the theory will be presented early on Most of the learning will take place in the project and through seminars where the project will be discussed
  • 4. Literature • Course literature Engelbrektsson, Pontus, Enabling the user, dissertation, Chalmers 2004 (http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4903800/ Enabling_the_User.pdf) 6-8 scientific papers (will be uploaded to the course web page) Recommended reading Interaction design - beyond human-computer interaction (Sharp, Rogers & Preece) • • • •
  • 5. The Project a user study in three phases
  • 6. The groups • • You will found groups of 4 people Each group will work separately, with the same problem/product, but share information and knowledge during three seminars
  • 7. The problem
  • 8. Gain knowledge about the use system • • • Who is using the product? What are the goals of these people? In what way does the current product support or hinder these people to reach those goals?
  • 9. Use this information to formulate requirements • How can one formulate requirements that are useful for innovation and design? • How can one communicate these requirements? • ...
  • 10. Create an innovative solution • Based on your collective knowledge of the users and their requirements you will create solutions that fulfil those requirements
  • 11. Present the solution • And argue why your solution is a good one
  • 12. Examination • The examination will be based on the project and a short exam • The project will be graded on the planning report and the results report • The grades for the project and the short exam will be added. All parts must have a passing grade. • Active participation in the seminars is required for a passing grade, we will take notes.. • Grades: U (failed), 3, 4, 5
  • 13. Schedule Thursday 13.15-16 Friday 9.30-12.15 15/3 Introduction,Introduc PE tion to project, (OR) Theory 1 16/3 Theory 2 Observation based methods 22/3 Question based methods 23/3 Mediating tools, PE choice of participants 29/3 No lecture, send in project plan 30/3 Seminar, planning of studies 4/4 Easter holiday 5/4 Easter holiday 12/4 Easter holiday 13/4 Easter holiday 19/4 Analysis 20/4 Context MAK 26/4 Still Open 27/4 Short exam PE 4/5 Seminar, Requirements 11/5 Seminar, Results 3/5 10/5 Workshop PE PE PE, OR
  • 14. Usability
  • 15. What is a need?
  • 16. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • 17. Needs and the fulfilment of needs • Maslow’s model have been criticised e.g. for not taking the historic, social, or cultural context to acount • It is necessary to differ between • • need and the fulfilment of a need need and the object of need
  • 18. Tool/Product Subject/User Goal/Aim The Use System
  • 19. New values ”In the Human Ware Age, the customers’ fascination with technical functions has shifted. Functionality, reliability and cost, have been replaced by e.g. comfort, enjoyment, satisfaction, and usability.” Competitive edge Joy, pleasure Usability Advanced technical functions Technical functions 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year
  • 20. The building blocks • Process • Staffing • Methods Customer orientation is not only a matter of a positive attitude towards customers!
  • 21. The new product development process 1. 2. 3. 4. Identification of opportunities Design Test and evaluation Market introduction Identification of opportunities Design Test Market introduction
  • 22. The new product development process 1. 2. 3. 4. Identification of opportunities Design Test and evaluation Market introduction Identification of opportunities Design Test Market introduction
  • 23. The new product development process 1. 2. 3. 4. Identification of opportunities Design Test and evaluation Market introduction Identification of opportunities Design Test Market introduction
  • 24. Integrated product Market oriented activities Design oriented activities Customer needs Production oriented activities Financial/economic oriented activities
  • 25. Early phases of product Market oriented activities Investigating Customer needs and needs requirements Design oriented activities Production oriented activities Financial/economic oriented activities
  • 26. Ease of change - cost of change 26
  • 27. Staffing • • • • Staffing - who? Different competencies Direct contact with customer/user Cross-departmental (cf.integrated product development)
  • 28. Process • Process - what? • A separate process, of its own, with allocated time and resources • Structured, not ’ad hoc’
  • 29. The Meta PRE Process Collect information Analyse and interpret information Problem identification Verify concepts and requirements Represent and communicate results Formulate requirements Generate ideas & concepts Choice of concept(s) and development of PRE specification
  • 30. The Meta PRE Process Collect information Analyse and interpret information Problem identification Represent and communicate results Understanding & consensus Formulate Verify concepts and requirements requirements Generate ideas & concepts Choice of concept(s) and development of PRE specification
  • 31. The Meta PRE Process Collect information Analyse and interpret information Problem identification Verify concepts and requirements Represent and communicate results Formulate requirements Generate ideas & concepts Choice of concept(s) and development of PRE specification
  • 32. Methods for requirements elicitation
  • 33. Methods for requirements elicitation • • • • • • Interviews Focus groups Conjoint analyses Observations Questionnaire …
  • 34. Methods for analyses
  • 35. Methods for analyses • • • • • KJ Matrixes Tree diagram Fishbone diagram …
  • 36. Methods for communication
  • 37. Methods for communication • Requirements specifications • Mock-ups • Prototypes • Sketches • Personas • Scenarios • Imageboards • …
  • 38. Communitcating the requirements picture - The tram example
  • 39. Why are methods important? • System view • Iceberg theory • Kano-model
  • 40. The use situation, the ’use system’ Goal/Purpose/ Task Environment Customer/ User Product/ Technology
  • 41. The library example • • • • New users Experienced users Staff The library as an organisation • The University • ….
  • 42. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study)
  • 43. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study) Requirements of which the customer is aware, problems that the customer wants solved, solutions identified in other products
  • 44. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study) Requirements of which the customer is aware, problems that the customer wants solved, solutions identified in other products Requirements assoc. with problems of which the customer is not aware due to habits, compensating behaviour
  • 45. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study) Requirements of which the customer is aware, problems that the customer wants solved, solutions identified in other products Requirements assoc. with problems of which the customer is not aware due to habits, compensating behaviour Emotional and semantic requirements
  • 46. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study) Requirements of which the customer is aware, problems that the customer wants solved, solutions identified in other products Requirements assoc. with problems of which the customer is not aware due to habits, compensating behaviour Emotional and semantic requirements Requirements assoc. with culture and socio-historical aspects
  • 47. The Iceberg Phenomenon • Only a very small amount of the total list of customer requirements are immidiately available (or available through the traditional market study) Requirements of which the customer is aware, problems that the customer wants solved, solutions identified in other products Requirements assoc. with problems of which the customer is not aware due to habits, compensating behaviour ê ê ê ê ê ê Emotional and semantic requirements Requirements assoc. with culture and socio-historical aspects
  • 48. The KANO model • The Kano model proposes three types of need and requirements that need to be addressed from a competitive perspective § Basic needs/ requirements § Performance needs/ requirements § Excitement needs/ requirements
  • 49. The KANO model • The Kano model proposes three types of need and requirements that need to be addressed from a competitive perspective § Basic needs/ requirements § Performance needs/ requirements § Excitement needs/ requirements
  • 50. The KANO model • The Kano model proposes three types of need and requirements that need to be addressed from a competitive perspective § Basic needs/ requirements § Performance needs/ requirements § Excitement needs/ requirements
  • 51. The KANO model • The Kano model proposes three types of need and requirements that need to be addressed from a competitive perspective § Basic needs/ requirements § Performance needs/ requirements § Excitement needs/ requirements
  • 52. Three types of requirements • Captured requirements – (Swe:”Fångade krav”) • Elicited requirements – (Swe:”Framlockade krav”) • Emergent requirements – (Swe:”Framväxande krav”)
  • 53. Choosing method
  • 54. Four choices! • • • • Data collection method Participants Context Mediating object / stimuli
  • 55. Data collection method • Qustion-based or observation-based? • Qualitative or quantitative?
  • 56. Participants • Statistical or theoretical? • Representative or critical?
  • 57. Context • Real use environment or a created use environment? • Customer’s context or developer’s context or neutral context?
  • 58. Contextual approaches • Needs and requirements are expressed in different ways – – – – As problems, comparisons, assumptions As behaviour, actions and interactions As requirements and wishes As solutions
  • 59. • The customer rarely verbalizes real needs and requirements • The customer may have difficulties formulating (technical) requirements and solutions • It is easier to describe problems, i.e. a need in terms of unsatisfaction, rather than describe the solutions to the problem
  • 60. • Trend: leaving traditional market surveys for qualitative, contextual studies – E.g. ”Emphatic design” – E.g. ”Contextual inquiry” • A unique offer requires unique knowledge requires unique methods
  • 61. Mediating tool • Mediating tools – Questions/probing – Product representations • Sketches • Models • Prototypes – Other • Pictures, paintings • Stories • Film, music …
  • 62. Customer Orientation A “… cognitive-emotional concept, i.e. a general positive attitude towards customers.” or "… an organization's customer-orientation performance will depend on the type of definition it adopts in relation to how it perceives its customers, the nature of sensitivity it shows in creating customer service mentality, the type of measurement technique it utilizes, and the implementation mechanism it applies."
  • 63. A matter of attitude and awareness • “We are definitely customer-oriented. Our only problem is all those customers complaining all the time!” • “We definitely know what our customers want. We have produced the same product for years and years!”
  • 64. Listen to the voice of the customer! • Listen to …? Definitely ! but not necessarily do as told … – What the customer verbalizes is not necessarily what the customer wants nor needs.
  • 65. The low floor example • “We want a low floor tram!” • “What are those boxes in the floor? Get rid of them!” • “It’s scary to look up at the cars” • “The new tram is noisy and unconfortable”
  • 66. Pre-requisites • An awareness of that (many) customer/user requirement are difficult to elicit. • Employment of not only traditional marketing studies but also of other and complementary methods: such as contextual methods. • Market communication during the entire development process: from needs è to idea generation è to final solution. • Cross-functional, integrated development teams throughout the process.
  • 67. • A systematic and continuous process rather than an occasional, ad hoc event è a process for ’managing customer requirements’ • A stronger focus on the customer and the customer’s problem and less on, e.g., benchmarking. • • Not ”What do you want?” but ”What problems can we solve?” A clear image of the customer - ”Who is our customer?”
  • 68. • For • With • By
  • 69. Customer focus • For • By • With! – Need a process!
  • 70. Considerations (1) • • • Customers/users have difficulties formulating (technical) requirements on solutions. It is easier to describe problems. Only a small part of the whole set of requirements is (at least immediately) accessible. Requirements for solutions are expressed in many different ways: as descriptions of problems; – as comparisons; – as assumptions; – as (compensating) behaviours; – as actions; – as requirements; – as solutions
  • 71. Consideration (2) • Requirements do not emerge in a vacuum • They emerge in a situation, ”the use situation”, the ”use system” • The method(s) chosen must be able to grasp this system
  • 72. Consideration (3) Choosing method is a matter of four different choices • • • • Data collection method Participants Context Mediating object / stimuli
  • 73. Business Decision Cycle Scan environment Generate options Select option Evaluate
  • 74. Business Decision Cycle Scan environment Generate options Select option Evaluate Method Method Method Method
  • 75. Business Decision Cycle Purpose? Purpose? Purpose? Purpose? Method? Method? Method? Method?
  • 76. Business Decision Cycle Identify ... Describe ... Define ... Explore ... Evaluate ... Test ... Measure ... Track ... Customer visit Focus group interviews Surveys Secondary research
  • 77. Business Decision Cycle Identify ... Describe ... Define ... Explore ... Evaluate ... Test ... Measure ... Track ... Exploratory Confirmatory Customer visit Focus group interviews Surveys Secondary research t
  • 78. Business Decision Cycle Identify ... Describe ... Define ... Explore ... Evaluate ... Test ... Measure ... Track ... Diverging Converging phases phases Customer visit Focus group interviews Surveys Secondary research t
  • 79. The stages of the NPD process Identify needs and req. Generate and assess ideas Choose and develop concept Detailed design Prototype .... .... ....
  • 80. The stages of the NPD process Identify needs and req. Generate and assess ideas Choose and develop concept Detailed design Prototype .... .... ....
  • 81. The stages of the NPD process Identify needs and req. Generate and assess ideas Choose and develop concept Detailed design Prototype .... .... ....