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G. Zaharijas, Indirect Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
 

G. Zaharijas, Indirect Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

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Balkan Workshop BW2013

Balkan Workshop BW2013
Beyond the Standard Models
25 – 29 April, 2013, Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia

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    G. Zaharijas, Indirect Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope G. Zaharijas, Indirect Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope Presentation Transcript

    • Searches for WIMPdark matter with theFermi LATfor the Fermi-LAT collaborationGabrijela Zaharijas(ICTP & INFN, Trieste)
    • •WIMPs? weak scale (~MZ) mass particle interacting weakly (~GF).• “a simple, elegant, compelling explanation for a complexphysical phenomenon”• as a bonus, any theory which attempts to explain the origin of EW mass,generally introduces new stable EW mass particles.• DM with a mass ~MZ forms structures in a way confirmed by observations(true for mDM>~ 1 MeV).• WIMP miracle: in the simple picture of ‘thermal decoupling’ ΩDM~σ-1(independent of DM mass)!Favorite cold thermal relic: the neutralino“a simple, elegant, compelling explanation for acomplex physical phenomenon”“For every complex natural phenomenon there is asimple, elegant, compelling, wrong explanation.”- Tommy GoldCold Thermal Relic*Cold Thermal Relic*Cold Thermal Relic*[taken from R. Kolb’s talk, VEU2012]( )NB:
    • A benchmark diagram & the discovery programW+, Z, !, g, H, q+, l+W -, Z, !, g, H, q -,l -ECM "102±2 GeVNewphysicsX=#, B(1),…NewphysicsXEarly universe and indirect detectionDirectdetection(recoils onnuclei)Collider Searchesmultimessengerapproach! demonstrate that astrophysical DM is made of particles (locally, via DD; remotely, via ID)! Possibly, create DM candidates in the controlled environments of accelerators! Find a consistency between properties of the two classes of particles. Ideally, we wouldlike to calculate abundance and DD/ID signatures → link with cosmology/test of production• How to test the WIMP hypothesis?γ,ν,e±,p±(D-)decay@ Mz‘indirect’detectionin astrophysicalsystems - remotelyIn the Early Universe: DM kept in equilibrium w SMby self-annihilations (σ).Today, DM expected to annihilate with the same σ,in places where its density is enhanced!
    • • Why indirect searches?• direct detection and collider searches are cleaner environments with‘controlled’ backgrounds• However, it is important:• to detect/measure DM remotely/in places where it was discovered• annihilation cross section provides a direct link to early universe physics• ideally: detect it in the Lab AND astrophysical objects. Multiple handle onits properties.
    • • two main techniques to detect high energy gamma rays:•satellites (Fermi LAT, AGILE): pair conversion instruments!"#$%#&($)*&+#$,&#*$!#-#./01#$2),!34$$*$1*(&5/067#&.(06$8#9#/90&$:(9"$;<$=$#>#/?7#$*&#*$CalorimeterACDTracker~1.8 me+e-!@60:ABC$=D<=$ <D$EF.?6$G*68#6H&0F/I#4$J0.(9&06.$:(9"$9"#$%#&($),!$•  !&*/I#&4$<K$08F-#.4$9F6+.9#6$/067#&.(06$L0(-.$M$ND$=$0L$.(-(/06$.9&(1$8#9#/90&.$(6$OK$-*P#&.Q$<RS$&*8(*?06$-#6+9".$065*T(.$•  U*-0&(#9#&4$<K$08F-#.4$VK$U#.(F$W08(8#$/&P.9*-.$1#&$08F-#Q$NRK$&*8(*?06$-#6+9".$065*T(.Q$+(7#.$OA$#6#&+P$8#10.(?06$8(.9&(HF?06$•  ,6?5U0(6/(8#6/#$A#9#/90&4$/"*&+#8$1*&?/-#$7#90$.F&&0F68(6+$!&*/I#&Q$NV$1-*.?/$./(6?--*90&$?-#.$M$N$&(HH06.Q$$$Atwood et al., ApJ 697, 1071 (2009)Fermi LAT(anti coincidence detector)The Fermi LAT is a e+e− pair-conversion telescope; individual γ rays convert to e+e− pairs,whose tracks and deposited energy are recorded by the instrument.NOTE: it can detect BOTH gammas AND electrons (using the anti-coincidence detector).
    • • two main techniques to detect high energy gamma rays:Fermi LATγ γ1IDM 2012 DM Searches with ACTs James BuckleyLarge Optical ReflectorImages Cherenkov lightonto PMT cameraImaging ACTsγ!ray interacts in atmosphereProducing electromagneticshower and Cherenkov LightSource emits γ!ray•Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes:• use atmosphere as a calorimeter!• no anti coincidence detector:irreducible charge particlecontamination.• → higher energy range (100 GeV-100TeV); smaller field of view (2◦-5◦), largeeffective area (105 m2).VERITASMAGICHESS II
    • The Fermi LATFermi LAT Collaboration: ~ 400 Scientific Members, NASA / DOE & InternationalContributions (Sweden, France, INFN, Italy; ...).Data made public within 24 hours (http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/).!"#$%#&($)*&+#$,&#*$!#-#./01#$2),!34$$*$1*(&5/067#&.(06$8#9#/90&$:(9"$;<$=$#>#/?7#$*&#*$CalorimeterACDTracker~1.8 me+e-!@60:ABC$=D<=$ <D$EF.?6$G*68#6H&0F/I#4$J0.(9&06.$:(9"$9"#$%#&($),!$•  !&*/I#&4$<K$08F-#.4$9F6+.9#6$/067#&.(06$L0(-.$M$ND$=$0L$.(-(/06$.9&(1$8#9#/90&.$(6$OK$-*P#&.Q$<RS$&*8(*?06$-#6+9".$065*T(.$•  U*-0&(#9#&4$<K$08F-#.4$VK$U#.(F$W08(8#$/&P.9*-.$1#&$08F-#Q$NRK$&*8(*?06$-#6+9".$065*T(.Q$+(7#.$OA$#6#&+P$8#10.(?06$8(.9&(HF?06$•  ,6?5U0(6/(8#6/#$A#9#/90&4$/"*&+#8$1*&?/-#$7#90$.F&&0F68(6+$!&*/I#&Q$NV$1-*.?/$./(6?--*90&$?-#.$M$N$&(HH06.Q$$$Atwood et al., ApJ 697, 1071 (2009)
    • Key featuresIndirect Detection ofParticle Dark Matter2IMP?INDIRECT SEARCHESFermi-LATEvery ~3 Hoursdirect Detection ofrticle Dark Matter2INDIRECT SEARCHESFermi-LATEvery ~3 Hoursground based gamma ray telescopes arepointing, ~few degree field of view.Large field of view: 20%of the sky at any instant! ! !"#$%&()#*%+(,"-"."-*Space-based instruments onlyUV | X-ray | -ray | VHE -rayoptical10-1110-1210-1310-1410-1510-16MoresensitiveFergcm-2s-1)!"#$ !"%#$!"&#$!"#$!"(#$!")#$Energy!"#$%!"#$%&()*+,"-#./0()122WIMP MassRangeEnergy range: 20 MeV to >300 GeV(~MZ, ideally suited for WIMP searches).Good angular resolution ~ 0.1 deg; andcharged particle vs gamma separation...(http://www.slac.stanford.edu/exp/glast/groups/canda/lat_Performance.htm)
    • Science1) Diffuse emission: ~90% LAT photons.Fermi LAT three year sky map.extra-Galactic:(high latitude,‘isotropic’emission). Made upby e.g. sources toofaint to be resolvedindividually.Galacticemission:Charged CRinteract with theinterstellarmedium (gas,star light, ...)->γLarge scale in diffuse emissioncounts per 0.5 degree pixel3 years“ A excess with harder spectrum possiblyassociated with Loop I in the northern andouthern central region is also observed. ”Casandjian, Grenier for the Fermi LAT Collaboration2009 Fermi Symposium, eConf Proceedings C091122Full description of the Fermi bubbles:Su, Slatyer, Finkbeiner, 2010, ApJ, 724, 1044Fermi LAT counts not correlated withgas, Galactic inverse-Compton,isotropic or sources.[Casandjian, Gamma2012; Su+, 2011.]Loop IFermi bubbles!"#$%"&($)"#$*+,,+-&+.$!""#$0(&&"12$340677$8(&9"!+=+92>9$?$@AB2&+*+=+928E$F(1"$7G6HAIJ3-$K4)$56DL;M$8(&9"D$+&N>%566GLO6@M<,5"&-6)"&/7&8#.9+6&:3;;7<&=7".73;;7>&=?7@6.A7B+-+9"72C70;;DC7".7E+FG7H3C70;3;*IJ7K701LMJJC7NOPO332) Large scale structures: 3) ~1900 sources in the 2 year catalog
    • Science4) Charged particles: electronsmeasured electron spectrum up to a TeV!good statistics of electrons: 10 million of electrons per year above 20 GeV;the main challenge is overwhelming proton background (a rejection power of 103-104 isrequired)!"#$%#&#()*#+,-#.)/")0#)12.3/&45+6)#!"#$%#&#()*#+,-#.)/")0#)12.3/&45+6)#7)87)8%%*#-3/)#:#&-2");)%2./-2").%#&-,3))<$#"(#()<"#-=6)5+"=#)>?)@#ABC)D#AE)! 5/.#)/"):2&+:)#;)FICJ)@#A)(/.+=-#&2"H#"/2"+:)32!" !"#$%#&#()G,3#:#&-2");)%2./-3#+.,-#()G6)LDM!" N#..)%-23/"#")*#-3/)&2.3/&)-+6G,)0# .%#&-,3!/")%-#4*#-3/)@LN>R)I)STJUEV/FF,./H#)32(#:.)(2"W)-#%-2(,&#)L&Y#-3+""])[T)#)+:T])P06.T)5#HT)V)U^])J`^JJ_)>^JCJE
    • Science5) Charged particles: positronsPOSITRON FRACTION: PAMELA, FERMI, AMSAguilar, M. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 141102 (2013)Search used Earth’s shadow to measure independently electron AND positron spectra (note:Fermi does not carry a magnet!).confirm PAMELA finding of an increasing positron fraction, recently measured with highprecision by AMS.!"#$%$&()*+,"-&%.(/*0%.1*2./&%.(/*3&4*5"%16789!"!"#$%*789*:.,,$;.%$&.(<*8-="%1$((*"&*$,>*?@AA<*2B7*A@C<*@AAA@D[Ackermann+, PRL 108, 011103 (2012)]
    • • What are we after in DM searches?DM signalparticlephysicsDM clustering= Xes in Astronomy 3Secondary photons (tree level)10−310−20.11x2dN/dx10−3 10−2 0.1 1E/mχχ γγγγγγχπ0decays(a)featureless spectragenericallypredicted inmajority of BSMmodelsor characteristichard/line likespectrumproduced in loopprocesses or threebody decays. (seeA. Ibarra’s talk)DM annihilation crosssection, mass,branching ratios...Integral of DM densitySQUARED along lineof site; ‘J factor’gamma ray spectralfluxParticle physics part:
    • • What are we after in DM searches?DM signalparticlephysicsDM clustering= XDM annihilation crosssection, mass,branching ratios...Integral of DM densitySQUARED along lineof site; ‘J factor’gamma ray spectralfluxParticle physics part:‘J’ factors:DM density distributionsobtained from N-bodysimulations of DM clustering.
    • • Where to look for DM gamma ray signals?• γ propagate in a straight line, unaffected by Galaxy → DM clustering map (N-body simulations) is a good guide of observational targets.[Diemand+, APJ, astro-ph/0611370]Milky Way halo
    • •Point sources:✴dark satellites[Ackermann+,1201.2691;Hooper+,1208.0828Zechlin+,1210.3852...]✴dwarf spheroidalGalaxies (smallestresolved halos withstellar components)[Ackermann+,1108.3546;Geringer-Sameth+, 1108.2914,Mazziotta+,1203.6731...]✴Galaxy clusters (thelargest halos)[Han+1207.6749, Ackermann+,1002.2239]•Spectral search:✴all sky search for a line emission[Weniger+, 1204.2797, Ackermann+,1001.4836&1205.2739...]•Diffuse emission:✴Galactic Center region[Hooper+,1110.0006 ;Abazajian+, 1207.6047 ...]✴Low Galactic latitudes[Ackermann+,1205.6474]✴high latitudes[Abdo+,1002.3603]✴anisotropies[Ackermann+,1202.2856]•Electrons:✴from DM annihilationin the Sun [Schuster+,0910.1839; Ajello+,1107.4272]✴local electronANISOTROPY[Ackermann+,1008.5119]• Fermi LAT has rich DM search program, on various scales!(with gammas AND electrons)
    • •Point sources:✴dark satellites[Ackermann+,1201.2691;Hooper+,1208.0828Zechlin+,1210.3852...]✴dwarf spheroidalGalaxies (smallestresolved halos withstellar components)[Ackermann+,1108.3546;Geringer-Sameth+, 1108.2914,Mazziotta+,1203.6731...]✴Galaxy clusters (thelargest halos)[Han+1207.6749, Ackermann+,1002.2239]•Diffuse emission:✴Galactic Center region[Hooper+,1110.0006 ;Abazajian+, 1207.6047 ...]✴Low Galactic latitudes[Ackermann+,1205.6474]✴high latitudes[Abdo+,1002.3603]✴anisotropies[Ackermann+,1202.2856]• However, what we measure does not look anything like it --- astrophysicalprocesses present significant background for DM searches.$$•Spectral search:✴all sky search for a line emission[Weniger+, 1204.2797, Ackermann+,1001.4836&1205.2739...]•Electrons:✴from DM annihilationin the Sun [Schuster+,0910.1839; Ajello+,1107.4272]✴local electronANISOTROPY [Abdo+,1008.5119]• Fermi LAT has rich DM search program, on various scales!(with gammas AND electrons)
    • Spectral line searchAdvantage: sharp, distinct featureDisadvantage: generally predictedcounts low.Sliding window technique: model bkgas single power law and model energydispersion from simulation (‘line like’excess).2 yr analysis Fermi LAT looked at thewhole sky data and found no evidenceof a line.The Fermi LAT Line SearchThe Fermi LAT Line Search• 2 year analysis accepted for publication in PRD– Current analysis uses similar method• 4 year analysis nearing completion– Use Reprocessed “Pass 7 Clean” data• Low cosmic-ray contamination• Reprocessing shifts energy scale by 1-4%to account for expected accumulation ofradiation damage to calorimeter– Paper in preparation– Paper in preparation• Search for lines from 5 to 300 GeV– Maximum Likelihood Fit– Use sliding 6!E windows– Fit for energies in !E steps• Perform finer 0.5!E scan nearsignificant energies– Model bkg as single powerlaw– "bkg and fsig free in fitAndrea Albert (OSU)Jan. 31st, 2013 28M. Ackermann el al.(FERMI-LAT)PRD 86, 022002 (2012)arXiv:1205.2729!"#$%&$()*%+,-$-.,/%)-$01$.2)$345$.)67!"#$%&()*+(,-./!"#"$%&$$()%(*+,&-,#"%&%./(0!"#$%"#&()%(*&"+),"%)-&,,(%(+.)$%",&/()0+-)12)0++&3&/0.&"+)0+-)-(405
    • Spectral line searchWeniger+ 2012: Evidence for a narrow spectralfeature in 3.5 yr data near 130 GeV in optimizedROIs near the Galactic center.• Signal is particularly strong in 2 out of 5 testregions withS/N> 30%-60%, with ~>4σ.• Some indication of double line (111 &130 GeV),Su+, 2012 (1206.1616).f = 0.41f= 0.34C. Weniger JCAP 1208 (2012) 007 arXiv:1204.2797Exciting: 100+ papers since; line-likesignature considered a smoking gun of DM!
    • Spectral line searchFermi LAT’s 4yr line search:1) Optimize ROI: comparing thesignal expected from WIMPs,assuming a specific density profile,and expected backgrounds.2) Improved Energy Resolution ModelPreviously modeled line with a triple Gaussian fit (“1D PDF”).However PDF weighted for observing profile varies moderately with declination.-> use a ‘’2D PDF’’: add a 2nd dimension to line model: PE.Increases statistical power by ~15%.3) Data Reprocessing with Updated CalibrationsCorrects for loss in calorimeter light yield because of radiation damage (~4% inmission to date). This corresponds to a ~5% change in the energy scale at 130GeV ->135 GeV.
    • Spectral line searchNo signal found in a blind search.95% CL <σv>γγ Upper Limit for the Einasto optimized ROI R1695% CL <95% CL <!!v>v>"""" Einasto Upper Limit R16Einasto Upper Limit R16Einasto optimized ROIJan. 31st, 2013 32Andrea Albert (OSU)Expected limits calculated frompowerlaw-only pseudo-experimentsNo systematic errors applied
    • Spectral line search4.01σ (local) 1D fit at 130 GeV with 4 year un-reprocessed data; 4°x4°GC ROIand 1D PDF3.35σ (local) 2D fit at 135 GeV with 4 year reprocessed data; 4°x4°GC ROI, 2DPDF<2σ global significance after trials factorExploring the tentative signal at 135 GeV.
    • Spectral line searchThe Earth Limb:gamma rays from CR interactions in the atmosphere -> expected to be asmooth power-law!"#$%&()*!()*"%"+,-.%/01"(-#%20/Sky Survey Mode, !rock = 52°Limb at !rz = 112°Limb: !i > 60°"("&3Control Sample critical for this search, to test instrumental response.Line-like feature in the limb at135 GeV, ~2.2σ,S/Nlimb ~15%, while S/NGC ~30%- 66%.Possibly linked to a dip in theefficiency of the event cuts, justbelow 130 GeV (at ~115 GeV).Spectral line searchThe Earth Limb as a Control Sample:Line-like feature in the limb at 135 GeV, ~2.2!,135 GeV in the Earth Limb spectrum (2)135 GeV in the Earth Limb spectrum (2)111 < !zenith < 113|Rocking Angle| > 52Points: Flight DataCurve: MCPreliminaryP7Transient to P7Clean Efficiency Fit to Limb dataCurve: MC• Dips in efficiency below and above 135 GeV
    • Spectral line searchNear term prospects:Fermi LAT: improved event analysis (pass8) and weekly limb observations.Call for white papers on possible modifications to the observing strategy.HESS 2: 50 hours of GC observation enough to rule out signature or confirm it at5 sigma (if systematics are under control); Observations start in March 2013.More details:E. Charles @ Closing in on DM: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceTimeTable.py?confId=197862#20130128or A. Albert @ http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/mtgs/symposia/2012/program/fri/AAlbert.pdf
    • • Dark-matter dominated objects:• 100 - 1000 times more dark than visible matter• Multi-wavelength observations show no basis for astrophysical gamma-rayproduction.Dwarf spheroidal galaxiesConstraints from dwarf galaxiesConstraints from dwarf galaxies• Dwarf galaxies have a large mass-to-light ratio• Good signal-to-noise for a DM searchAndrea Albert (OSU)Jan. 31st, 2013 23No evidence for a gamma ray signal from these objects yet.
    • Dwarf spheroidal galaxiesM. GehaSegue 1a-Wagner | Fermi DM OverviewDark Matter ContentDark matter content determined fromstellar velocity dispersion– Classical dwarfs: spectra for severalthousand stars– Ultra-faint dwarfs: spectra for fewerthan 100 starsFit stellar velocity distribution of eachdwarf (assuming an NFW profile)Calculate the J-factor by integratingout to a radius of 0.5 deg.– Comparable to the half-light radius ofmany dwarfs– Minimizes the uncertainty in the J-factor– Large enough to be insensitive to theinner profile behavior (core vs. cusp)Include the J-factor uncertainty as anuisance parameter in the jointlikelihood24ComaDracoSeg 1UMa II17181920log10(J[GeV2cm−5])The biggest uncertainty: darkmatter content!Determined from stellar velocitydispersion– Classical dwarfs: thousand stars– Ultra-faint dwarfs: <~ 100 stars• Fit stellar velocity distribution ofeach dwarf (assuming an NFWprofile) and calculate the J-factorsby integrating out to a radius of 0.5deg.M. GehaSegue 1Alex Drlica-Wagner | Fermi DM OverviewDark Matter Content• Dark matter content determined fromstellar velocity dispersion– Classical dwarfs: spectra for severalthousand stars– Ultra-faint dwarfs: spectra for fewerthan 100 stars• Fit stellar velocity distribution of eachdwarf (assuming an NFW profile)• Calculate the J-factor by integratingout to a radius of 0.5 deg.– Comparable to the half-light radius ofmany dwarfs– Minimizes the uncertainty in the J-factor– Large enough to be insensitive to theinner profile behavior (core vs. cusp)• Include the J-factor uncertainty as anuisance parameter in the jointlikelihood24ComaDracoSeg 1UMa II17181920log10(J[GeV2cm−5])
    • Dwarf spheroidal galaxiesAlex Drlica-Wagner | Fermi DM OverviewExpected Limits27• Run full analysis pipeline onrealistic sky simulations tocalculate expected sensitivity• Range of statistical scatter is quitelarge.• Update the analysis with animproved understanding of theinstrument (reprocessed Pass 7)• Leads to a statistical reshuffling ofgamma-ray-classified events andhigher limits.• Both Pass 6 and Pass7measurements lie within the 68%containment region of a statisticalsample.Update the analysis with the newreprocessed data → lead to a statisticalreshuffling of gamma-ray-classifiedevents and higher limits.Both sets of limits lie within the 68%containment region of a statistical sample.Constraints:- 10 dwarf galaxies- 200 MeV-100 GeV gamma rays- 2 years data, p6_v3_diffuse- Include the J-factor uncertaintyas a nuisance parameter in thejoint likelihood.Constrain the conventional thermalrelic cross section for a WIMP mass<30 GeV annihilating to bb and τ+τ-.
    • MW halo as a DM target• DM annihilation signal is expected to be high in the inner regions of our halo– Sun is ‘only’ ~8 kpc away from the GC– DM content of the Milky Way is high~ ‘opposite’ to previous cases: strong signal predicted in generic DM models butastrophysical bckgds high.Diemand et. al, APJ, 2006. 27Fermi sky map - three year data.Predicted DM signal
    • 2 year p7v7 data1-100 GeVAnalyze bands 5̊ -15̊ off the planeto minimize uncertainties.• Two methods:1.More conservative - Assume allemission from dark matter (noastrophysical model) [Papucci+, arXiv:0912.0742 Cirelli+, arXiv:0912.0663]2.More accurate - Fit dark mattersource and astrophysical emissionsimultaneously and marginalizeover astrophysical uncertainties.[Ackermann+, arXiv:1205.6474]Alex Drlica-Wagner | Fermi DM OverviewGalactic HaloPapucci et al., arXiv:0Cirelli et al., arXiv:091Ackermann et al., arX• Search fordark mattesmooth G• Analyze b– Decrea– Mitigateslope oprofile• Two appro– More coemissioastroph– More acsourcesimultaMW halo as a DM target
    • Limits on DM annihilation cross section, obtained after marginalization over alarge set of astrophysical parameters together with DM component.for ISOthermal DM profile and bbar channel (generic for most of particlephysics models).– Blue: limits obtained without any modeling of conventional astrophysical emission.– generic WIMP models constrained below ~20 GeV.Remaining uncertainty on the DM distribution in the Galaxy! follow up work.10 10210310410￿2610￿2510￿2410￿2310￿2210￿21m ￿GeV￿￿Σv￿￿cm3s￿1￿ΧΧ ￿ bb, ISOw￿o background modelingconstrained free source fits3Σ5ΣΣWIMP freeze￿out29MW halo as a DM target
    • Stronger constraining power on the leptonic channels (e.g. charged particlesescape from dwarf Galaxies).Challenge strongly the DM interpretation of PAMELA/Fermi CR anomalies,Blue: only direct photons produced by muons “no-background limits” (‘FSR only’).Violet: “no-background limits” direct photons+secondary radiation from electronsBlack: limits from profile likelihood and CR sources set to zero in the inner 3 kpc.30MW halo as a DM target10 10210310410￿2610￿2510￿2410￿2310￿2210￿21m ￿GeV￿￿Σv￿￿cm3s￿1￿ΧΧ ￿ Μ￿Μ￿, ISOIC￿FSR, w￿o background modelingFSR, w￿o background modelingIC￿FSR, constrained free source fits3Σ5ΣΣWIMP freeze￿outannihilation
    • Future improvements: pass8cent majorffort aimedhe experi-ually everybackground contamination coupled with an increased effective area, a bet-ter understanding of the systematic uncertainties and an extension of theenergy reach for the photon analysis below 100 MeV and above 100 GeV.We present an overview of the work that has been done or is ongoing andthe prospects for the near future.nch usingass 6 wasmitigatedome ne-he instru-ential tothe mainTracker Reconstruction [see T. Usher, poster]Simulated 50 GeV gamma-rayBacksplashCalorimeter axisCombinatorial pattern recognitionVertexDirectionTree-based pattern recognitionVertexDirectionCurrent framework—track-by-trackcombinatorial pattern recognition:￿ Track confusion and errors in high-multiplicity events;￿ Energy reach effectively limited bymistracking.Pass 8—global tree-based approach totrack finding:￿ Reduce mistracking, improve thehigh-energy Point Spread Function(PSF);￿ Provide additional information forthe background rejection.More development areas: Kalman fit measurement errors, PSF analysis, buffertruncation [see L. Rochester, poster], cosmic-ray tracking, ghost tracking, neu-tral energy, vertexing.]Pass 8 will approach the full scientific potential of the LAT. Lower backgroundsand better control over the systematic uncertainties.* Extension of the energy reach:* Better high-energy Point Spread Function.* substantial effective area increase above 20 GeV (recover calorimeter-onlyevents).
    • Better handle on astrophysicsAMS02 and Planck satellites in orbitnow, and publishing its first data.Important multi-wavelength/multi-channel handle on Galacticastrophysics!AMS will measure spectral fluxes ofcharged cosmic rays and nuclei, andPlanck synchrotron/free-free/dustemission from our Galaxy (foregrounds).AMS 02 on ISSPlanck satellite!"#$%&()*+,)-.)/01)*+,;.4;,<8=>2))!?)!"#$%<@!"#$%Planck map 30-857 GHz map
    • Next generation gamma ray experiments– CTA: a km2 array of Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes! Sensitivity about afactor 10 better than current ACTs; an energy coverage from a ~10 GeV -~10 TeV,field of view of up to 10◦ (vs 2◦-5◦); angular resolution could be as low as 0.02◦– Gamma-400: satellite with better angular and energy resolution in gamma rays +high precision charge particles detector up to several TeV for e- ad PeV for protons!Funds for launch and basic design secured at a moment!launch planned for 2018.currently in design phase foreseen to beoperative a few years from now.
    • Multiwavelength:• optical surveys: DM density profiles, discovery of dwarf Galaxies, Galactic dust maps(diffuse emission)• pan-STARRS: Hawaii, PS1 started operating in 2008.• DES: Chile, started 2012.• Gaia: launch date 2013.• X-ray: GC environment, Fermi bubbles, pulsars, AGNs, star burst Galaxies• nuSTAR: launched 2012.• LOFT• Radio: pulsars, CR propagation, DM signatures• LOFAR: running.• SKA: construction 2016; to be built in South Africa and Australia.• Gamma rays/charged CRs:• CTA• CALET (planed to launch to the ISS in 2013)• Gamma-400• Neutrinos:• km3net:SKAGAIA‘gigantic amount of data’
    • SKAGAIAThe Abdus SalamInternational Centrefor Theoretical Physicswww.ictp.itWORKSHOP on thePARTICIPATIONScientists and students from all countries which are members of the United Nations,UNESCO or IAEA may attend the School and Workshop. As it will be conducted inEnglish, participants should have an adequate working knowledge of this language.Although the main purpose of the Centre is to help research workers from developingcountries, through a programme of training activities within a framework of internationalcooperation, students and post-doctoral scientists from advanced countries are alsowelcome to attend.As a rule, travel and subsistence expenses of the participants should be borne by thehome institution. Every effort should be made by candidates to secure support for theirfare (or at least half-fare). However, limited funds are available for some participants whoare nationals of, and working in, a developing country, and who are not more than 45years old. Such support is available only for those who attend the entire activity. There isno registration fee to be paid.HOW TO APPLY FOR PARTICIPATION:The application form can be accessed at the Workshop website:http://agenda.ictp.it/smr.php?2489Once in the website, comprehensive instructions will guide you step-by-step, on how tofill out and submit the application forms.WORKSHOP SECRETARIAT:Telephone: +39 040 2240 363 - Telefax: +39 040 2240 7363E-mail: smr2489@ictp.itICTP Home Page: http://www.ictp.it/United NationsEducational, Scientific andCulturaiOrgani.ultion(#.),il?IAEAlntematlonaiAtomlc EnergyAgencyIN COLLABORATION WITHIN FNTHE ITALIAN INSTITUTE FORNUCLEAR PHYSICSORGANIZERS:M. Boezio (INFN, Trieste)M. Cirelli (CNRS, IPhT/Saclay)J. Edsjo (OKC, Stockholm U.)F. Longo (INFN & U. ofTrieste)P. Serpico (CNRS, LAPTh)P. Ullio (SISSA, Trieste)G. Zaharijas (ICTP, Trieste)SPEAKERS include:P. Blasi (Arcertri Observatory)S. Colafrancesco (Wits U.)F. Donato (U. ofTorino)L. Latronico (INFN, Torino)S. Murgia (UC Irvine) (*)P. Picozza (U. ofRoma Tor Vergata)S. Razzaque (U. ofjohannesburg)A. Strong (MPE, Garching) (*)T. Tait (UC Irvine) (*)F. Yusef-Zadeh (Northwestern U.)(*) to be conffrmedSCIENTIFIC SECRETARY:B. Dasgupta (ICTP, Trieste)DEADLINEfor requesting participationIS une 2013and yet anothercommercial break!
    • SummaryFermi is in its 4 year in orbit:– wealth of scientific results!– data are public and largely used by the community.– starting to constrain generic WIMP models for low mass WIMPS.The best is yet to come:– better understanding of the instrument– better understanding of the astrophysics- 2800 sources expected by 5 years of the LAT; high energy follow upsby ACTs and low energy instruments (Xray, radio); +...- DM clustering properties from current optical and weak lensingsurveys.- AMS02 and Planck in orbit!–> great time for High energy astrophysics! AND by the end of Fermi’slife (2018?) we might know what particles DM is made of.
    • Extra slides
    • data: 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT), ROI: 15x15 deg.diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxy.DATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):Galactic diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxyModeling of the GC regioncounts/0.1 deg^2[S. Murgia, UCLA DM 2012]
    • DATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):Galactic diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxyDATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):W28LAT PSR J1809-2332LAT PSR J1732-31312FGL J1745.6-2858Galactic diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxyBright excesses after subtracting diffuse emission model are consistent withknown sources.Modeling of the GC regioncounts/0.1 deg^2[S. Murgia, UCLA DM 2012]
    • DATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):Galactic diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxyDATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):W28LAT PSR J1809-2332LAT PSR J1732-31312FGL J1745.6-2858Galactic diffuse emission model: all sky GALPROP model tuned to the inner galaxyDATADATA DATA-MODEL (diffuse+sources)Fermi’s View of the InnerGalaxy (15ox15o region)Fermi LAT preliminary results with 32 months of data, E>1 GeV (P7CLEAN_V6, FRONT):Diffuse emission and point sources account for most of the emission observedin the region. Paper being finalized within collaboration.Modeling of the GC regioncounts/0.1 deg^2[S. Murgia, UCLA DM 2012]
    • Gamma-400 satellite:• Mission is approved by ROSCOSMOS(launch scheduled for 2018)• Original Russian design focused on:• High energy gamma-rays (10 GeV - 3 TeV)• High energy electrons (e- and e+)• Angular resolution (@ 100 GeV):0.01-0.02°• Energy resolution (@ 100 GeV): 1-2%• Effective area ~ that of Fermi LAT frontevents.• Funds for launch and basic design secured ata moment!9/10/2012 V. Bonvicini - NOW2012 5[V. Bonvicini, NOW2012.]Extended orbit, not obscured by theEarth (while Fermi LAT can observea point source only 1/2 (1/6) of thetime in a pointed observation(survey) mode).
    • Gamma-400 satellite:• Italian proposal - Goal: photons of high- andlow-energies, electrons, nuclei.• Revised design of the converter/tracker:• improved angular resolution (4-5 timesbetter than Fermi-LAT @ 1 GeV) also at lowenergies• Homogeneous and isotropic calorimeter ( 40X0) finely segmented in all directions →optimal energy resolution and particlediscrimination (sensitive on 5 sides tocharged CR events!)• Electron/positron detection beyond TeVenergies• Nuclei detection up to 1015 eV (“knee”)• Nuclei identification capability (dE/dxmeasurement) with Silicon pad detectors9/10/2012 V. Bonvicini - NOW2012 20[V. Bonvicini, NOW2012.]R. Sarkar’s talk
    • Gamma400 satellite:Galactic center ExtragalacticBlack line: Fermi front+backBlue line: Fermi front• Science reach: gamma rays‣ improved point source sensitivity due to a better angular resolution.‣ contemporary with CTA, can provide trigger for gamma-ray transients!‣ DM:‣ energy resolution increases sensitivity to gamma-ray searches (CW talk)‣ better angular and energy resolution&low energy coverage will lowersystematics due to background uncertainties.Black line: Fermi front+backBlue line: Fermi frontGalactic center ExtragalacticFermi LATGamma 400GeV GeV
    • Gamma400 satellite:• Science reach: electrons‣ higher statistics than current and near future experiments!9/10/2012 V. Bonvicini - NOW2012 25[V. Bonvicini, NOW2012.]
    • Gamma400 satellite:• Science reach: nuclei‣ higher statistics than current and near future experiments!9/10/2012 V. Bonvicini - NOW2012 26[V. Bonvicini, NOW2012.]
    • Extra-Galactic skyComparison to older measurements.> In agreement with published spectrum.> Error bars predominantly systematic. Apparent features in the spectrum areFermi LAT - 44 months, preliminarySpectrum of the isotropic diffuse emission (supposedly of an extraGalactic origin)has recently been measured to high energies <~400 GeV.
    • Extra-Galactic skyComparison to older measurements.> In agreement with published spectrum.> Error bars predominantly systematic. Apparent features in the spectrum areFermi LAT - 44 months, preliminaryContributions from many source classes– Normal galaxies (radio and star-forming)– Active galactic nuclei (FSRQ & BL LACs)– Dark matter?[M. Ackermann, Fermi symposium 2012]Dark matter annihilationin all halos at all red-shiftsshould contribute, too.
    • Extra-Galactic skyAlex Drlica-Wagner | Fermi DM OverviewIsotropic Gamma-ray Background17Preliminary44 Months of DataFermi measured from the first time >500 sources above 10 GeV!enough source classes to have good statistical sample and study their bulk properties!
    • Extra-Galactic skyIsotropic spectrum flux can be used to constrain the total extragalactic DM signal(summed over all DM halos and red shifts). -- work in progress.However one can use an additional handle: small angular scale fluctuations in thediffuse gamma-ray background -> measured for the first time with the Fermi LAT!Anisotropies:The Galactic Case!J. Siegal-Gaskins, JCAP 0810:040,2008. !M.Fornasa, L.Pieri, G.Bertone, E.Branchini, !Phys.Rev.D80:023518,2009. !L.Pieri, G.Bertone, E.Branchini, !Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.384:1627,2008. !Anisotropy constraints on dark matter• small angular scale IGRB anisotropymeasured for the first time with the FermiLAT• angular power measurement constrainscontribution of individual source classes,including DM, to the IGRB intensity22TABLE V: Maximum fractional contribution of various source populations to the IGRB intensity that is compatible withthe best-fit constant value of the measured fluctuation angular power in all energy bins, CP/ I 2= 9.05 × 10−6sr for the! !"#$%&()*+%,-./"•!" 0"./"•!" 0!/"•!" .!/.•!" .1/"•!" .23)4)51))*6&-78987898:2;#8<#7Fluctuation anisotropy energy spectrumAckermann et al. [Fermi LAT Collaboration] 2012(to appear in PRD)[Ackermann+, arXiv:1202.2856]
    • Extra-Galactic skyConsistent with constant value in the four energy bins from 1-50 GeV.Constrains the contribution of dark matter to the isotropic gamma-ray backgroundSackler Colloqium: Dark Matter Universe, Irvine, CA, October 20, 2012J. Siegal-GaskinsExample IGRB decomposition37Hensley, Pavlidou & JSG (in prep)Example observed intensity spectrum andanisotropy energy spectrumDecomposed energy spectra[Hensley+, 2012.]or, one case use BOTH intensity spectrum and the anisotropy spectrum toRECONSTRUCT the components of the energy spectrum.
    • Spectral line searchNo signal found in a blind search.The huge statistics at low energies -> small uncertainties in thecollecting area can produce statistical significant spectral features.4 year Fermi4 year Fermi--LAT Line Search ResultsLAT Line Search Results• No globally significant lines found– Most significant fit was in R180 at 6 GeV, ~2! (3.7! local)Andrea Albert (OSU)Jan. 31st, 2013 31S/NGC ~30% - 66%
    • Science3) Cosmic ray electrons/positrons.Since it records electromagnetic cascades, the LAT is also by its nature a detector forelectrons and positrons.that is usedThe TKRombined toentifies elec-backgroundf cuts. Then 1 : 103up∼ 1 : 104ats for the in-nergy. Con-lated as thea peak valuewn to 12.5%nergy recon-nalysis. Forrge fractionThe showering the lon-r the energyth good ac-ents passingnce showerstribution ofion is asym-es. For thisontainment, and checkindefinitelytraverse onm the totald the effectd the eventation. Thisg beam testGeV [19].n the eventt data andFIG. 1: (color online) Energy resolution for the LAT afterelectron selection; the full widths of the smallest energy win-dow containing the 68% and the 95% of the energy dispersiondistribution are shown. The comparison with beam test dataup to 282 GeV and for on-axis and at 60◦incidence shownin the figure indicates good agreement with the resolutionestimated from the simulation.FIG. 2: (color online) Distribution of the transverse sizes ofthe showers (above 150 GeV) in the CAL at an intermediatestage of the selection, where a large contamination from pro-tons is still visible. Flight data (black points) and MC (graysolid line) show very good agreement; the underlying distri-butions of electron and hadron samples are visible in the left(red) and the right (blue) peaks respectively.and derive the corresponding flux versus GF curve. We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`^JJ_)>^JCJE
    • Science3) Cosmic ray electrons/positrons.Recent search used Earth’s shadow to measure independently electron AND positronspectra (note: Fermi does not carry a magnet!).confirm PAMELA finding of an increasing positron fraction.!"#$%&! ()#*&%+,*,-*"#$%&%"#$(&*./*"#$%%$(&0*1#+.2*$,.3+3%#.%*4+%)*50*3),43*%)%*%)#*&#367%3*&#*3#7-8$,.3+3%#.%! 9+%%#/*3"#$%&7*+./+$#3*&#*:;<<*± =;5>*-,&*$%*./*?;5@*±*=;=<*-,&*$()*+,-./0./1. 23)455-6784+4 9*:$;<1/[Ackermann+, 2011, PRL 108, 011103.]!"#$%$&()*+,"-&%.(/*0%.1*2./&%.(/*3&4*5"%16789!"!"#$%*789*:.,,$;.%$&.(<*8-="%1$((*"&*$,>*?@AA<*2B7*A@C<*@AAA@D
    • Science3) Cosmic ray electrons/positrons.Recent search used Earth’s shadow to measure independently electron AND positronspectra (note: Fermi does not carry a magnet!).confirm PAMELA finding of an increasing positron fraction.[M. Boezio, UCLA 2012.]!"#$%$&()*+,"-&%.(/*0%.1*2./&%.(/*3&4*5"%16789!"!"#$%*789*:.,,$;.%$&.(<*8-="%1$((*"&*$,>*?@AA<*2B7*A@C<*@AAA@DT. Delahaye et al., A&A524(2010)A51Secondary &Primary productions(fromAstrophysicalSources)Secondary productionMoskalenko& Strong 98!"#$%&%(")*
    • Science2) Point sources:~1900 sources in the 2FGL.16! ?!since!10 2594 99806 82183 11423257 324575437(25 8)+2 novae+8 more pulsars[E. Ferrara, Fermi Symposium 2012]
    • Science1. Point sources:2. Diffuse emission3. Cosmic ray electrons/positrons4. ...!"#$%&())*+,-./01"23)counts13 identified SNRs, including- 9 interacting- 4 young SNRsFermi-Detected SNRs!1456713 identified SNRs, including - 9 interacting - 4young SNRs + 43 2FGL candidatesfirst fermi catalog of SNRs
    • We test a set of 12 DM benchmark cases, in the mass range 5 GeV-10 TeV.Two DM density profiles:i) NFW andii) Isothermal DM profiles.10￿610￿410￿2 1 10210410￿610￿410￿21102104106r in pcΡrinpcGeV￿cm3isoTEinasto, Α ￿ 0.17NFWMoore￿IR￿GC￿radio￿GC￿Γ￿GalacticCenter￿Γ￿GalacticRidgeEarth￿10￿610￿410￿2 1 102110￿610￿410￿21102104r in pcBinGaussconstant Bequipartition BFigure 1: Shape of DM density (left) and magnetic field (right) profiles discussed in theas a function of the galactocentric coordinate r.In our ROI, at5<b<15deg →r ~1 kpcthe two profiles are quite similar(advantage to Galactic Centerstudies, for example)DM modelsIV. MAPS176A. DM maps177The template maps used in the fits to model the contribution from a DM annihilation/decay signa178assumed DM distribution and the assumed annihilation/decay channel. Numerical simulations of179halos reveal a smooth halo which contains large number of subhalos [24, 25]. The properties of the sm180to be well understood, at least on the scales resolved by simulations ( outside of a few hundreds of pa181Galactic center), and to converge among the various simulations. The properties of the subhalo po182other hand, are more model dependent. The gamma-ray signal from the subhalo population is expec183in the region of the outer halo, while in the inner <∼ 20◦region of the Galaxy, its contribution is184subdominant, [26–28]. In our region of interest subhalo contribution should therefore be mild and w185consider only the smooth component in this work. We parametrize the smooth DM density ρ with186profile [29] and a cored (isothermal-sphere) profile [30, 31]:187NFW: ρ(r) = ρ0￿1 +RSR0￿21rRS￿1 + rR0￿2Isothermal: ρ(r) = ρ0R2S + R2cr2 + R2c.These are traditional benchmark choices, as NFW is motivated by N-body simulations, while cored pr188motivated by the observations of rotation curves of galaxies and are also found in simulations of a Milk189involving baryons [32]. The Einasto profile [33, 34] is emerging as a better fit to more recent numer190but for brevity we do not consider it here. It is expected that this profile should lead to DM limits str191in our ROI, with respect to a choice of an NFW profile [6]. For the local density of dark matter we t192ρ0 = 0.43 GeV/cm3[35] 4, and the scale radius is assumed to be R0 = 20 kpc (NFW) and Rc = 2.8193profile). The actual choice of the DM density profile does not have a huge effect on our limits (see194we do not consider the central few degrees of the Galaxy (where these distributions differ the most195more extended core of ∼ 5 kpc seems possible, although less favored by the data [36] (however see196rather extreme choice our limits would worsen by a factor of <∼ 2. We also set the distance of the so197the center of the Galaxy to the value RS = 8.5 kpc [37].198For the annihilation/decay spectra we consider three channels with distinctly different signat199tion/decay into b¯b channel, into µ+µ−, and into τ+τ−. In the first case gamma rays are produced thr2004 To be noted that values ranging from 0.2 up to 0.7 GeV/cm3 are still viable [35].ρ0=0.43 GeV/cm3,Rc=20 kpc (NFW), 2.8 kpc (Iso)
    • DM modelsWe test a set of 12 DM benchmark cases, in the mass range 5 GeV-10 TeV.Two DM density profiles:i) annihilating (χχ→SM SM) characterized by annihilation cross section〈σv〉 andii) decaying (χ→SM SM) characterized by the life time τ.
    • We test a set of 12 DM benchmark cases, in the mass range 5 GeV-10 TeV.Three DM annihilation/decay channels:i) χχ/χ→bbii) χχ/χ→μμiii) χχ/χ→ττDM models
    • Blue:“no-background limits”.Black: limits obtained by marginalization over the CR source distribution,diffusive halo height and electron injection index, gas to dust ratio, in whichCR sources are held to zero in the inner 3 kpc.Limits with NFW profile (not shown) are only slightly better.10 102103104102310241025102610271028m ￿GeV￿Τ￿s￿Χ ￿ bb, ISOw￿o background modelingconstrained free source fits3Σ5Σ10 10210310410￿2610￿2510￿2410￿2310￿2210￿21m ￿GeV￿￿Σv￿￿cm3s￿1￿ΧΧ ￿ bb, ISOw￿o background modelingconstrained free source fits3Σ5ΣΣWIMP freeze￿outResults: b ̄b channelpreliminary preliminaryannihilation decay
    • Limits: μ+μ-channelBlue: here we used only photons produced by muons to set “no-backgroundlimits” (‘FSR only’).Violet:“no-background limits” FSR+ICBlack: limits from profile likelihood and CR sources set to zero in the inner 3 kpc.DM interpretation of PAMELA/Fermi CR anomalies strongly disfavored (for annihilating DM).10 102103104102310241025102610271028m ￿GeV￿Τ￿s￿Χ ￿ Μ￿Μ￿, ISOIC￿FSR, w￿o background modelingFSR, w￿o background modelingIC￿FSR, constrained free source fits3Σ5Σ10 10210310410￿2610￿2510￿2410￿2310￿2210￿21m ￿GeV￿￿Σv￿￿cm3s￿1￿ΧΧ ￿ Μ￿Μ￿, ISOIC￿FSR, w￿o background modelingFSR, w￿o background modelingIC￿FSR, constrained free source fits3Σ5ΣΣWIMP freeze￿outannihilation decay
    • Limits: τ+τ-channel10 10210310410￿2610￿2510￿2410￿2310￿2210￿21m ￿GeV￿￿Σv￿￿cm3s￿1￿ΧΧ ￿ Τ￿Τ￿, ISOIC￿FSR, w￿o background modelingFSR, w￿o background modelingIC￿FSR, constrained free source fits3Σ5ΣΣWIMP freeze￿out10 102103104102310241025102610271028m ￿GeV￿Τ￿s￿Χ ￿ Τ￿Τ￿, ISOIC￿FSR, w￿o background modelingFSR, w￿o background modelingIC￿FSR, constrained free source fits3Σ5ΣBlue: here we used only photons produced by muons to set “no-backgroundlimits” (‘FSR only’).Violet:“no-background limits” FSR+ICBlack: limits from profile likelihood and CR sources set to zero in the inner 3 kpc.DM interpretation of PAMELA/Fermi CR anomalies strongly disfavored (for annihilating DM).preliminarypreliminaryannihilation decay