CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION Employee’s health safety and welfare at workare protected by law Employer has a duty toprotect employees and keep informed about healthand safety employees have a responsibility to lookafter yourself and others. If there is a problem,discuss it with employer or safety representative ifthere is one. This leaflet is a brief guide to healthand safety law. It does not describe the law indetail, but it does list the key points. Employerhas a duty under the law to ensure so far as isreasonably practicable employee’s health, safetyand welfare at work. Employer must consult withemployer or employees safety representative onmatters relating to your health and safety at work.Including any change which may substantially
affect employee’s health and safety at work, eg. inprocedures equipment or ways of working theemployer’s arrangements for getting competentpeople to help employee’s safety health and safetylaws. The information employees have to begiven on the likely risks and dangers arising fromyour work measures to reduce or get rid of theserisks and what employee should do if employeeshave to deal with a risk or danger. The planningof health and safety and the health and safetyconsequences of introducing new technology. Ingeneral employer’s duties include makingemployees workplace safe and without risks tohealth ensuring plant and machinery are safe andthat safe systems of work are set and followedensuring articles and substances are moved, storedand used safety providing adequate welfarefacilities giving employees information,instruction, training and supervision necessary foremployees health and safety in particular
employer must assess the risks to employeeshealth and safety makes arrangement forimplementing the health and safety measuresidentified as being necessary by the assessment. Ifthere are five or more employees record thesignificant findings of the risk assessment and thearrangements for health and safety measures. Ifthere are five or more employees draw up a healthand safety policy statement including the healthand safety organization and arrangements in forceand bring it to your attention appoint someonecompetent to assist with health and safetyresponsibilities and consult employee oremployees safety representative about thisappointment co-operate on health and safety withother employers sharing the same workplace set-up emergency procedures provide adequate firstaid facilities make sure that the workplacesatisfies health, safety and welfare requirementseg. for ventilation, temperature, lighting and
sanitary, washing and rest facilities make sure thatwork equipment is suitable for its intended use sofar as health and safety is concerned, and that it isproperly maintained and used prevent oradequately control exposure to substances whichmay damage your health take precautions againstdanger from flammable or explosive hazardselectrical equipment noise and radiator avoidhazarders manual handling operations and wherethey cannot be avoided reduce the risk of injuryprovide health surveillance as appropriate providefree and protective clothing or equipment whererisks are not adequately controlled by other meansensure that appropriate safety signs are providedand maintained report certain injuries, diseasesand dangerous occurrences to the appropriatehealth and safety enforcing authority. [see boxbelow for who this is]. So this study entitled as astudy on Health & Safety measure with referenceto tanfac(pvt) ltd cuddalore.
CHAPTER - 3 REVIEW OF LITERATUREHealth and Safety:INTRODUCTION:Health is a state of complete physical, mental andsocial well being and not merely the absence ofdisease. It is the out come of the interaction betweenthe individual and his environment. He is healthywho is well adjusted. Health Meaning:The term ‘health’ is a positive and dynamic concept.In common parlance health implies absence ofdisease. However, that industrial health impliesmuch more than more absence of disease is clearfrom Health. Definition [Health]:
The worker who is healthy is always cheerfulconfident working and strength well being in anytime that is called health. Safety Meaning:Before discussing other issues relating to safety, it isuseful to understand the nature of safety. Safety, insimple terms, means freedom from the occurrence ofrisk of injury or loss. Industrial safety or employeesafety refers to the protection of workers from thedanger of industrial accidents. An accident, then isan unplanned and un-controlled event in which anaction or reaction of an object a substance, a person,or a radiation result in personal injury. Definition [Safety]:Safety means prevention to danger or risk injury orloss. Industrial safety or employee safety toprotection of workers from the danger of Industrialaccidents.
Working conditions affecting health:1. Cleanliness:Hygiene is essential of health dirt should be removeddaily from the workplace, furniture, staircases etc.properly cleaned and his infected spittoons must beprovided at convenient places.2. Lighting:Adequate and proper lighting is essential for higherefficiency and good quality of work. Poor lighting onthe other hand causes eye strain mental fatigue,accidents and spoilage of materials.3. Temperature and Ventilation: Flow of fresh air with right temperature andhumidity is necessary for protection of health in hatand humid climate employees feel tired and sleepyventilation fans coolers, heaters, air conditioners helpto maintain right temperature and humidity.
4. Freedom from Noise:Too much noise inside and outside the work placecauses disturbance. It does not allow workers toconcentrate on the work and their efficiency declines.5. Working space and Seating arrangements:Adequate space should be provided for freemovement of persons machines etc. over crowdingshould be avoided as it spoils health and efficiency.OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND DISEASES:1. Chemical substances:Carbon di oxide, sulphuric acid, limes and alkalisecause injury when they are absorbed through skin andinhaling.2. Biological Hazards:
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects malnutritionexcessive drinking and job stress affect employerhealth.3. Environmental records : These include radiation, noise, vibrations shocksetc. X-rays are radio active exposure may cause eyetrain genetic disorders and cancer.4.Atmospheric conditions :- Ventilation improper lighting extranetemperature etc., effect health and efficiency ofemployees. Under the factories act 1948. hazardous processto defined as “any process or activity in relation toare industry specified in the first schedule. Whereunless special care taken raw material used there in orthe intermediate are finished products. Protection against health hazards :-
The types of measure can be taken to protectemployee health against occupational hazards. 1. Preventive measures 2. Curative measuresThe former category includes a) Pre-employment and periodic medical examination. b)Removal of health hazards to the maximum possible extent. c) Check over women and alter workers exposed to especial risks. d)Training of first aid staff. e) Education workers in health and hygiene etc... The curative measures consist of treatment forthe effect workers. Use of less toxic materials,providing protecting devices, controlling dust, fumes
gases etc.. are some of the convenient andinexpensive measures that can be taken by theemployers to prevent health hazards to employees. Statutory provisions concerning health: The factories act 1948 says down the followingprovisions concerning employees health.1. Cleanliness :-a) Every factory shall be kept clean and free fromeffluvia arising from any drain.b) Privy are other nuisance. The flavour of every work room shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing.c) Where a flavour is likely to become wet increase of any manufacturing process to such an extent as is capable of being drained effective means of drainage shall be provided.d) Walls partitions ceiling doors, windows etc... shall be painted varnished, white colour washed in the prescribed manner.
2. Disposal of waste and Effluents:- Effective arrangement shall be made in everyfactory for the treatment of wastes and effluents dueto manufacturing process carried on there in, so as torender them innocueres and for their disposal.3. Ventilation and Temperature :-a. The every factory for securing and maintaining in every work room the circulation of fresh air and such a temperature as will secure to workers there in reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health.b) The process which provides high temperature shall be separated from the work room by insulating the hot parts or by alter effective means.4. Artificial Humidification :-
In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water use for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply are other source of drinking water or shall be effectively purified before it is so used.5. Over Crowding :- There shall be in every work room of a factory atleast 9.9 cubic metres [for the factories existingbefore this act] and 14.2 cubic metres [for factoriesbuilt after this act] of space for every worker. Incalculating such space, no account shall be taken ofany space which is more than 4.2 metres above thelevel of the room’s floor.6. Lighting :-a) In every part of the factory where workers are working are passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting material are artificial or bath.
b) All glazed windows and sky lights used for lighting shall be kept clean and free from obstructions.7. Drinking :-a) In every factory effective arrangement shall be made so provided and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers.b) All such points shall be marked “drinking water” in a language understand by a majority of workers employed in the factory.8. Latrines and urinals :-
a) In every factory :- Sufficient latrine accommodation of prescribed type shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at the time while they are at the factory.b) In every factory where in more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed. All latrine accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types9. Spittoons :-a) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons at convenient places and they shall be maintains in a clean and hygienic condition.b) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoon provided for the purpose.Types of Accidents Accidents are of different types. They may beclassified as major and minor ones, depending upon
the severity of the injury. An accident which ends in adeath, or which results in a prolonged disability to theinjured is a major one. A scratch or a cut which doesnot seriously disable him/her is a minor accident. An accident may be internal or external. If aworker falls, or an object falls on him/her, it ispossible he or she may show no external signs ofinjury, but he or she may have fractured a bone orstrained a muscle or nerve --- which is an internalinjury. A worker may be disabled by an injury for anhour, half a day, a day, a week, a month, or a fewmonths. If he or she recovers from such a disability,his or her disability is temporary, If the injury is suchthat he or she will never recover fully, his or herdisability is permanent.
Accidents Internal External Major Minor Fatal Disability Temporary PermanentPartial Total Total Partial Need for Safety
Eliminate the causes for accidents and industrialsafety is ensured.Why safety? An accident-free plant enjoys certain benefits.Major ones are substantial 1. Savings in costs 2. Increased productivity 3. And moral and legal grounds. Cost Saving : Two types of costs are incurred by themanagement when an accident occurs. There are thedirect costs, in the form of compensation payable tothe dependents of the victim if the accident is fatal,and medical expenses incurred in treating the patient
if the accident is non-fatal, the management,however, is not liable to meet the direct costs if thevictim is insured under the ESI scheme. When thevictim is uninsured, compensation and medicalexpenses are the responsibility of the management.There is the cost of risk management, which themanagement must bear. More serious than the direct costs are the indirector hidden costs which the management cannot avoid.In fact, the indirect costs are three to four timeshigher than the direct costs. Hidden costs include losson account of down-time of operators, slowed-upproduction rate of other workers, materials spoiledand labour for cleaning, and damages to equipment. When an injured worker returns (if he/she islucky to do so), he/she may operate at less thanhis/her normal efficiency for sometime. Co-workers,too, may become emotionally upset for some time
and consequently turnout fewer and inferior goods.Finally, customers may be lost because of the non-execution of orders on time. A safety plant, by avoiding accidents, eliminatesthese direct and indirect costs. Increased productivity :Safety plants are efficient plants. To a large extent,safety promotes productivity, employees in safeplants can be devote more time to improving thequality and quantity of their output and spend lesstime worrying about their safety and well-being. Moral :Safety is important on humane grounds too.Managers must undertake accident preventionmeasures to minimise the pain and suffering theinjured worker and his/her family are often exposedto as a result of the accident. An employee is a
worker in the factory and the bread-winner for his/herfamily. The happiness of his/her family depends uponthe health and well-being of the worker. It is no secretthat the dependents of a worker look forward tohis/her reaching home safe everyday. Imagine theiragony when they receive the news that the fingers,legs, eyes, hands or the life itself of their bread-winner has been in jeopardy. True, a fatal or non-fatalinjury entitles his/her dependents or him to monetarya compensation, as per the workmen’s compensationact, 1923. But is monetary compensation a substitutefor the person? Legal :There are legal reasons too for undertaking safetymeasures. There are laws covering occupationalhealth and safety, and penalties for non-compliancehave become quite serve. The responsibility extendsto the safety and health of the surroundingcommunity, too. The Supreme Court held:
An enterprise which is engaged in a hazardous orinherently dangerous industry which poses a potentialthreat to the health and safety of the persons workingin the factory and industry in the surrounding areas,owes an absolute and non-delegable duty to thecommunity to ensure that no harm result to anyone onaccount of the hazardous or inherently dangerousnature. This implies unlimited liability. The civil law established the extent of damagesor compensation. Under the criminal law, sentencesare prescribed under the pollution control laws. Thereis no legal ceiling on the extent of liability. Finally, financial losses which accompanyaccidents can be avoided if the plant is accident free.Financial losses can be considerable as revealed intable.Safety programme
Safety programme deals with the prevention ofaccidents and with minimising the resulting loss anddamage to persons and property. Five basic principlesmust govern the safety programme of anorganisation. The five principles are: 1. Industrial accidents result from a multiplicity of factors. But these have to be traced to their root causes, which are usually faults in the management system arising from poor leadership from the top, inadequate supervision, insufficient attention to the design of safety into the system, an unsystematic approach to the identification, analysis and elimination of hazards, and poor training facilities. 2. The most important function of safety programmes is to identify potential hazards, provide effective safety facilities and equipment and to take prompt remedial action. This is possible only if there are:
Comprehensive and effective systems for reporting all accidents causing damage or injury; Adequate accident records and statistics; Systematic procedures for carrying out safety checks, inspections and investigations; Methods of ensuring that safety equipment is maintained and used; and Proper means available for persuading managers, supervisors and workers to pay more attention to safety matters.3. The safety policies of the organisation should be determined by the top management and it must be continuously involved in monitoring safety performance and in ensuring that corrective action is taken when necessary.4. The management and the supervision must be made fully accountable for safety performance in the working areas they control.
5. All employees should be given thorough training in safe methods of work and they should receive continuing education and guidance on eliminating safety hazards and prevention of accidents.A safety programme generally contains six elements,namely 1. Making strategic choices. 2. Development of policies, procedures and training systems. 3. Organisation for safety. 4. Analysis of the caused and occurrence of accidents. 5. Implementation of the programme. 6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.Strategic Choices
The first step in a safety programme is formanagements to make decisions regarding safety oftheir workers. Many of the decisions made are basedon strategic choices available to the organisation.Some of these strategic choices are; 1. Managers must determine the level of protection the organisation will provide for employees. Some companies, for financial or liability reasons, prefer a minimum level of protection, while other organisations choose a maximum level of protection, while other organisations choose a maximum level of protection. 2. Managers can decide whether a safety programme will be formal or informal. Formal programmers will have return regulations and are carefully monitored. Informal regulations are enforced through peer pressure or good training. 3. Managers can also be proactive or reactive in developing procedures or plans with respect to
employee safety. Proactive managers seek to improve the safety of employees prior to a need to do so, while reactive managers fix safety problems after they occur. 4. Managers can decide to use the safety of workers as a marketing tool for the organisation. This type of strategy would involve publicising what the company has done to promote safety and how safe the plant is to work with.The four strategic choices listed above will also applyto issues relating to health of workers.Safety Policy The second step in evolving a safety programmeis to have a safety policy. A policy specifies thecompany’s goals and designates the responsibilitiesand authority for their achievement. It may alsoprovide caveats and sanctions for failing to fulfilthem. There are differences in the form and content
of corporate policies. Their style, however, is not asimportant as the clarity with which they identifyfunctional responsibilities and authority. Specifically, a safety policy must contain adeclaration of the organisation’s intent and the meansby which the intent is to be realised. As a part of theintent, the statement should emphasise fourfundamental points4 (i) the safety of employees andthe public is of paramount importance; (ii) safety willtake precedence over expediency; (iii) every effortwill be made to involve all managers, supervisors andemployees in the development and implementation ofsafety procedures; and (iv) safety legislation will becomplied with, in the spirit as well as the letter of thelaw.The means to realise the intent part of a policy refersto the organisation for safety.
Organisation for safety The third step in evolving a safety programme isto constitute an organisation for safety. Companiesconstitute safety committees which are, composed ofemployees from across the organisation. Typically,safety committees serve in advisory capacities andare responsible for such tasks as reviewing safetyprocedures, making recommendations for eliminatingspecific safety and health hazards, investigatingaccidents, fielding safety related complaints fromemployees and monitoring statutory compliance. Most companies employ safety specialists todesign and handle the day-to day activities of thesafety programme. Responsibility of employee safetydevolves upon the HR department whose task is toco-ordinate the activities of all those concerned withsafety. The top management cannot absolve itself of theresponsibility of ensuring employee safety. In fact,
the managing director of the company is heldresponsible for an accident and is punished with fine,imprisonment or both. Risk management is becoming very commonthese days. A typical modern corporation carries aportfolio of risks. They include risks associated withindustrial safety, process technology, hazardinsurance, materials management and environmentdegradation. The simplest way of safeguardingoneself is insurance. But insurance to cover all risksmay not be available or will be expensive, ifavailable. Industrial risk management is the answer tothe problem. The job of riskmanagement is to assess all risks for frequency,probability and severity, and to take necessary stepsto avoid or reduce the impact of potential losses,besides monitoring the results.
The trend nowadays is to constitute a separatedepartment for risk management. Essar, for example,has a 22-member department which is called thedepartment of environment, risk and insurancemanagement. The team comprises experts ininsurance and risk management, chemicals,electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering,and environmental science. Consortium approach is spreading to safety, too.In Mumbai, a handful of companies have taken theinitiative in setting up a mutual aid programme. Theyhave written a ready reckoner called the Mutual AidResponse Group (MARG). In the even of a hazard,expertise is pooled in by the companies to ward off orcontrol the hazard.Extent and Remedies for Accidents
Causes for accidents are many and various.Broadly speaking, these causes may be classified intotwo groups1. Human failure and2. Machine failureHuman failure leads to an accident when theemployee ignores safety precautions and commits anunsafe act. Majority of accidents occur because ofhuman failure. Machine failure refers to faultymechanical or physical conditions leading toaccidents.They are: 1. Lack of adequate inspection adds to the problem of industrial accidents. We have the factories act, the boiler act, the Indian explosives act, the Indian electricity act, the pesticides act, the water (Prevention and control of pollution) act, the air (Prevention and control of pollution) act, and the environment protection act. All these contain
elaborate provisions to ensure employee and public safety, and also punishment for non- compliance. Things usually go wrong in the implementation of the laws. Here comes the need for stringent inspection which is not forthcoming. Partly, the problem lies with the inadequate strength of inspectors. CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS Unsafe Mechanical or Unsafe Acts of Persons Physical Conditions1 Operating without 1 Inadequately. clearance, failure to . guarded, guards of heed warning. improper height, strength, mesh, etc.2 Operating or working 2 Unguarded, absence. at an unsafe speed. . of required guards.3 Making safety devices 3 Defective, rough,. inoperative. . sharp, slippery,
decayed, cracked, etc.4 Using unsafe 4 Unsafely designed. equipment, or using . machines, tools, etc. equipment unsafely.5 Unsafe loading, 5 Unsafely arranged,. placing, mixing, . poor housekeeping, combining, etc. congestion, blocked exits, etc.6 Taking an unsafe 6 Inadequately lighted,. position or posture. . sources of glare, etc.7 Working on moving or 7 Inadequately. dangerous equipment. . ventilated, impure oil source, etc.8 Distracting, teasing, 8 Unsafely clothed, no. abusing, startling, etc. . goggles, glares or masks, high heels, etc.9 Failure to use safe 9 Unsafe processes,. attire or personal . mechanical, protective devices. chemical, electrical, nuclear, etc. Abrol of the delhi science forum observes that Indian plants are not designed with enough back- up safety systems. Others in the industry point to corruption in the factories’ inspectorate, the
government arm that is supposed to check on safety at the factory level. A manufacturer confesses that he bribed a boiler inspector with Rs 5000 after the inspector said that the boiler’s tube outlet for steam should have been stamped “boiler quality tested”. The newly set-up plant could not go on stream because the boiler had not been certified by the factories inspectorate. In the name of the nature of industry, workers arecrushed to death. Child labour in diamond cuttingindustry is common. Workers are often locked fromoutside to prevent them from smuggling outdiamonds. The latter custom killed 127 workers asthey stampeded against bolted doors when theJanuary quake struck polishing units in Ahmedabad.Because of their arduous calling, most workers,including children, end up with failed eyesight earlyin life.
As companies globalise. And projects especially,large ones involving greater complexities increase,new risks emerge. Technological advancement hasbrought in threats of obsolescence, which itself is abig risk.Accident Rates Accidents are described in terms of frequency,severity and incidence. Organisations generallymaintain frequency, severity and incidence records. Mathematical formulae are used to calculateaccident rates. Thus ,for calculating the incidencerate the formula is: Number of recordableinjuries*1 million Incidence rate= Number ofemployee exposure hours
Suppose an organisation had 10 recorded injuriesand 500 employees. To get the number of exposurehours, it would multiply the number of employees by40 hours and 50 work weeks, that is 500 *40*50=1million. In this case, the incidence rate would be 10,that is there were 10 recorded injuries for every 100employees. The severity rate reflects the hours actually lostdue to injury. It recognises that not all injuries areequal. As was mentioned earlier, injuries may befatal or non-fatal, total or partial, and permanent ortemporary. Specific hours may be charged against anorganisation for each category of injuries. Theformula for calculating the severity rate is: Total hours charged *1 million severity rate= Number of employeehours worked
Obviously, an organisation with the same number ofinjuries as another but with more deaths would havea higher severity rate. The problem with severity rateis allotting hours for each injury. Allotment, at themost, can be arbitrary. Hence, severity rate is notgenerally calculated. The frequency rate is similar to the incidence rateexcept that it reflects the number of injuries permillion hours worked rather than per year:9 Number of disablinginjuries*1 million Frequency rate= Number ofemployee hours worked The supervisor or the foreman is the key personin industrial accident prevention. His/her applicationof the art of supervision to the control of workerperformance is a factor which exerts the greatestinfluence in successful accident prevention.
The humanitarian incentive for preventingaccidental injury is supplemented by a realisation oftwo powerful economic factors, namely: (i) A safe establishment is efficient productively,and an unsafe establishment is inefficient. (ii) The direct employer costs of industrialinjuries for compensation claims and formedical treatment are but one-fourth of the totalwhich the employer must bear.Safety should be driven internally, not externally.Do not count on common sense for safetyimprovement.Safety incentive programs should focus on processesrather than outcomes.Behaviour is dictated by activators and motivated byconsequences.When people feel empowered, their safe behaviourspreads to other situation.
These axioms give us an idea of various safetymeasures to be implemented by the management.However, we discuss here certain important safetymeasures. The measures are applicable to allindustrial establishments, irrespective of their sizeand age.Training in safetySystematic training of industrial employees isnecessary if they are to do their jobs efficiently andsafely. This is an inescapable requirement, regardlessof how carefully employees are selected or how muchaptitude and experience they may have for the jobs towhich they are assigned. Training practices in theindustry will be found to vary widely with respect tomethod, content, quality, quantity, and source ofinstruction. The differences are influenced, stronglyby the size of the company, the types of jobs
performed, and the awareness of the managementregarding the importance of training.Example: Electrical Safety Training: It is not enough if workers are trained on themethods of avoiding accidents. They must be trainedon the ways of minimising damage, should anaccident occur. For example, high-voltage linerepairs must be given thorough indoctrination incorrect work methods before they are permitted toundertake more hazardous phases of their work.Additionally, the employees must be giveninstructions in first-aid procedures, includingspecialised techniques for resuscitation, usingprescribed methods that can be applied while thevictim is still at the top of a high-voltage line pole. Asimilar problem might occur in a chemical plant.Employees may be working with compounds that, ifaccidentally released or spilled in large volumes,would cause sever injury upon contact with the skinor body tissues.” In such situations, a common safety
device is the installation of emergency showers thatprovide a deluge of water to thoroughly flush thedangerous compound off the skin of a victim.Training for such workers requires, therefore, notonly what to do and what not to do in performing thejob properly, but also thorough instructions on the useof special devices and procedures, in the event anemergency occurs. Training may be given by the foreman orsupervisor responsible for the job. However,nowadays, the management is finding it worthwhileto use specialists in training to supplement the workof the supervisor, as in the case of job analysis andinjury prevention. Training specialists do notnecessarily do the job for which the supervisor isresponsible. The function of the specialist is to set upthe procedure so that the training can be imparted byqualified persons in the plant or; individualdepartments. The specialist will prepare the
instructional manuals and other details for conductingthe training programme, and supervise the activity. The National Organic Chemical Industries(NOCIL) has unique training programmes on safety.The company has a risk management teamcomprising medical officers, nursing and pathologicalstaff and safety officers-all numbering 20. Theteam’s agenda includes safety, health andenvironment protection. NOCIL’s trainingprogrammes consist of mandatory trainingprogrammes like mock safety drills (every week) andevacuation drills (at least once in a year). In addition,the company has organised a modular approach tostep up safety measure. There is the departmental module in which alldepartments at the plant are in an integrated safetyprogramme. A regular duty system enables everydepartment to participate. This team is led by theparticular department head assisted by a fire marshall,an operations expert, four engineers (mechanical,
electrical, inspection and instrumentation) and aproduct transport specialist to take accountability ofin-transit cargo. The second module extends itself beyond theplant. NOCIL’s sales and marketing teams atMumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai have beengeared to take charge in the event of any perilousoccurrence. About 50 sales persons have beentrained to respond to any mishap. At Burroughs Wellcome India seminars, trainingprogrammes and workshops are a regular feature. Infact, these programmes have yielded good results tothe company.Physical and Mechanical Conditions:Safety measures should be kept in mind whileplanning a layout and constructing a building.Workers must be provided with safe tools andequipment to work with. All machinery must be
fended, and mechanically and physically unsafeconditions should be eliminated. No new machine should be installed without beingsufficiently guarded and fenced. The practice of supplyof safety accessories by the manufacturers on request atan extra cost must be discontinued. Machines must bedesigned, manufactured, priced, and supplied withnecessary built-in safety measures. The safest waywould be to install machines – as in industriallyadvanced countries – which would automatically stopworking as soon as the worker’s hand crosses thedanger zone. Protective equipment of good quality and propersize, goggles, gloves, ear muffs, safety belts andshoes, helmets, and so forth, should, be supplied toworkers, who must be educated to wear them whileon duty. Aisles and passages should be free to permit easymovement of workers and materials. Proper storagefacilities should be provided for materials and work-
in-progress so as to prevent collision and stumbling,and to facilitate escape in emergencies. There is a need for periodic inspection to ensuresafety of workers and machines. Defective tools andequipment must be discarded. Safe electrical wiringadds to the safety of a plant. In this context, it is useful to recollect theprovisions of the Factories Act, 1948 relating tosafety. Sections 21 to 41 of the Act deal with safety.The safety provisions are absolute and obligatory andthe occupier of every factory is bound to follow them.HEALTH
The well-being of the employee in an industrialestablishment is affected by accidents and by illhealth-physical as well as mental. In this section, we shall discussthe need for healthy workers and health services to beprovided by the management to ensure the continuinggood health of their employees. We propose to examine employee health fromthe following angles-physical health, mental health,noise control, stress management, AIDS, alcoholism,and drug abuse, and violence in work place.i. Physical HealthIII health of employees results in reducedproductivity, higher unsafe acts, and increasedabsenteeism. A healthy worker, on the other hand,produces results opposite to these. In other words,healthy employees are more productive, more safetyconscious, and are more regular to work. The worker
who is healthy is always cheerful, confident looking,and is an invaluable asset to the organisation. But the physical health of an employee can beadversely affected by several causes as shown in thebelow Table.Health Hazards:Health Hazards CausesLung cancer Coke oven emissions, asbestos, active or passive cigarette smokeWhite lung disease AsbestosBlack lung disease Coal dustBrown lung disease Cotton dustLeukaemia Benzene, radiationCancer of other Asbestos, radiation, vinylorgans chloride, coke oven emissionsSterility/reproductive RadiationproblemsDeteriorating eye- Chemical fumes, officesight equipmentHearing impairment High noise levels
A realisation of the advantages which flow froma healthy workforce has impelled many managementsto provide health services to their employees, whichvary from the simple provision of first-aid equipmentto complete medical care. Many progressiveorganisations maintain well-equipped dispensarieswith full-time or part-time doctors and full-timecompounders/nurses. Unlike his/her counterpart ofyesteryears, who would take every precaution toprotect his horses against diseases but felt that thehealth of the human worker was his own business, themanager of today is fully aware of the advantages ofhaving a healthy workforce. The protection of the health of the workers is alegal requirement too. Sections 11 to 20 of theFactories Act, 1948 deal with the health of workers. Health Services: A typical organisation renders the following health services to its employees. It may be stated that these services, at best, offer first-aid
treatment to the victims. For any major ailment,employees are advised to go to ESI or authorisedclinics/nursing homes.1. Pre-hiring medical check-up for all employees.2. Periodical physical, check-up of all employees. Regular medical check-up of executive to detect early signs of tension, ulcers, diabetes and the like.3. First-aid treatment following an accident training in first-aid to all employees.4. Treatment of minor complaints, such as cold, cough, fever and headaches.5. Rehabilitation and job placement of seriously injured workers who have been cured but suffer from some disability.6. Control of occupational health hazards.7. Provision of healthy sanitary facilities, such as supply of portable water, disposal of waste and effluents; provision of healthy food; elimination
of insects and rodents; provision of personal services; good housekeeping and the like. 8. Special examination of eyes, teeth and ears, when needed. 9. Co-operation with family physicians, local hospitals, clinics, as well as with specialists. 10.Special care of employees working in painting, welding and foundry sections where the risk of their health is greater. 11.Maternity and child welfare, including family planning. 12. Adequate ventilation, good lighting, tree planting and good residential quarters.II. Mental Health In recent years, mental health of employees,particularly that of executives, has engaged theattention of employers. Three reasons may be givenfor this development. First, mental breakdowns are
common in modern days because of pressures andtensions. Second, mental disturbances of varioustypes result in reduced productivity and lower profitsfor the organisation. Third, mental illness takes itstoll through alcoholism, high employee turnover, andpoor human relationships.A mental health service is generally rendered in thefollowing ways:1. Psychiatric counselling,2. Co-operation and consultation with outsidepsychiatrists and specialists.3. Education of company personnel in the nature andthe importance of mental health.4. Development and maintenance of an effectivehuman relations programme.
CHAPTER - 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroduction: Research methodology is way to systematicallysolve the research problem in this study. The researchadopted various steps for collecting the data.Sampling Plan: The sampling plan is having three parts (or)division are as follows.Sampling methodSampling unitSample size1. Sample method:- Simple random sampling was the samplingtechniques used for collecting the data.
2. Sample unit :- The sample unit selected for the study was theemployees. The employees of tanfac(pvt) ltd., incuddalore is being selected for this sample unit study.3. Sample size:- 25 employees were selected for the survey in thevarious department of employees.Method of data collection Data’s are collected through survey method byusing a structured questionnaire.Source of data Collection:- The research has used both the primary data &Secondary data.Primary data :-
Data are being collected from the employeesdirectly from the work field for the first time by theresearcher is called primary data.Secondary data :- The secondary data is collected from variousbooks, magazines and company records. It is alsoused in this project.Tools used:-The main tool used for data analysis is percentageanalysis.1. Percentage analysis:- The percentage method was extensively used forfinding various details as mentioned in the chapteranalysis and interpretation. It can be calculated asfollows. No of respondents favourable X100
CHAPTER – 5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary Objectives 1. To know the satisfactory level of employees and employer health & Safety. 2. To study the employees awareness about the health and safety provisions. Secondary Objectives 1. To study the effectiveness of the health and safety measures provides by the company 2. To study the employees expectation towards various health and safety measures.
3. To find the satisfactory level of employees with regard to welfare provisions that binds the health and safety.4. To know the medical availability in the company.5. To know the ambulance and other emergency facilities available in the company.
CHAPTER – 6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYi. Hesitation on the part of the employee and employer to come out with their opinion regarding the present position.ii. Some of the employees and employer contacted were reluctant to another some questionsiii. Tea employees and management staff are not willing to answer properly.iv. Sampling is done randomly.v. The data has been collected using questionnaire which has the known problem of
respondent not sizing factual information anmany occasions.
CHAPTER - 7 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table - 1 AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION AGE NO. OFS.NO PERCENTAG GROU RESPONDEN . E P TS Betwee 1 n 31-40 15 60 years Betwee 2 n 41-50 5 20 years Above 3 50 3 12 years 4 Betwee 2 8 n 20-30
years TOTA 25 100 LINTERPRETATION: From the above table it is observed that 60%of the respondents belong to 31-40 age group and20% of the respondents belong to 40-50 age groupand 12% of the respondents belong to bath above50 years.
FIGURE – 1 AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION 8% 12% Between 31-40 years Between 41-50 years Above 50 years Between 20-30 years20% 60%
Table - 2 GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION NO. OF S.N GENDE PERCENTA RESPONDEN O. R GE TS 1 Male 25 100 2 Female - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the100% ofrespondents are male.
Table – 5 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE YEARS OF NO. OF S.N PERCENTA EXPERIEN RESPONDE O. GE CE NTS Above 15 1 11 44 years 2 11-15 years 8 32 3 5-10 years 3 12 Below 5 4 3 12 years TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table shows that 44% ofrespondents are having above 15 years experienceand 32% of respondents are having 11-15 yearsexperience and 12% of respondents are havingbetween 5-10 years experience and 12% ofrespondents having above below 5 yearsexperience.
FIGURE – 5 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE YEARS OF EXPERIENCE 12%EXPERIENCE 12% Below 5 years 5-10 years 11-15 years 32% Above 15 years 44% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% PERCENTAGE
Table - 6SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY DEPARTMENT SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY NO. OF S.NO. PERCE DEPARTMENT RESPONDENTS BEING ARRANGED 1 Yes 22 8 2 No 3 1 TOTAL 25 1INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 88% ofrespondents were having safety budget & safetydepartment and 12% of respondents exposed arenot have safety budget & safety department and inour company.
FIGURE – 6SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY DEPARTMENT SAFETY BUDGET & SAFETY DEPARTMENT 12% Yes No 88%
Table - 7 HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY HEALTH & SAFETY NO. OF S.N PERCENTA POLICY RESPONDE O. GE IS NTS AVAILAB LE 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 100%respondents says that have health & safety policyin our company.
FIGURE – 7HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY 100% 100% Yes 80% No 60% 40% 0% No 20% Yes 0% 1
Table - 8 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM WORK PERMIT NO. OF S.N SYSTEM PERCENTA RESPONDE O. IS GE NTS PROVID ED 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table is shows they are 100%respondents were exposed work permit system inour company.
FIGURE – 8WORK PERMIT SYSTEM WORK PERMIT SYSTEM 0% Yes No 100%
Table - 9 FACTORY SAFETY COMMITTEE FACTORY SAFETY COMMITT NO. OF S.N PERCENTA EE RESPONDE O. GE IS NTS AVAILAB LE 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the table it shows that all the respondentsays the safety committee more arranged in ourcompany properly.
Table - 10 SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING SAFETY COMMITTE NO. OF S.NO. E MEETING PERCEN RESPONDENTS IS CONDUCTED 1 Weekly once - - 2 Two week once - - 3 Monthly once 25 100 4 Yearly once - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
Above the table shows that 100% employeesare respected that the safety committee meeting isbeing conducted in any month of EID parry.
FIGURE – 10SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING 100% 100% 90% 80% 70%PERCENTAGE 60% Weekly once 50% Two week once Monthly once 40% Yearly once 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING IS CONDUCTED
Table - 11 ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN ON-SITE EMERGEN CY PLAN NO. OF S.N ARE PERCENTA RESPONDE O. PREPARE GE NTS IN OUR COMPAN Y 1 Yes 24 96 2 No 1 4 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
If is found that 96% of respondents expressedthat the on site emergency plan is durable. Aremaining 4% respondents are expressed that onsite emergency plan is not available.
FIGURE – 11ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN 4% Yes No 96%
Table - 12FIRE – EXTINGUISHERS & FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDED FIRE – EXTINGUIS NO. OF S.N HERS & PERCENT RESPOND O. HYDRANT AGE ENTS SYSTEM PROVIDED 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100
INTERPRETATION: From the table it is observed that 100% ofrespondents are having adequate fire extinguishersin our company.
FIGURE – 12 FIRE-EXTINGUISHERS & FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDEDFIRE – EXTINGUISHERS & FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDED Yes No 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% FIRE – 0% EXTINGUISHERS & HYDRANT SYSTEM PROVIDED
Table - 13 SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME SAFETY TRAINING NO. OF S.N PROGRAM PERCENT RESPONDE O. ME AGE NTS CONDUCT ED 1 Yes 20 80 2 No 5 20 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 80% ofrespondents were facilitated with safety trainingprogram at work place and 20% respondents werenot provided with safety training program.
FIGURE – 13 SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME 100% 90% 20% 80% 70%PERCENTAGE 60% No 50% Yes 40% 80% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAMME CONDUCTED
Table – 14 PRESSURE VESSELS CRANES & CHAIN BLOCKS PRESSURE VESSELS CRANES & NO. OF S.NO. CHAIN PERCENTA RESPONDENTS BLOCKS IS BEING DONE 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the100% of respondents are says pressure vesselscranes & chain blocks are at all times inspectedperiodically well done.
Table - 17 NEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM NEAR MISS REPORTING NO. OF S.NO. PERCENT SYSTEM IS RESPONDENTS AVAILABLE 1 Yes 20 80 2 No 5 20 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the80% of respondents says that has near missreporting system in our company.
FIGURE – 17NEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM NEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM Yes NoNEAR MISS REPORTING SYSTEM 20% IS AVAILABLE 80% PERCENTAGE
Table - 18 RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE SAFETY COMMITTEE IS IMPLEMENTED RECOMMENDA TION GIVEN BY NO. OF S.N PERCENT THE SAFETY RESPOND O. AGE COMMITTEE IS ENTS IMPLEMENTED 1 Always 15 60 2 Some times 4 16 2 Never 6 24 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that 60% ofrespondent are always and 24% of respondents arenever and 16% of respondents are sometimes.
FIGURE – 18 RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE SAFETY COMMITTEE IS IMPLEMENTED RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE SAFETY COMMITTEE IS IMPLEMENTED 24% Always Some times Never 60%16%
Table - 19 NATURAL VENTILATION NATURAL VENTILAT NO. OF S.N PERCENT ION IN RESPONDE O. AGE WORK NTS SPOT 1 Yes 18 75 2 No 7 25 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
Above the table shows that the 72% ofrespondents says that are having adequateventilation facility and 25% of respondents aresays have not ventilation facility in the work spot.
Table - 20 WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM WASTE DISPOSA L NO. OF S.N PERCENTA SYSTEM RESPONDE O. GE IS NTS AVAILAB LE 1 Yes 22 88 2 No 3 12 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the88% of respondents says that are satisfied in thewaste disposal system and 12% respondents saysare not do the waste disposal system.
FIGURE – 20WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM Yes No 12% 88%
Table - 21 AMBULANCE VAN IS AVAILABLE AMBULAN CE VAN IS NO. OF S.N AVAILAB PERCENTA RESPONDE O. LE IN GE NTS EACH SHIFT 1 Yes 23 92 2 No 2 8 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is classified that 92%of respondents also says that are opinion werehaving ambulance van facility and 8% ofrespondents says that are not have ambulancefacility.
FIGURE – 21 AMBULANCE VAN IS AVAILABLE AMBULANCE VAN IS AVAILABLE Yes No 92% 100% 90% 80% 70%AMBULANCE 60% VAN IS 50%AVAILABLE IN 40% EACH SHIFT 30% 8% 20% 10% 0%
Table – 22 MEDICAL ATTENDENTS / DOCTOR AVAILABLE MEDICAL ATTENDE NTS / NO. OF S.N DOCTOR PERCENT RESPONDE O. AVAILABL AGE NTS E IN YOUR FACTORY ? 1 Yes 25 100 2 No - - TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
From the above table it is inferred that the100% of employees says that are have in sufficientmedical attendants / doctor available in ourfactory.
FIGURE – 22MEDICAL ATTENDENTS / DOCTOR AVAILABLE Yes 100% 0% No 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Table - 23 OPINION / SUGGESTION REGARDING HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURE OF COMPANY OPINION / SUGGESTION NO. OF S.N FOR HEALTH PERCEN RESPOND O. AND SAFETY TAGE ENTS MEASURE OF COMPANY 1 Yes 23 92 2 No 2 8 TOTAL 25 100INTERPRETATION:
Most of the respondents says health & safetyfacility is enough but some of the respondents saysare not have the sufficient health & safety measurein the company.
FIGURE – 23 OPINION / SUGGESTION REGARDING HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURES OF COMPANYOPINION / SUGGESTION REGARDING HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURES OF COMPANY 8% Yes No 92%
CHAPTER - 8 FINDINGS 60% of respondents were belong of the age group 31-40 years. Fully 100% respondents were male. Mostly 92% of respondents were married. About 56% diploma / graduate. Majority 44% of respondents were having above 15 years experient. Almost 88% of the respondents to give the opinion for yes about safety budget & safety department. Almost 88% of respondents says that safety budget & safety department is having in our company.
Fully 100% of respondents were satisfied with health & safety policy. Mostly respondent were satisfied give with work permit system in our company. Mostly respondent were satisfied with work permit system in the organisation. Mostly 100% of respondents are fully satisfied for factory safety committee. All respondents says that the company arranged in factory safety committee. The 100% of respondents were satisfied with the monthly once safety committee meeting conducted by the company. It is that new employees not inducted about o & EP. The 96% of respondents were satisfied with the fire fighting facilities for fire extinguishers & fire hydrant system are available in the factory.
The 80% of respondents to have attend safety training programme in last one year. Fully 100% of respondents says that periodic inspection for company like pressure vessels cranes & chain blocks. Fully 100% of respondents are using personal Protective equipment during the working hours. Fully 100% of respondent says that company provide with adequate personal protective equipment like safety shoe & safety helmet. The 80% of respondents says that plan is having near miss reporting system in working area. The 60% of respondents says were recommendation given by the safety committee is implemented in a company. About the 72% of respondents were satisfied with natural ventilation in a work spot. About 88% of respondents were satisfied with waste disposal system.
Mostly 92% of respondents are says that ambulance van id available in each shift. Fully 100% of respondents were satisfied with medical attendants 1 doctor available in a factory. The study under stand the over all health and safety measure of company about 92% of respondents opinion suggestion were says really good.
CHAPTER - 9 SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION Safety training programme to be participated by all employees. [Note :- With out Absent] Personal protective equipment to be fallowed strictly by all workers at working place. To give the recommendation in proper way about safety oriented. Fresh air facilities to be improved in the company. [Note :- Concentrate on ventilation facilities] Wastage disposal system to be improved. Health and safety measures to be improved for effectively.
CHAPTER – 10 CONCLUSION The study on Employee health and safetymeasures of tanfac (pvt) Ltd., cuddalore, reveals thatthere is a satisfactory level regarding health andsafety measure. Through this study. I got some findings and alsoI have to give some suggestion based on the findings.I hope that my suggestion will help to improve thehealth & safety measures in future.
APPENDIX A STUDY ON HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURES OF TANFAC (PVT) LTD., CUDDALORE1. Name :2. Age : Between 20-30 years Between 31-40years Between 41-50 years Above 50 years3. Gender Male Female4. Marital Status Married Unmarried5. Educational Qualification
Below S.S.L.C. HSC Diploma / Graduate P.G.6. Years of Experience Below 5 years 5-10 years 11-15 years Above 15 years7. Does your department is having safety budgetand safety department? Yes No8. Does the organization have a health & safetypolicy? Yes No9. Does your plant is having work permitsystem? Yes No10. Does the factory has safety committee?
Yes No11. How frequently the safety committee ismeeting? Weekly once Two weeks once Monthly once Yearly once12. Does your plant is having On-siteEmergency Plan? Yes No13. The Fire Fighting facilities like Fire-Extinguishers & Fire Hydrant system areavailable? Yes No14. Do you have attended any safety trainingprogramme in last one year? Yes No
15. Does your plant is doing periodic inspectionfor pressure vessels cranes & chain blocks? Yes No16. Are you using all Personal ProtectiveEquipment during the working hours? Yes No17. Do you have provided with adequatePersonal Protective Equipment like Safety Shoe& Safety Helmet? Yes No18. Are your Plant is having Near miss reportingsystem? Yes No19. Do you think the recommendation given bythe safety committee is implemented?
Always Sometimes Never20. Whether natural ventilation in your work spotis adequate? Yes No21. Are you satisfied with waste disposalsystem? Yes No22. Is Ambulance van is available in each shift? Yes No23. Are the Medical attendants / Doctor availablein your factory? Yes No24. Mention you opinion / suggestion regardinghealth and safety measure of company? Yes No
BIBLIOPGRAPHY1. “Human Resource Management” C.B.Gupta Sultanchand & Sons Publications.NewDelhi – 1100022. “Marketing Research, New Delhi.” D.D.Sharma Sultanchad & Sons PublicationsNew Delhi – 1100023. “Human Resource and PersonnelManagement”Tata Mcgraw – Hll Publishing.New Delhi – 1100024. “Published by the health and safetyexecutive”