In a time of increasing space shortages for stacks, a holistic understanding of the collection lifecycle as well as a strategic approach to collection retention is needed. Sometimes we struggle with what materials to withdraw, especially if there is faculty opposition. More importantly, we are fairly disconnected from the collection lifecycle. After we buy a book, we may not see it again until it is on a zero use report.
So the life of library collections is actually quite regulated… Collection Development PoliciesApproval Plan GuidelinesCataloguing Rules and GuidelinesCirculation RulesMaintenance, Binding ProceduresCollection Retention PoliciesCollection RulesWithdrawal PolicyTUG Last Copy PolicyThose in red (or with a start) have a direct role in ISR or more likely impacts ISR
The University of Waterloo Library has collection development policies in place for all of its academic departments. These are updated regularly and provide an opportunity to the librarians to thoroughly review the current research and teaching needs of the departments and make changes as faculty members retire and new ones are hired. We are just finishing an update of our policies. It is a lengthy and involved process. However we find it to be useful in several ways.Completed policies are signed by the Liaison Librarian, Faculty Library Representative, Chair of the Academic Department and by the Associate University Librarian. As our policies include a description of the academic department, areas of specialization and the degrees offered, the Chairs and Faculty Library Representatives take great interest to ensure that the information is correct. It is amazing how much our librarians learn about the department through this discussion. Often a particularly thriving research and teaching area becomes redundant when a faculty member leaves the department. An updated collection policy is one of the ways to document the change.As we use Approval Plans for the collection, policies are very useful in determining the overlap between disciplines and to broaden or tighten the plan. Librarians find collection development policies very useful in rejecting "gifts in kind" if they do not fit the current and or future needs.Our policies include the LC classifications for the collecting areas. This comes in really handy in preparing OCGS and other reports.
The following categories of library materials may be considered for relocation or withdrawal.Where the pedal hits the metal for the policy is when we get to “unique” titles.Decisions to withdraw the only copy of an item in the collection must be made by the collections librarian in consultation with others. Librarians do the following when withdrawing material from the collection:Establish specific criteria for selection of material to be withdrawn (a librarian may choose to consult with the appropriate Faculty Library Representative when determining criteria). When material is to be withdrawn from several areas of the collection, several librarians may work together to establish criteria.Identify specific items as candidates for possible withdrawal and obtain a report documenting those items.Ensure that appropriate faculty members and other librarians have an opportunity to review the material to identify items that should remain in the collection.Consult with appropriate User Services and Cataloguing managers on matters related to the work required to withdraw the final selections from the collection.
To contain the space needed for low-use material, TUG agrees to work towards retaining no more than one copy of any item in the Annex by:1.Identifying items in the Annex for which there is also at least one copy in any of the campus libraries and discarding the Annex copy. 2.Identifying multiple copies of items in the Annex and discarding all but one copy (all copies to be discarded if a copy is also held in any of the campus libraries). 3.Identifying and discarding serials in the Annex for which the owning library is confident that it will have perpetual electronic access (for further details and definitions, see Appendix B Electronic and Paper Journals). Because we have relatively little experience with electronic books, electronic copies of books will not be viewed as duplicates pending further review and analysis. TUG also agrees that in future each library may send to the Annex only items for which there is not already a copy in the Annex or anywhere else in the TUG libraries (electronic books need not be taken into consideration at this time). TUG also agrees that the last copy retained continues to be owned by the originating library and that it may be borrowed by anyone registered with any of the TUG libraries. In addition, the copy may be consulted at the Annex or any of the campus libraries by anyone regardless of registration with one of the libraries. The copy is also available for usual practices related to services such as interlibrary loan, document delivery, and reserves. TUG also agrees that none of the libraries will discard an item that is the last copy within TUG before consulting with the other libraries to ensure that none of them want to the item retained. If one of the libraries wants the copy, it may be transferred to that library or to the Annex.
Parts of weeding are simply good housekeeping.The CREW method uses an acronym, MUSTIE, to indicate when an item should be removed from the collection. MUSTIE stands for:Misleading and/or factually inaccurate: (this includes items that fail to have the substantial periods of time not represented because of the age of the material)Ugly (worn out beyond reasonable mending or having been poorly repaired in the past):Superseded by a new edition or a better source; (keep in mind the use of the Web as a better, more up-to-date source in many cases)Trivial (of no discernable literary or scientific merit & without sufficient use to justify keeping it);Irrelevant to the needs and interests of your community; (not used even though we may find it “interesting”!)Elsewhere (the material may be easily borrowed from another source or found on the Web)By the Withdrawal Policy, we have certain decisions regarding the collection that are considered simply as housekeeping.
Withdrawal Process:Open to facultyLast Copy Agreement – this means multiple withdrawal bulletins.Typically, before a title is officially deselected, it will go through the following process:Captured in a Cognos report, based on no or low useReviewed by LibrariansAdded to a withdrawal bulletin, either Last UW or Last TUGBe reviewed by faculty members and/or Guelph and LaurierAffiliated collegesList for Cataloguing to withdraw
For example, measurable definitions of good include collections in which:75% of requested materials can be found on the day they are requested; at least 10% of the rest within 1 week; at least 10% of the remainder within 2 weeks (no more than 5% of requests are undeliverable within 2 weeks)external ILL (that is, loans that go beyond local resources/access) for any departmental subject or high interest area does not exceed 15% of all circulations in that subject area90% of all reference questions can be answered without going beyond local resources/access.90% of the works listed on class syllabi are available (academic libraries)important websites in high interest areas and/or departmental subjects are easily accessible through the library’s catalog or local websiteavailable media offer multiple options for reading, viewing and listening, as appropriatethe balance of collections among departmental subjects approximates the demand for materials in terms of size, scope and depth of coverageactive materials (defined as being used at least four times a year) are in the most accessible locations, while inactive materials (defined as being used, on average, less than once a year) are stored away from more active materials in less accessible locations.
Collection LifecycleWhat is it? How do we manage it? Annie Bélanger February 2012
Lifecycle Thinking• Holistic view of the lifecycle – Beginning to end – Active management
Policies, Policies, Policies and some guidelines• Collection Development Policies *• Approval Plan Guidelines *• Cataloguing Rules and Guidelines• Circulation Rules• Maintenance, Binding Procedures• Collection Retention Policies *• Collection Rules *• Withdrawal Policy• TUG Preservation of Last Copy Agreement
All Published Materials Collection Development Policies Needs Needs Medium Long Term Short Term Term Needs Retention Policies WithdrawalTUG Last Copy Roles of Policies Needs Needs Medium Long Term Short Term Term Needs Retention Withdraw
Policies in the LifecycleCollection CollectionDevelopment Cataloguing Circulation Retention Rules Rules Colln Rules Withdrawal & TUG Last Collection Copy Development
Collection Development Policies• Purpose of collection• Scope of coverage• Types and formats of materials• Subject collected
Withdrawal Policy• Duplicate copies (including copies duplicated by an electronic format)• Superseded editions• Material which no longer supports teaching, learning and research at the University• Low-use material• Material in poor physical condition
TUG Preservation of Last Copy AgreementThe Annex is to be used to house only thelast copy of an item owned by any of theTUG libraries.
What is a Good Collection?• 75% of requested materials can be found on the day they are requested;• at least 10% of the rest within 1 week;• at least 10% of the remainder within 2 weeks• No more than 5% of requests are undeliverable within 2 weeks• external ILL for any departmental subject or high interest area does not exceed 15% of all circulations in that subject area