HACCP by Dr. Wessam Atif


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Introduction to Food safety, hygiene and HACCP by Dr. Wessam Atif 2009 mainly based on the USA FDA Food COde

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HACCP by Dr. Wessam Atif

  1. 1. Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point1 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  2. 2. Prerequisite ProgramsBasic Operational and foundational requirements needed:•  Training•  Food Safety•  Sanitation•  Standard Operating Procedures•  Personal Hygiene•  Employee Health•  Product Instructions2 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  3. 3. Prerequisite ProgramsBasic Operational and foundational requirements needed: • Equipment • Facility Design • Supplier selection & control • Product Specifications • Major food allergen Management • Chemicals and Pest Control • Food Defense and Crisis Management3 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  4. 4. Prerequisite ProgramsMust be:•  In Place before food enters a food establishment•  Shown to all employees•  Followed by all employees•  Mastered by all employeesThis can ensure the safe flow of food through your establishment4 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  5. 5. S.O.P•  Develop and follow standard operating procedures and make sound decisions•  Your training can save lives and Standard Operating raise food quality Procedure•  Example: SOP for “Receiving food supply”•  1. Purpose / 2. Scope: e.g. this procedure applies to food service employees who handle, prepare or serve food / 3. Key words / 4. Instructions; 4.1, 4.2, 4.2.1…etc5 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  6. 6. Food Borne Illnesses•  Travel to you through food•  Major contaminants: Biological, chemical & physical•  Caused by eating food containing dangerous germs called pathogens•  Common symptoms of food borne illness: stomach ache, vomiting, diarrhea and fever•  An “outbreak” occurs when 2 or more people eat the same food and get the same illness.•  People most at risk for food borne illnesses are: children, sick people, people on medication, pregnant women & elderly people.6 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  7. 7. Food Borne IllnessesHighly contagious and very serious:1.  Salmonellosis2.  Shigellosis3.  E.Coli4.  Hepatitis A5.  Norovirus The big 5 [Notify the manager immediately]7 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  8. 8. Food Borne IllnessesSalmonellosis is typically a result of:•  Improper handling and cooking of eggs, poultry and meat•  Contaminated raw fruits and vegetables•  Highly Contagious•  Must notify the manager immediately8 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  9. 9. Food Borne IllnessesShigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery) is typically a result of:•  Flies, water and food contaminated with fecal matterE. Coli:•  Undercooked ground beef•  Unpasteurized juice and dairy products•  Contact with infected animals9 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  10. 10. Food Borne IllnessesHepatitis A:•  Not washing hands properly, infected employees•  Receiving shellfish from unapproved source•  Handling RTE food, water and ice with contaminated hands10 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  11. 11. Food Borne IllnessesNorovirus:•  Poor personal hygiene•  Receiving shellfish from unapproved sources•  Using unsanitary/non-chlorinated water•  Easily passed among people in close quarters for long periods of time; (dormitories, offices and cruise ships)11 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  12. 12. Major food Allergens•  Some food borne illnesses have the same symptoms associated with an allergic reaction: tight throat – itching around the mouth – shortness of breath•  Anyone can be allergic to anything•  Some people do not know their food allergy until they have a reaction to food•  Big 8: Shellfish, fish, peanuts, Tree nuts, Milk, Eggs, Soy and wheat12 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  13. 13. Major food Allergens•  MSG Mono Sodium Glutamate: food additive and flavor enhancer•  Sulfites or sulfur dioxides: vegetable freshener and potato lightning agent•  Latex: HOW?!13 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  14. 14. International Food Safety Icons•  Provide visual definition•  Remind you of SOPs•  Make it easy to understand, remember and reinforce procedures14 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  15. 15. International Food Safety Icons Washing Hands Do Not Work if ill15 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  16. 16. International Food Safety IconsDo Not Cross-contaminate No Bare Hands contact with RTE16 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  17. 17. International Food Safety Icons TDZ Temperature Danger Zone Wash, Rinse, Sanitize 5 – 57 degrees Celsius every 4 hours min.17 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  18. 18. International Food Safety IconsPotentially Hazardous Food PHF / Time- Cook all Foods Thoroughly Temp Control for Safety TCS Min 74 degrees for 15 seconds18 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  19. 19. International Food Safety Icons Hot Holding Cold Holding19 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  20. 20. International Food Safety Icons Cooling Food20 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  21. 21. Employee responsibility towards Food Safety•  Stay Home when sick•  Wash Hands•  Use gloves properly•  Follow food-safe dress code•  Follow SOPs•  Do Not work around food if you have: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, coughing; stay home until the doctor releases you and notify your manager.21 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  22. 22. Hand washing recipe: WHEN?!!•  Crank down the paper towel from dispenser and let the towel hang (unless it touches and cross contaminates with wall or waste container)•  Wet your hands (min 37 degrees Celsius)•  Scrub for 20 seconds (nails, thumbs and between fingers)•  Rinse and dry with the paper towel•  Turn off water using the paper towel and then put on gloves if touching Ready To Eat food.•  If exiting a rest room, wash your hands again when you re-enter the kitchen•  Hand antiseptics should only be used on clean hands and are not substitution for hand washing.22 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  23. 23. Cross ContaminationWhen raw food touches or shares contact with RTE or cooked food and to avoid:•  Properly store raw food below RTE•  Never mix food products when restocking•  Properly clean and sanitize utensils, equipment and surfaces•  Clean and sanitize work areas when changing from raw food preparation to RTE preparation•  Use Color coded gloves, knives and cutting boards and separate preparation areas.•  Wash hands, change gloves and use clean and sanitized utensils, cutting boards and knives between tasks23 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  24. 24. Avoid violating the Dress Code•  Cover all cuts and burns with a bandage and a glove•  Cover your hair. Cover your Hair!•  Cover your beard•  Wear a neat and clean uniform and apron•  Wear clean, closed toe safety shoes with rubber anti slippery soles•  Always have a clean and neat hair•  Take a shower everyday24 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  25. 25. Avoid violating the Dress Code•  Properly groom fingernails and hands•  Do not wear nail polish or false nails•  No rings, bracelets, necklaces, watches or any jewels•  Do not chew gum eat, smoke or drink•  Do Not touch your hair, face or any body parts when handling • Wear a clean uniform or serving food and apron at all times•  Remove aprons before leaving • Never take your apron the preparation area into the bathroom25 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  26. 26. Potentially Hazardous Food PHF•  Moist•  Lots of Protein•  Neutral•  Allows germs to grow•  Requires strict time & Temperature control to stay safe•  Food is Time –Temp abused if it stays in the TDZ for more than 4 hours•  Examples: Milk and its products, eggs, fish, poultry, beef, pork, lamb, baked or boiled potatoes & sliced melons…etc 26 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  27. 27. Properly Thaw food•  Thaw in a fridge•  Thaw in running water at 21 degrees or cooler•  Thaw by cooking•  Thaw in Microwave and immediately cook27 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  28. 28. Cooling FoodTwo stages cooling guidelines:•  Cool hot food from 60 to 21 degrees Celsius in 2 hours•  Additional 4 hours to go from 21 to 5 degrees or below•  If food does not reach 21 within two hours; reheat till 74 then cool again•  Goal: Move food ASAP through TDZ (less time is better)28 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  29. 29. Reheating•  Reheat to move food ASAP through the TDZ Cook to a min of 74 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds within 2 hours•  If food stays longer than 2 hours to reheat; throw it away•  Do not use hot holding equipment to reheat food29 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  30. 30. Serving and operating self-service Buffets•  Carry all Utensils by the handle•  Carry all Glasses by the side•  Carry all Plates from the bottom•  Do not store utensils in your pocket or your waistband•  Separate raw items from RTE30 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  31. 31. Serving and operating self-service Buffets•  Separate raw items from RTE•  Monitor customers for unsanitary Hygiene practices; Tasting items, handling bread with bare hands, putting fingers directly in food•  Reusing plates and utensils•  Monitor Temperature and label all food items•  Always practice FIFO [First In First Out]31 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  32. 32. Health of Food Handlers•  Pre-employment Medical Check up•  Official Health Certificate stating that food handlers are free of any contagious diseases•  Periodic medical check up, stool analysis and inspection by health care professional after returning from long leaves or time off shift•  Mandatory vaccination; Hepatitis A, B, Tetanus and Typhoid•  Stay off work if ill or injured till the doctor decides what to do32 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  33. 33. Kitchen Safety•  Fire, gas & electricity•  Hot surfaces•  Cut wounds•  Slippery floors•  Manual Handling•  Mechanical injuries•  Personal Protective Equipment33 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  34. 34. Training & Reporting•  All Food handlers, supervisors and managers must complete adequate food safety and hygiene training•  No Food handling staff should be allowed till they demonstrate competency and show proof of completion of minimum food safety training•  You must establish and implement a reporting system•  All food staff must report all equipment, maintenance and food safety issues34 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  35. 35. HACCP•  Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point•  Written food safety system to enable you to serve safe food•  Goal is to Stop, control and prevent food safety problems•  Designed by rocket scientists at NASA in the 1960s to prevent astronauts from getting sick in space35 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  36. 36. HACCPFive most common risk factors that create food borne illness [CDC]:1.  Practicing poor personal hygiene2.  Improperly cooking food3.  Holding foods at the wrong temperature4.  Using equipment that has not been properly cleaned and sanitized5.  Buying food from unsafe suppliers36 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  37. 37. HACCP Principles1.  Hazard Analysis2.  Determine Critical Control Point3.  Critical Limits4.  Monitoring5.  Corrective Actions6.  Verification7.  Record Keeping37 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  38. 38. 1. Hazard AnalysisThe First HACCP principle in evaluating foods:•  Identify PHF / TCS foods and potential hazards likely to occur•  Understand the FLOW OF FOOD to determine where hazards may be controlled•  Divide menu items into 3 categories by how the food is prepared38 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  39. 39. 1. Hazard Analysis•  Analyze 2 questions:1.  What is the Likelihood/ chance of a hazard to occur here?2.  What is the severity of consequences if the hazard does occur?39 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  40. 40. PURCHASE Flow of Food RECEIVE STORE Example: Discuss flow of food for home PREPARE made chicken soup COOK Example: Discuss HOLD flow of food for Tuna Salad COOL REHEAT SERVE40 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  41. 41. Menu ItemsDivide menu items into categories:1.  No-cook2.  Same Day3.  Complex Discuss and give examples!41 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  42. 42. Analyze two factors RISK Likelihood / Probability Severity of consequences Main Hazards: Biological, Chemical and Physical42 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  43. 43. Why Hazard Analysis?•  Hazards must be identified and rated for risk; High, Medium or Low.•  This is done to determine whether a control/ preventive measure is needed•  Chicken Soup example: Hazard is Salmonella and campylobacter•  Preventive/control measure: cook chicken to 74 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds43 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  44. 44. 2. Determine Critical Control Points CCPControl Point CP: Any Critical Control Point point, step, or CCP: procedure at which biological, chemical or •  One of the last chances physical factors can you have to be sure the be controlled. If loss of food will be safe when control occurs at this you serve it point and there is only •  Loss of controlling the a minor chance of hazard at this point contamination and it is could lead to not an unacceptable unacceptable health health risk; this point is NOT critical. risk; that’s why it’s CRITICAL44 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  46. 46. 3. Establish Critical Limits•  Critical Limit: is the scientific measurement that must be met for each CCP•  Must be: Specific, Measurable, Scientific•  Do Not say: Cook Chicken until it’s Done.•  Say: Cook chicken to an internal temperature of 74 degrees Celsius for at least 15 seconds•  Other Critical Limits include: Humidity, Moisture content and Acidity46 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  47. 47. 4. Establish Monitoring Procedures•  Ensures we are correctly meeting Critical Limits for CCPs•  Enables manager to make sure if the team is keeping the food safe•  Helps Identify equipment problems, product concerns or refrigeration issues47 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  48. 48. 4. Establish Monitoring ProceduresThe manager has to establish monitoring procedures for a successful monitoring program:Continuous Monitoring:•  Constant Monitoring of a CCP•  Built-in measuring equipment that records time and temperature48 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  49. 49. 4. Establish Monitoring ProceduresNon-continuous Monitoring:•  The majority of food service operations use•  Occurs at scheduled intervals•  Example: Using a properly calibrated thermometer to measure the temperature of the chicken soup every 2 hoursMonitoring results must be recorded in Monitoring Forms49 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  50. 50. Use Monitoring Forms•  At all stages of Food Flow e.g. Receiving forms, Thermometer calibration log, Cooking log, Cooling log, Holding log… etc Monitoring•  Equipment Temperatures during Forms meal preparation and service should be monitored at least every 4 hours•  This includes all refrigeration, cooking and holding equipment•  What other documentation you think needed?50 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  51. 51. Ex: Logs needed for Burger•  Receiving log or Invoice•  Freezer Temperature log•  Preparation Temp. log Monitoring•  Serving line Temp. log Log•  Calibrated Thermometers•  Hot holding equipment•  Hot serving equipment51 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  52. 52. 5. Identify Corrective ActionsPredetermined steps you automatically take if the Critical Limits are not being met. tive Examples: C orrec og Acti ons’ L•  Continue cooking food until it HACC P reaches correct temperature•  Reject Food supply items if not meeting Critical Limits on arrival•  Train staff to take food temperature properly•  Document and write down all corrective action (for evidence of needed)52 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  53. 53. 6. Verification to make sure the system works•  A check to confirm the steps of the plan is working•  Verification will be completed by the Supervisor, the Director or even an outside organization•  Verification is needed in cases of change in equipment, personnel or legislations and if a food borne illness has been reported53 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  54. 54. Some forms of Verification•  Observe employees performing tasks•  Check CCP records•  Review Monitoring records•  Check Equipment temperatures•  Determine causes of equipment failure•  Any menu change requires verification54 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF
  55. 55. 7. Record Keeping and Documentation•  Document the corrective actions taken•  Record the measurements used while monitoring food products•  All records must be accurate and legible•  Never falsify records55 2009 © DR. WESSAM ATIF