FRESHWATER ECOLOGY is the study of a freshwater ecosystem or alsotermed as Limnology is a specialized subcategory of the overall studyof organisms and the environment.Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earthsaquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds,rivers, streams and springs, and wetlands
FRESHWATER ECOLOGY Freshwater habitats can be classified by differentfactors, including temperature, light penetration,transparency, etc. Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lenticecosystems and lotic ecosystems.
TYPES OF FRESHWATER HABITATI. Lentic habitat Calm freshwater habitat or standing water refers to standing or relatively still water, from the Latin lentus, which means sluggish.II. Lotic Habitat Washed or the running water refers to flowing water, from the Latin lotus, to wash
Lentic Habitata. Lakes - is a body of relatively still fresh water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land.
Lentic Habitatb. Ponds- body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake.
Lentic Habitatc. Swamp - is a wetland that is forested
Lentic Habitatd. Bog - is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, Sphagnum moss.
Lotic Habitata. Spring – kind of freshwater habitat where water flows out of the ground
Lotic Habitatb. River - is a body of water with current moving in one general direction.
Lotic Habitatc. Stream - a thin body of water which has a continuous flow of water, often referred to as a creek or a brook.
LIMITING FACTORSI. Temperature Water thermal properties combine to minimize temperature changeII. Current Current direction is a very important limiting factors Largely determine the distribution if vital gases, salts and small organisms
LIMITING FACTORSIII. Transparency Turbidity, especially when caused by clay and slit particles Can be measured using an instrument called a Secchi disk
LIMITING FACTORSIV. Concentration of respiratory gases Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration are often limiting in the fresh water environmentV. Concentration of biogenic salts Nitrates and phosphates seem to be limiting in a freshwater ecosystem Calcium and other salts are likely to be limiting in soft water lakes and streams
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:1. Major niches (based on their position in the energy level or food chain) a. Autotrophs (producers) b. Phagotrophs (Macroconsumers) c. Saphotrophs (microconsumers/decomposers)
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified Into:2. Life Form Of Habitat (Based On Their Mode Of Life) a. Benthos – Resting Or Living In The Bottom Of Sediments. Ex. Clams And Snail b. Periphyton – Organisms Living On The Stems And Leaves Of Rooted Plants. Ex. algae, cyanobacteria
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:2. Life form of habitat (based on their mode of life) c. Plankton – floating organisms whose movements depend on the current. d. Nekton – swimming organisms able to navigate at will. Ex. Fishes e. Neuston – organisms resting or swimming on the surface. Ex. protozoans, bacteria
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:3. Region or subhabitat …. In lake a. Littoral zone – shallow water region with light penetration to the bottom. b. Limnetic zone – open water zone to the depth of effective light penetration which photosynthesis balances respiration. c. Profundal zone – bottom and deep water area.
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSZones of a lake
MAJOR GROUPS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMSClassified into:3. Region or Subhabitat ….in streams a. Rapid zone – shallow water where velocity of current is great enough b. Pool zone – deeper water where velocity of current is reduced.