Ubiquitous Computing ……Providing computations and communications everywhere !! April 2012 Presenter : 09BCE035 Arpan Patel Guide: Dr. S.N. Pradhan Nirma University of Technology
Flow of Presentation:- Issues & Challenges in Ubiquitous Computing (The Problem Space!) Research Thrusts Design & Implementation Problems- Solutions for Certain Problems- Various Other Applications- The Future of Ubiquitous Computing- Conclusion
Security and trust issues in ubiquitous environments: • Security implies protecting corporate resources against threats and attacks. • Security goals includes: - Access control - Data confidentiality and integrity - Availability of services - Accountability of actions • Various solutions that are used includes: - Firewalls - Virtual private network 18
Solutions for Security and Privacy• Sandboxing - executing code in a restricted and safe environment. - restricting access from the code to operating system functionality. - highly effective but at the expense of flexibility.• Certification - Trusting the code as safe on someone else opinion. - Most often code being signed by a large corporation.• The Volume of transmitted data should be kept Minimum• Data that require transmission should be encrypted and sent anonymously (without reference to the owner) 19
Proof Carrying Code (PCC) Attaches additional data to a piece of code which can be interpreted as a proof of a particular property. Verify the proof and check whether or not it is valid. Requires no certification , no restrictions so it strikes effective balance bet security &flexibility. Direct Code Analysis Direct analyses of executable code on client machine. Removes the need to depend on the external trust of organizations. Full flexibility and security. 20
• BiometricsIt is the science of verifying and establishing the identity of an individualthrough physiological features or behavioral traits.Physical Biometrics: Fingerprint, Hand Geometry, Iris patternsBehavioral Biometrics: Handwriting, Signature, Speech, GaitChemical/Biological Biometrics: Perspiration, Skin composition(spectroscopy)• Biometrics offers a promising solution for reliable and uniform identification and verification of an individual. These traits are unique to an individual and hence cannot be misused, lost or stolen. Biometrics are based on established scientific principles as a basis for authentication.• Advantages: – Uniqueness – No need to remember passwords or carry tokens – Biometrics cannot be lost, stolen or forgotten – Security has to be incorporated in the design stage – Traditional authentication and access control paradigms cannot scale to numerous and ubiquitous devices 21
Some Possible ApplicationsPervasive Computing involving Hybrid (Regular andSensor Network-based) Internet works for:• Natural disaster-specific warning purposes like: Tsunami Warning, Forest Fire Warning, Volcanic Eruption Warning, Flood-warning etc• Large-scale monitoring and tracking purposes like: Wildlife monitoring, Baggage / cargo monitoring, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Inter-planetary Networks, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Wearable and Vehicular Computing
Future of Ubiquitous Computing:• Pervasive computing is the next generation computing environments with information & communication technology everywhere, for everyone, at all times.• Information and communication technology will be an integrated part of our environments: from toys, milk cartons and desktops to cars, factories and whole city areas - with integrated processors, sensors, and actuators connected via high-speed networks and combined with new visualization devices ranging from projections directly into the eye to large panorama displays.• Pervasive computing goes beyond the traditional user interfaces, on the one hand imploding them into small devices and appliances, and on the other hand exploding them onto large scale walls, buildings and furniture. 23
Conclusion• Today, peoples experience of computer technology is, for the most part, time-consuming and frustrating. Researchers are looking to address the increasing, sometimes overwhelming, complexity that comes with digital living and will explore ways to measurably simplify the digital experience.• Much research has yet to be done to determine how to simplify technology. The challenge grows as devices become more capable and thus more complex. The complexity increases substantially as users demand that their digital devices work together seamlessly. Researchers are starting to leverage machine learning and new networking and data access techniques to address the challenge of making digital living less frustrating and more intuitive. 24
References• M. Satyanarayanan, “Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges,” http://www.fincher.org/tips/web/Pervasive.shtml• http://indus.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page• http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/pubs/icse99/final.html• Mark Weiser. "The world is not a desktop". Interactions; January 1997; pp. 7-8.• Mark Weiser, "Hot Topics: Ubiquitous Computing" IEEE Computer, October 1999.• Mark Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing," Communications of the ACM, July 1997. (reprinted as "Ubiquitous Computing". Nikkei Electronics; December 6, 1997; pp. 137-143.)• Mark Weiser, "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century," Scientific American, pp. 94-10, September 1991 25
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