Shirey Poster Presentation 2011
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  • 1. Designing for Behavior ChangeIdentifying communication design components that encourage and empowerindividuals to act in environmentally-responsible waysJenny Shirey, CPIDMaster of Design 2011 candidateCarnegie Mellon UniversityThesis Poster PresentationApril 14, 2011
  • 2. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureDesigning for behavior changeProblem COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN knowledge gap PSYCHOLOGYDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 3. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureBridging the gapMy goal is to close the knowledge gapby connecting communication designerswith insights and methods to encourageenvironmentally-responsible habitsDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 4. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureCase study: bottled waterPotential for change» Opportunity to increase awareness» Individual behavior change makes senseDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 5. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureAudience: 25- to 40-year-old adultsPotential for change» Didn’t grow up with same emphasis on being “green” as today’s children» Being eco-friendly isn’t their first priority» Generally willing to help out and try new behaviorsDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 6. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureExploratory researchResearch toward generalizable knowledge» One-week journal study» Contextual interviews» Varying responses to tone and subject matter of images & textsDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 7. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureGenerative researchStudy question» How does a communication piece affect a person’s behavior when matched to interests, learning style, and preferred emotional tone?Designing for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 8. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureCommunication pieceVariables Learning style Emotional tone Interests Interactive Humorous Animals or or or Video Matter-of-fact Waste or or Dramatic MoneyDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 9. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureCommunication pieceVariables Video Humorous WasteDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 10. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureTwo-week studyStudy flow Track bottled water Answer YES Interview 1 WEEK Track bottled water Pre-survey Artifact COMMIT? 1 WEEK MATCHED Track bottled water Answer NO Interview 1 WEEKDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 11. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureGenerative researchResulting behavior changeSaid the piece changed their feelings YESCommitted to not drinking YESbottled water for 1 weekDrank less bottled water (week 2) YESDidn’t drink any bottled water (week 2) YESDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 12. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureStudy resultsFindings» Changing feelings led to behavior change» Tracking primed participants for change» One-week commitment encouraged people to try the new behavior» Easy action plan» Follow up study: mismatching: no indication that matching affected behavior (narrative too similar?)Designing for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 13. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureFinal designGathering findings» Observations and ideas for practical application» Design roadmap: a tool for communication designersDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 14. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureDESIGN SHOULD BE:TransparentEmpoweringCaringOpen-mindedHumble ETHICAL PRINCIPLESDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 15. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureOBSERVATION EXAMPLE:Educational campaignswork well in somesituations and poorlyin others ERVATIONS OBS Guiding ETHICAL PRINCIPLESDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 16. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureAPPLICATION EXAMPLE:Decide whether you L I C AT I ON I D E A Sneed to combine an A PPeducational campaignwith other methods ERVATIONS OBS Guiding ETHICAL PRINCIPLESDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 17. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap Future ortunities & const ng opp raint D efni sSTRUCTURE: LIC AT I ON I D E AFive phases of an A PP Sideal communicationdesign process Di ge sc an ov ch ERVATIONS er OBS r ing vio ha n ee d be li n g s, d enab esire s, & ex Encouraging & pectations ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Cr af ti n th g e de sig n ge ssa me gthe in Fr a mDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 18. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap Future ortunities & const ng opp raint D efni sPOINTS OF ENTRY: LIC AT I ON I D E AQuestions to ask A PP Sbefore exiting andentering each phase Di ge sc an ov ch ERVATIONS er OBS r ing vio ha n ee d be li n g s, d enab esire s, & ex Encouraging & pectations ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Cr af ti n th g e de sig n ge ssa me gthe in Fr a mDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 19. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap Future ortunities & const ng opp raint D efni sCATEGORIES: LIC AT I ON I D E A A PP S Guiding C C observation C B C Di ge Context B sc an ov ch ERVATIONS er OBS r ing vio Emotions ha B B n I E E ee d be C I E Knowledge, li n g s, d B B information B enab esire E E E B s, & ex Encouraging & Behaviors B B E E I pectations I E I ETHICAL I PRINCIPLES I E I E B I I I I E I E I E I I I E E I E E I I I E E I Cr I E af ti n th E g e I de sig C n E ge B ssa me gthe in Fr a mDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 20. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureSample page Defining Discovering Framing Crafting Enabling Consider the context of your audience Observation I Educational campaigns work well in some situations and poorly in others Educational campaigns work best with behaviors that are low-cost and simple to do. “Education approaches work only Quotes If the behavior is very expensive or time-consuming, or participants have to overcome major external barriers, an education approach alone will usually be ineffective. when the main barriers to action are internal to the individual.” Personal Observations —Gardner & Stern, page 92 For my studies, I focused on the issue of bottled water. Because most people were Findings from my unaware of bottled water’s harmful effects, and because drinking tap water is a low- “...conventional wisdom [...] is cost, easy behavior, I chose to create educational campaigns. research studies oversimplified and misleading. Some of my participants, though, said their tap water at home was not safe. Although The research shows that this could have been a misconception, if true, this was an external barrier that would require methods in addition to education. For example, my participants might need education can help but [is] to buy a water filter; or the city might need a better filtration system or stricter anti- rarely sufficient.” pollution regulations. —Gardner & Stern, page 72 Application idea How can I put this into practice? Where can I find out more? Resources Gardner, Gerald T., and Paul C. Stern. “Educational Inter- ventions: Changing Attitudes and Providing Information.” In C Research barriers for the behavior you’re addressing Environmental Problems and Human Behavior, 71–94. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996. McKenzie-Mohr, Doug. “Promoting Sustainable Behavior: I Decide whether you need to combine an educational campaign with other methods An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing.” Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 3 (2000): 543-554. Schultz, P. Wesley. “Knowledge, Information, and Household Recycling.” In New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures, edited by Thomas Dietz and Paul C. Stern, by National Research Council, 67-82. 1st ed. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Page 9Designing for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 21. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureFinal thoughtsPotential impact» Closes the knowledge gap» Gives communication designers practical tips for behavior change» Provides ethical principles to use when designing for behavior change» Might be useful for other types of behavior changeDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011
  • 22. Context Exploratory Generative Roadmap FutureFor future research» What are effects of varying the narrative structure of a communication piece?» Develop ethical principles further» Test the Roadmap with my audienceDesigning for Behavior Change: Poster Presentation Jenny Shirey, Carnegie Mellon University, April 14, 2011