REGULATIONS FOR CIVIL APPLICATIONS OF UAV SIREESH P. UAV Flying Instructor AerodynamicsAircraft Research and Design Center HAL, Bangalore.
AcronymsUAV UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLEMTCR MISSILE TECHNOLOGY CONTROL REGIMEICAO INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONR/C REMOTE CONTROLRPV REMOTE PILOT VEHICLEUCAV UNMANNED COMBAT AERIAL VEHICLEUVS UNMANNED VEHICLE SYSTEMSWMD WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTIONSLV SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLEPOC POINT OF CONTACTATC AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLSC SPECIAL COMMITTEEWG WORK GROUPSFAR SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONVFR VISUAL FLIGHT RANGECOA CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORIZATION
INTRODUCTION:The gradual, yet inevitable shift away from human intervention is happening, forbetter or worse.Aviation remains on the cutting edge and modern visionaries are exploring theimpossible of yesteryears and continually replacing the vintage technology.Hypersonic air travel and space flight are a reality today, with cost as the soleobstacle. If we have to consider, how far the aviation has progressed in its firstcentury, one cannot help but marvel at how far we have come.The present use of UAVs is limited to the defense sectors, but there is lot ofscope for the UAVs in the civil application which is been limited by various factorsviz. use of civil air space, liability, security and safety. Technology is everprogressing; law follows technology by regulating certain rules in order tomaintain safety and by monitoring the technology not to fall in wrong hands.Unmanned aircraft can be operated for long range and endurance. Down thelane in future unmanned cargo aircraft and pilot less passenger aircraft could bea reality and more efficient in many ways. Passengers may be uncertain abouttheir safety with the pilot less aircraft initially. But the safety, security, reliabilityand redundancy will be developed as such, where passengers can feel saferthan in the pilot aircraft as there is no room for human error and hijacking.As the passenger aircraft has to cross nations and safely land, there has to be areliable technology and strong regulation. After rigorous study and discussionswith aviation experts, an attempt has been made in this report to bring out theissues pertaining to transfer of technology and know how about the UAVs fromthe countries having more experience in developing & producing UAVs. Theimportance of regulations of Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) andInternational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) pertaining to UAVs are broughtout in detail.The major issue that may delay autonomous Unmanned Air Vehicles(UAVs) in civil application is lack of airspace management to prevent theUAVs from colliding with each other, with human-piloted planes orhelicopters, with static objects such as buildings, and with dynamic flyingobjects such as flocks of bird.In this paper a novel airspace management approach to autonomous UAVs hasbeen brought out. Our airspace management system allows UAVs to dynamicallyand autonomously choose between three modes of operation: (i) centralized, (ii)cooperative decentralized, (iii) non-cooperative decentralized.My views are projected & suggestions have been recommended to regulatoryauthorities for implementation, while this change may replace some humanactivity, the benefits out weigh the cost and will change the whole scenario.
Un-manned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)An unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAV, is one of many similar types of aircraftwhich do not carry a pilot onboard. At the lower end of this scale are RemotelyControlled (R/C) planes like those built and flown by modellers. Though a pilot isobviously not on board, the plane is controlled by a pilot throughout its flight.A similar type of aircraft is the Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) which isessentially an enlarged version of the R/C plane. For many years, RPVs havebeen used by the military as target drones, test aircraft and reconnaissanceplatforms.The UAV, on the other hand, differs from remotely controlled aircraft, in that apilot is not required during most or all of the flight. Instead, the plane is controlledby computers. Most UAVs rely on preprogrammed flight paths guiding them toand from the area of interest, though human interaction is possible throughoutthe flight.UAVs are commonplace in all branches of todays military. Some of the morewell-known examples include the Navys Pioneer and the Air Forces Darkstarand Global Hawk. These UAVs are used to obtain battlefield and theatrereconnaissance.A new type of UAV which is still under development and is the subject of thisproject is the Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). As its name implies,the UCAV goes beyond observation and is designed to attack enemy targets.When can UAVs fly in non-segregated air space?While many technical obstacles must still be overcome before Unmanned AerialVehicles (UAV) can enter civil controlled airspace, government and industryorganizations are actively engaged in establishing national and internationalregulations for their eventual introduction. The November 2006 conference ofUVS Canada, the Canadian UAV association, held in Montebello, Quebec, heardpresentations from ICAO, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Eurocontrol, joint government/industry specialist groups and other organizations onhow the safe integration of UAVs could be achieved.While there is much greater UAV activity in the US than elsewhere, there is aclear recognition within the worldwide civil aviation community that UAV activity isincreasing rapidly, and that uniform standards should now be established.
Centralized mode of operation:The UAV delegates the collision avoidance responsibilities to an airspacemanagement center. This center detects potential collisions between the UAVand other objects in the airspace and suggests that the UAV take a new course.Cooperative decentralized mode of operation:The UAV detects a possible collision with another object in the airspace andcommunicates with that object to solve the conflict if the object is cooperative. Ifthe other object does not cooperate, the UAV acts the same way as in the noncooperative decentralized mode of operation.Non-cooperative decentralized mode of operation:The UAV detects a possible collision with another object in the airspace anddiverts itself without using any means of communication.While the airspace management center holds global information, each UAV holdspartial information about the trajectories of neighboring bodies. It updates itsknowledge base regularly, using available means such as the airspacemanagement center, bilateral cooperation protocols, and onboard sensors flyingover an area. As a pilot, you will fly in the flying zone allocated to the UAVs foryour mission. The responsibility of our airspace management system is toprevent collision between any manned aircraft and the UAVsGenerally, autonomous flight consists of the following operations: • Interpreting sensor input and merging the input of multiple sensors • Communicating with ground stations, satellites, other UAVs and aircraft • Determining the ideal course to fly for a given mission, based on sensor input. • Determining the best maneuvers to perform for a given task • In some cases, cooperating with other UAVs to accomplish a common task.UAVs APPLICATIONS“Nonetheless, in recent years considerable progress has taken place not onlyconcerning military but also civil applications. Despite the lack of regulationsgoverning civil application, experts believe that there is a huge potential marketand use of UAS especially for scientific, research, medical, expeditionary,humanitarian disaster … security surveillance missions as well as agriculturaland commercial aerial work. Some of them as follow.
Mission Applications for Defense• Perimeter defense for facilities• Over the hill• Special forces• Urban operations• Forward force protection and patrolCIVIL APPLICATIONS• Power Line Monitoring• Traffic Monitoring• Search and Rescue• Flood Assessments• Storm Assessments• Bushfire Monitoring• Forest reserves• Disaster management• Oil Field monitoringRegulations in the use of UAVsThe Missile Technology Control Regime is an informal and voluntary associationof countries which share the goals of non-proliferation of unmanned deliverysystems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction and which seek tocoordinate national export licensing efforts aimed at preventing their proliferation.The MTCR was originally established in 1987 by Canada, France, Germany,Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and the United States. Since that time, the numberof MTCR partners has increased to a total of thirty-four countries, all of whichhave equal standing within the Regime.The MTCR was initiated partly in response to the increasing proliferation ofWeapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), i.e., Nuclear, Chemical And Biologicalweapons. The risk of proliferation of WMD is well recognized as a threat tointernational peace and security, including UN Security Council .While concernhas traditionally focused on state proliferators, after the tragic events of 11September 2001, it became evident that more has to be done to decrease therisk of WMD delivery systems falling into the hands of terrorist groups andindividuals. One way to counter this threat is to maintain vigilance over thetransfer of missile equipment, material, and related technologies usable forsystems capable of delivering WMD.As a result, many countries, including all MTCR partners, have chosen voluntarilyto introduce export licensing measures on rocket and other unmanned air vehicledelivery systems or related equipment, material and technology.
Objectives of the MTCRThe aim of the MTCR is to restrict the proliferation of missiles, complete rocketsystems, unmanned air vehicles and related technology for those systemscapable of carrying a 500 kilogram payload at least 300 kilometers, as well assystems intended for the delivery of Weapons Of Mass Destruction (WMD).The Regime’s controls are applicable to certain complete rocket systems (toinclude ballistic missiles, Space Launch Vehicles (SLVs), and sounding rockets)and Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) systems (to include cruise missiles, drones,UAVs, and Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs)). Partners also recognize theimportance of controlling the transfer of missile-related technology withoutdisrupting legitimate trade and acknowledge the need to strengthen theobjectives of the Regime through cooperation with countries outside the Regime.How the MTCR achieves its Objectives:Export Controls: The Regime rests on adherence to common export policyguidelines applied to an integral common list of controlled items listed in theMTCR Equipment, Software and Technology Annex. The MTCR does not takeexport licensing decisions as a group, rather individual partners are responsiblefor implementing the Guidelines and Annex on the basis of sovereign nationaldiscretion and in accordance with national legislation and practice.MTCR partner countries are keen to encourage all countries to observe theMTCR Guidelines on transfers of missiles and related technology as acontribution to common security. A country can choose to adhere to theGuidelines without being obligated to join the group and a number have done so.MTCR Partners welcome opportunities to conduct broader dialogue onproliferation issues with such countries.MembershipAs with all MTCR decisions, the decision to admit a new partner is taken byconsensus. In making membership decisions, partners tend to consider whethera prospective new member would strengthen international non proliferationefforts, demonstrates a sustained and sustainable commitment to nonproliferation has a legally based effective export control system that puts intoeffect the MTCR Guidelines and procedures and administers and enforces suchcontrols effectively. The Regimes dialogue with prospective partners isconducted through the MTCR Chair, visits to capitals by teams comprising ofrepresentatives of four MTCR partners and bilateral exchanges.
Meetings:MTCR partners regularly exchange information about relevant national missilenon-proliferation export licensing issues in the context of the Regimes overallaims. A Plenary Meeting is held annually and chaired on a rotational basis. Inaddition, inter-sessional consultations take place monthly through Point ofContact (POC) meetings in Paris, while Technical Experts Meetings are held onan ad hoc basis. The MTCR has no secretariat; distribution of the Regimesworking papers is carried out through a "point of contact" the functions of whichare performed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France.Dialogue and Outreach:The MTCR Chair and MTCR partners undertake outreach activities to non-partners, in order to keep non-partners informed about the groups activities andto provide practical assistance regarding efforts to prevent the proliferation ofWMD delivery systems. On behalf of the MTCR, the chair pursues a range ofcontacts with non-partners, including MTCR-sponsored workshops and seminarsand intensified dialogue concerning the MTCR goals and activities, with the focuson such topics as export controls, related legislation, transshipment andenforcement.The Regimes documents include the MTCR Guidelines and the Equipment,Software and Technology Annex. The Guidelines define the purpose of theMTCR and provide the overall structure and rules to guide the member countriesand those adhering unilaterally to the Guidelines. The Equipment, Software andTechnology Annex is designed to assist in implementing export controls onMTCR Annex items. The Annex is divided into "Category I" and "Category II"items. It includes a broad range of equipment and technology, both military anddual-use that are relevant to missile development, production, and operation.Partner countries exercise restraint in the consideration of all transfers of itemscontained in the Annex. All such transfers are considered on a case by casebasis.Greatest restraint is applied to what are known as Category I items. These itemsinclude complete rocket systems (including ballistic missiles, space launchvehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air Vehicle systems (includingcruise missiles systems, target and reconnaissance drones) with capabilitiesexceeding a 300km/500kg range/payload threshold; production facilities for suchsystems; and major sub-systems including rocket stages, re-entry vehicles,rocket engines, guidance systems and warhead mechanisms.The remainder of the annex is regarded as Category II, which includes completerocket systems (including ballistic missiles systems, space launch vehicles andsounding rockets) and Unmanned Air Vehicles (including cruise missile systems,
target drones, and reconnaissance drones) not covered in item I, capable of amaximum range equal to or greater than, 300km. Also included are a wide rangeof equipment, material, and technologies, most of which have uses other than formissiles capable of delivering WMD. While still agreeing to exercise restraint,partners have greater flexibility in the treatment of Category II transferapplications.The MTCR Guidelines specifically state that the Regime is "not designed toimpede national space programs or international cooperation in such programsas long as such programs could not contribute to delivery systems for weaponsof mass destruction." MTCR partners are careful with SLV equipment andtechnology transfers, however, since the technology used in an SLV is virtuallyidentical to that used in a ballistic missile, which poses genuine potential formissile proliferation.MTCR and TradeExport Licenses:Export licenses are not banned, but efforts to prevent transfers contributing todelivery systems for weapons of mass destruction. MTCR controls are notintended to impede peaceful aerospace programmes or international cooperationin such programmes, as long as these programmes could not be used to developdelivery systems for WMD. MTCR controls are also not designed to restrictaccess to technologies necessary for peaceful economic development. TheMTCR Guidelines help to build confidence among suppliers that they can provideaccess to technology without such technology being diverted to WMD deliverysystem programmes.End-user UndertakingMTCR partners have agreed that, in a manner consistent with their national lawsand practices and when relevant under the MTCR Guidelines and other existingundertakings, partner countries should obtain the following undertakings beforethe transfer of a controlled item:a statement from the end user specifying the use and end use location of theproposed transfer, if necessary accompanied by documents explaining itsbusiness activities and organization; an assurance explicitly stating that theproposed transfers will not be used for any activities related to the developmentor production of delivery systems for WMD; and Where possible and if deemednecessary, an assurance that a post shipment inspection may be made by theexporter or the exporting government.Partners have also agreed that partner countries should obtain assurances thattheir consent will be secured, in a manner consistent with their national law and
practices, prior to any retransfer to a third country of the equipment, material orrelated technology or any replica thereof.Inter-partner Trade:MTCR partners have explicitly affirmed the principle that membership in theMTCR does not involve an entitlement to obtain technology from another partnerand no obligation to supply it. Partners are expected, just as in such tradebetween partners and non partners, to exercise appropriate accountability andrestraint in inter partner trade.Adherence to MTCR Guidelines & Annex by Non-Members: MTCR partnercountries are keen to encourage all countries to observe the MTCR Guidelineson transfers of missiles and related technology as a contribution to commonsecurity. A country can choose to adhere to the Guidelines without being obligedto join the group and a number have done so. MTCR and its members welcomeopportunities to conduct technical exchanges and broader dialogues onproliferation issues with such countries.Future RegulationsTwo major government/industry groups - one in the US and the other in Europe -are developing UAV policy recommendations. In the US, this is being undertakenby RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203, for generic Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS which includes airborne and ground elements), Command, Control andCommunications (C3) and Detect, Sense and Avoid (DSA) technologies.The European Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) organization is a similargovernment/industry body, which established its Working Group (WG) 73, toreview UAV operational aspects in European airspace. WG-73 has parallelobjectives to RTCAs SC-203, and both organizations are committed toharmonize their outputs.Until very recently the FAA was considering a long term (15 year), three stagetimeframe. Each step of the plan would have resulted in a Special FederalAviation Regulation (SFAR). The first would have been SFAR -01 establishing anew visual flight rules (VFR)-based regime to replace the current Certificate ofAuthorization (COA) procedure. SFAR-01 will be issued for public comment by2007. It was intended to set up rules for line of sight operation of UAVs. SFAR-02was planned to be finished by 2013. SFAR-02 would have opened up the USNAS but it awaited the availability of certified sense and avoids technologies.SFAR-03, expected by 2020, will produce a complete and open environment withno restrictions in the US NAS for UAV operations. The FAA has modified thisapproach, currently now considering this three step process somewhat simplistic.
Recommendations: • The MTCR regulations pertaining to the UAVs can be made liberal with respective to the civil applications. As developing nations can adhere to the latest technology. • ICAO has to develop the universal standards for the airworthiness, flying rules, units and measurements and other aspects equal to the pilot aircraft. • UAVs have to equipped with global information, with respect to the aeronautical charts. • UAVs have to be uploaded with the bilateral treaty as the passenger and cargo aircrafts has to cross nations. • Accurate space management technique has to be established. Space mechanism such as tunnel techniques can be used. • UAVs have to be programmed in such a way that in the worst case scenario they have to divert themselves to sparsely populated regions. • Majority of the accidents happened because of the improper communication between the pilot and ATC. But in the case of UAV the communication can be converted into digital hence the communication will be precise and accurate. With precise communication we can not only decrease the rate of accidents but can increase the turn around performance as well.
Conclusion:The UAV can fly day-after-day, night after night, in dangerous weatherconditions, typical endurance up to 50 hours, in an accurate flight path, controlledby a computer. Network Centric Approach in which data from each UAV in flightupdates a server computer in real time, allowing users to view the real timeinformation. It costs: less to buy, to fly, to operate, to land and to dispose of thana piloted plane The UAV is more environmentally and user friendly.Presently pilot less passenger aircraft remains a dream for various reasons,prime being the safety. In a piloted aircraft during the emergency situation suchas total system failure, a human brain which can thing rationally is the last resort.One such example for rational thinking is Hudson River landing. Makingpassengers on board on an aircraft with out a pilot needs more sophisticatedtechnology, utmost reliability, number redundancy levels, fail safe design etc. Butwith a proper know-how, troubles like this can be nullified. Hence MTCRregulations can be liberalized in transfer of technology to other nations for thebetter development of new innovations in the civil applications.“Nobody fly for a thousand years!” Wilber Wright, 1901, Fit of Despair. Twoyears later along with his brother kicked off the revolution in aviation. Thou UAVin civil application remain hard ship today, the conspicuous solution is hidden bythe time. Research and development in many countries are fast track to makethis dream into reality and more importantly to tap the potential in the commercialmarket.For this reason Instead of focusing on vehicle reliability requirements whichseverely limit present-day experimentation and development of UAVs, effortswhich focus on operational strategies allow for applications of the technology tobe explored while the systems continue to grow more reliable. However beforethat, local and national government should recognize civil UAVs not only as anew commercial industry of great potential, but also as a latent threat to domesticsecurity for which regulations should be established sooner rather than later.
References:Aerosonde corporate site www.aerosonde.comCrossbow Technologies www.xbow.comUAV directory www.airlineupdate.com/user_data/uav/uav.htmEarth mapping by Google www.earth.google.comFederation of American www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/uav.htmScientistsFlight International magazine www.flightinternational.comIsraeli Aircraft Industries www.iai.co.ilModel engine corporation of www.mecoa.comAmericaModel aeronautics site www.modelaircraft.orgModel planes and UAVs www.miniplanes.netModel shop www.towerhobbies.comNational Geophysical Data www.ngdc.noaa.govCenterNellis Air Force Base, USA www.nellis.af.milPulse jets www.airtoi.comRCV Engines www.rcvengines.comSander Geophysical Limited www.sgl.comSilvertone Electronics www.silvertone.com.auSmall gas turbines www.amtjets.comSmall rockets www.aerotech-rocketry.comSmall rockets www.missileworks.comTAM 5 and Maynard Hill www.tam.plannet21.comUAV applications www.uav-applications.orgUAV components www.cloudcaptech.comUAV components www.micropilot.comWankel engines for UAV use www.uavenginesltd.co.uk/