GLACIATION

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This topic is all about Glaciation. This includes; the causes of glaciation, the origin of glaciers, formation, primary types, movement, the erosional, transportation and depositional mechanisms. This also includes the common landforms brought by glaciers.

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GLACIATION

  1. 1. GLACIATION (Intro to Geology) by: Mr. Marjonlien A. Mahusay
  2. 2. YOUNGEST PERSON TO REACH NORTH POLE     Jaimie Donovan Born on October 17, 2003 From Galway, Ireland 8-years old Irish GIRL
  3. 3. GLACIERS  are massive, long lasting, moving mass of compacted snow and ice that forms on land, moves down slope or spreads outward under its own weight.
  4. 4. ORIGIN OF GLACIERS  Why glaciers are formed?  Dependent on the amount of precipitation  The larger the glacier the higher the snow accumulation over time
  5. 5. DID YOU KNOW??? …that the arctic region takes millennia to accumulate the huge amount of snow and ice needed to form a glacier…
  6. 6. DID YOU KNOW??? ….modern glacier contain snow that fell over 100,000 years ago. Kilimanjaro National Park, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania.
  7. 7. FORMATION OF GLACIER ICE
  8. 8. ...if you chunk a glacial ice melted in your glass of water, you would have dirt, gravel and even organic matter or living stuff in your water ...all the pressurized air bubbles would rush out that they might explode your glass
  9. 9. CAUSES OF GLACIATIONS What causes glaciations? Milutin Milankovitch • Siberian astronomer and mathematician • Theory on Climate Change • Widely accepted Theory on Climate Change
  10. 10. CAUSES OF GLACIATIONS  Cyclical changes on earth’s orbit and tilt 1. Eccentricity of earth’s orbit 2. Tilt of the earth’s axis 3. Wobbling of the earth's axis
  11. 11. ECCENTRICITY OF THE EARTH’S ORBIT  nearly circular or highly elliptical  0.0167 earth’s eccentricity  Occurs 100,000 years Less eccentricity promotes glaciation
  12. 12. TILT OF THE EARTH’S AXIS  Tilt is also known as obliquity  Varies between 22.1ͦ⁰-24.5⁰  Every 41,000 years Lesser tilt promotes glaciation
  13. 13. WOBBLING OF THE EARTH’S AXIS  Known as precession  Completed its rotation for every 23,0000 years  Contributes only a small fluctuation of the climate
  14. 14. WOBBLING OF THE EARTH’S AXIS
  15. 15. CLIMATE CHANGE IS NOT NEW!!! From “Glaciers” by John Gordon Colin Baxter Publications, 2001
  16. 16. INTERGLACIAL PERIODS Glacial periods From “Glaciers” by John Gordon Colin Baxter Publications, 2001
  17. 17. ASSIGNMENT… RESEARCH ON THE DIFFERENT LANDFORMS/FEATURES PRODUCE BY GLACIERS
  18. 18. TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF GLACIER 1. Alpine/valley glacier  Form in a mountainous terrain  Could be long or short, narrow or wide
  19. 19. TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF GLACIER 2. Continental Glacier  Expansive, continuous mass of ice considerably bigger than an alpine glacier
  20. 20. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Cirque - Bowl shape hollow
  21. 21. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Snowfield -the place where snow accumulate to form a cirque glacier Alpine Snow Field, near Livigno, Italy
  22. 22. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Piedmont glacier -Multiple valley glaciers come together as one at a large stretch of flat line
  23. 23. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Tidewater glacier -produce when glacier meets the sea Calving- when a piece of the glacier breaks off forming a large massive floating ice
  24. 24. SUBTYPES OF CONTINENTAL GLACIER Ice sheet Extends over 50,000 km2  Antarctic and Greenland have this frozen monster ??? Antarctic region is home to 92% of all glacial ice worldwide
  25. 25. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Ice cap Similar to an ice sheet though smaller Forming roughly circular, dome-like structure
  26. 26. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Ice field Smaller version of ice cap Fails to cover the land
  27. 27. TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF GLACIER 1. Alpine/valley glacier  Form in a mountainous terrain  Could be long or short, narrow or wide
  28. 28. TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF GLACIER 2. Continental Glacier  Expansive, continuous mass of ice considerably bigger than an alpine glacier
  29. 29. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Cirque - Bowl shape hollow
  30. 30. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Snowfield -the place where snow accumulate to form a cirque glacier Alpine Snow Field, near Livigno, Italy
  31. 31. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Piedmont glacier -Multiple valley glaciers come together as one at a large stretch of flat line
  32. 32. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Tidewater glacier -produce when glacier meets the sea Calving- when a piece of the glacier breaks off forming a large massive floating ice
  33. 33. SUBTYPES OF CONTINENTAL GLACIER Ice sheet Extends over 50,000 km2  Antarctic and Greenland have this frozen monster ??? Antarctic region is home to 92% of all glacial ice worldwide
  34. 34. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Ice cap Similar to an ice sheet though smaller Forming roughly circular, dome-like structure
  35. 35. SUBTYPES OF ALPINE GLACIER Ice field Smaller version of ice cap Fails to cover the land
  36. 36. GLACIAL MOVEMENT Gravity primary force Entire ice sheet moves 5 to 50 m/yr Fastest movement within the center Friction Slows down the sides
  37. 37. GLACIAL MOVEMENT Mechanisms involves 1.Basal slipping  Entire mass of glacier slides over the bedrock  Occurs when glaciers rest on the slope  Pressure causes a small amount of water at the bottom of the glacier to melt creating a thin layer of water
  38. 38. GLACIAL MOVEMENT Mechanisms involves 2. Plastic Flow Also known as creeping or internal deformation Occurs when glacier becomes so heavy that it flattens it molecules out in order to deal with the weight
  39. 39. GLACIAL MOVEMENT
  40. 40. GLACIAL EROSION Mechanism involved… 1.Plucking  Glacier flows over a fractured bedrock surface  it loosens and lift blocks of rocks and incorporate them into ice 2. Abrasion Happens when ice and its load of rock fragment slides over bedrock
  41. 41. GLACIAL EROSION
  42. 42. GLACIAL TRANSPORTATION …during transportation glaciers carry a huge amount of materials Rocks being transported are called moraines Moraines could be: Lateral moraine  medial moraine
  43. 43. Lateral moraine Ridge-like that forms from sediments in or on the adjacent to the sides of a mountain glacier
  44. 44. Medial Moraine  Form in or on the middle of a glacier
  45. 45. GLACIAL DEPOSITION Materials will be deposited due to: Increase in pressure Rise in temperature Main depositional features of glacier 1.Terminal moraine 2.Recessional moraine 3.Ground moraine
  46. 46. Main depositional features of glacier 1.Terminal moraine  Glaciers is at its greatest advance 2.Recessional moraine 3.Ground moraine  Consist of irregular blanket of till deposited under a glacier
  47. 47. MAIN DEPOSITIONAL FEATURES OF GLACIER
  48. 48. GLACIAL STRUCTURE

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