1. FRESHWATER ECOLOGY is the study of a freshwater ecosystem or alsotermed as Limnology is a specialized subcategory of the overall studyof organisms and the environment.Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earthsaquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds,rivers, streams and springs, and wetlands
2. FRESHWATER ECOLOGY Freshwater habitats can be classified by differentfactors, including temperature, light penetration,transparency, etc. Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lenticecosystems and lotic ecosystems.
3. TYPES OF FRESHWATER HABITATI. Lentic habitat  Calm freshwater habitat or standing water  refers to standing or relatively still water, from the Latin lentus, which means sluggish.II. Lotic Habitat  Washed or the running water  refers to flowing water, from the Latin lotus, to wash
4. Lentic Habitata. Lakes - is a body of relatively still fresh water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land.
5. Lentic Habitatb. Ponds- body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake.
6. Lentic Habitatc. Swamp - is a wetland that is forested
7. Lentic Habitatd. Bog - is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, Sphagnum moss.
8. Lotic Habitata. Spring – kind of freshwater habitat where water flows out of the ground
9. Lotic Habitatb. River - is a body of water with current moving in one general direction.
10. Lotic Habitatc. Stream - a thin body of water which has a continuous flow of water, often referred to as a creek or a brook.
11. LIMITING FACTORSI. Temperature  Water thermal properties combine to minimize temperature changeII. Current  Current direction is a very important limiting factors  Largely determine the distribution if vital gases, salts and small organisms
12. LIMITING FACTORSIII. Transparency  Turbidity, especially when caused by clay and slit particles  Can be measured using an instrument called a Secchi disk
13. LIMITING FACTORSIV. Concentration of respiratory gases  Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration are often limiting in the fresh water environmentV. Concentration of biogenic salts  Nitrates and phosphates seem to be limiting in a freshwater ecosystem  Calcium and other salts are likely to be limiting in soft water lakes and streams
14. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:1. Major niches (based on their position in the energy level or food chain) a. Autotrophs (producers) b. Phagotrophs (Macroconsumers) c. Saphotrophs (microconsumers/decomposers)
15. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified Into:2. Life Form Of Habitat (Based On Their Mode Of Life) a. Benthos – Resting Or Living In The Bottom Of Sediments. Ex. Clams And Snail b. Periphyton – Organisms Living On The Stems And Leaves Of Rooted Plants. Ex. algae, cyanobacteria
16. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:2. Life form of habitat (based on their mode of life) c. Plankton – floating organisms whose movements depend on the current. d. Nekton – swimming organisms able to navigate at will. Ex. Fishes e. Neuston – organisms resting or swimming on the surface. Ex. protozoans, bacteria
17. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:3. Region or subhabitat …. In lake a. Littoral zone – shallow water region with light penetration to the bottom. b. Limnetic zone – open water zone to the depth of effective light penetration which photosynthesis balances respiration. c. Profundal zone – bottom and deep water area.
18. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSZones of a lake
19. MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:3. Region or Subhabitat ….in streams a. Rapid zone – shallow water where velocity of current is great enough b. Pool zone – deeper water where velocity of current is reduced.
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